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That a knowledge of the New Testament in its original tongue is a 
tiling to be desired by intelligent Cbristians none will question. No 
book can be thoroughly known in a translation only ; and the Bible, 
although " the most translatable of books," is no exception. 

Many, who would gladly undertake the study, are deterred by the 
manifold and unquestionable difficulties of the Greek Language. It 
seems worth while to ask whether this obstacle cannot, in some 
measure, be removed. 

Undoubtedly, the Greek of the New Testament, as a later dialect 
of an elaborate and polished language, can most effectively be studied 
through the medium of the elder fonns of the tongue. This method, 
accordingly, is in general chosen ; and the historians and orators, the 
philosophers and poets of Greece, have led the way to the Evangelists 
and the Apostles. 

Yet many persons have no opportunity for studies so extended 
and difficult. Are they, therefore, to be forbidden all access, save 
through translators, critics, and interpreters, to the words of the 
Divine revelation ? 

In attempting to reply, we note that the Greek of Scripture 
is, for most purposes, a language complete in itself. Its forms and 
rules are definite, its usages in general precise. Its peculiarities, 
though best approached from the classic side, may be reached by a 
shorter way, and be almost as well comprehended. 

Many circumstances, again, facilitate the special study of the New 
Testament tongue. The language of orators and philosophers had 
descended to men of simpler mind and less artificial speech. Com- 
paring the Sacred Volume with Greek literature generally, we find 


a smaller vocabulary, fewer grammatical forms, less intricate etjTno- 
logical rules, with scantier lists of exceptions, and a far less elaborate 
syntax; while the student has the advantage of being confined for 
the time to one limited, but intensely interesting, field. 

The following pages are then intended as a sufficient guide to 
Biblical Greek for English students, that is, for those who have not 
studied the classical languages. It may also be of service to those 
who have made some progress in classical studies, but who wish to 
concentrate their chief regards upon the language and syntax of the 
New Testament. 

The plan of the volume, and the method recommended for its study, 
are sufficiently set forth in the Introduction. To specify aU the 
sources, English and German, from which valuable aid has been 
derived, would be unnecessary. Winer's comprehensive work (Sixth 
Edition, Leipsic, 1855 ; Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark, 1859, by Masson) 
has of course been consulted throughout. Scarcely less useful 
have been the researches and discussions of the late Dr. Donaldson. 
The New Testament Grammars of the Eev. W. Webster, and of 
the Eev. T. S. Green, have afforded some very valuable hints. 
On Greek Testament Lexicography, it wiU suffice to name the 
admirable Clavis Novi Testamenti recently published at Leipsic by 
Dr. 0. L. W. Grimm. 

The work has been carefully revised throughout in MS. by the 
Eev. Dr. Jacob, late Head Master of Christ's Hospital, author of 
the JBromsgrove Greek Grammar, and other classical works ; and, in 
the proof sheets, by the Eev. E. B. Girdlestone, M.A., Editorial 
Superintendent of the British and Foreign Bible Society. To the 
important suggestions of these gentlemen the volume in its present 
state owes very much. It is now commended to attentive students 
of the New Testament, in the hope that it may lead not a few 
to the better understanding, and therefore to the higher appreciation 
of the Divine oracles. 


Eawdon College. 


The following work so far differs from other manuals of the 
Greek language, both in its method and in the persons for 
whom it is intended, that some preliminary words on the 
plan by which its several parts should be studied will not be 
out of place. 

On Orthography, the sections should be thoroughly 
mastered, not only for the sake of facility in reading, but 
because most of the difficulties and so-called irregularities 
in the inflection of substantives, adjectives, and verbs depend 
on letter-changes, of which the rules are comparatively few, 
and really simple. To know these laws at the outset is to be 
provided with a key to varieties and intricacies which might 
otherwise prove hopelessly bewildering. It will be advisable 
that no student should advance beyond this portion of the 
work before being able to read the lessons on pages 11, 12 
with fluency, and accurately to transcribe the paragraph on 
page 13. Great attention should be paid at this stage to 
pronunciation, especially to the distinction between the long 
and short vowels ; and those who may be studying the work 
by themselves are strongly recommended to take an oppor- 
tunity of reading a chapter or two in Greek to some scholar 
who can criticise and correct their mistakes. 

In Etymology, the forms must be carefully and completely 
learned. Everything in the student's further progress 
depends upon this. It is believed that the systematic and 


progressive plan on which the substantives and verbs, as 
the groundwork of the whole, have been discussed, will 
but lightly burden the memory, while the judgment will 
be kept constantly at work. The chief point to be noted 
is the place and power of the stem in Greek words. The 
first and second declensions of Substantives will be seen to 
be mainly reducible to the same law ; the third declension, 
instead of perplexing the learner by countless varieties, will 
exhibit one normal form. The inflection of Adjectives will 
appear but a repetition of that of the Substantives ; while the 
Pronouns only slightly difier. Of the Verbs, the termina- 
tions should in the first instance be carefully learned. The 
first Paradigm will be found to exhibit the simplest way in 
which these terminations can be combined with the verbal 
root ; those tliat follow being but variations on the same 
model, according to the character of the Stem. The Verbs 
in jui, or of the Second Conjugation,* are classified in a way 
which, it is believed, will give no serious difficulty to the 

The Exercises up to this point are simply for practice 
in declension and conjugation, consisting almost exclusively 
of words occurring in the " Sermon on the Mount : " they 
are fair specimens of the ordinary vocabulary of the 
language ; and the learner is strongly recommended to 
write them out in all their forms, not neglecting the accents, 
which, by the help of the rules given under the several 
heads, will present but little difficulty. 

A stock of words will thus have been acquired, with a 

* lu strictness, of course the First. The normal forms of the Verb are 
really to be found he>-e ; and the terminations of Verbs in w might be 
deduced from these, by the aid of "the connective vowels." See especially 
Professor Greenwood's Greek Grammar. It has not, however, been thought 
necessary, in the present work, to carry analysis so far. 


knowledge of forms of inflection quite sufficient for ordinary 
cases. Some chapters of greater difficulty follow, treating 
of the Verbs, tense by tense, and exhibiting the chief 
variations and anomalies in particular words. These 
sections may be omitted on a first study of the volume, 
but it will be important to read them carefully afterwards. 
The aim has been, so to classify the verbal forms that most 
apparent irregularities may be seen to be only exemplifica- 
tions of some more extended rule ; and, without trespassing 
on the more extended field of classical literature, to leave 
no word in the New Testament without the means of ready 
analysis and explanation. 

The Exercises which succeed these sections are for still 
further test. Here for the first time some easy sentences 
are introduced for translation. Logically, these should no 
doubt have been deferred until some rules of Syntax 
had been laid down ; but the interest and utility of such 
Exercises may be held a sufficient defence of the irregu- 
larity, especially as they contain scarcely any usages but 
such as are already familiar to those who have gram- 
matically studied any language. Here, a Greek Testament 
Lexicon or Vocabulary will be found necessary. 

The chapters on the indeclinable Parts of Speech call for 
no remark. Their complete discussion belongs to Syntax : 
but it was held necessary to the completeness of the Ety- 
mology to give at least a general view of their formation and 
meaning. So far as they extend, these sections should be 
closely studied. 

The reader will then be prepared for the Syntax, the 
study of the intermediate chapters being postponed, if pre- 
ferred, to a subsequent stage. These sections, on the difierent 
Languages of which the New Testament contains the trace, 
and on New Testament Proper Names, will suggest topics of 


interesting inquiry, which, in a manual like the present, 
could be pursued only for a very little way. 

The Syntax embodies the simplest laws of concord, 
government, and the connection of sentences, as well as 
others of a more special and less obvious kind. The doc- 
trines of the Article, of the Preposition, and of the Tenses, 
have received careful attention, as throwing light on many 
obscure or misunderstood passages. The arrangement of the 
Syntax has been adopted with a view to the learner's con- 
venience, and for the most part follows the order of the Parts 
of Speech. 

The student is specially and strongly recommended to 
study the order of the whole work, and especially of this 
part, in the Analytical Table of Contents. To this 
Table much care has been devoted, in the hope that it might 
be convenient not only for ordinary reference, but as an out- 
line and conspectus of the volume ; suggesting at one view 
the leading principles of the language, and especially useful 
in recapitulatory examinations. 

The sentences from the Greek Testament, so numerous in 
this division of the work, are intended partly to exemplify 
the rules to which they are appended, the illustrative 
words being printed in a thicker type ; partly also to 
form together a series of Preparatory Reading Lessons or 
Primer, introductory to the sacred volume. The student is 
therefore earnestly counselled to study these sentences in 
order. Most of them, of course, belong to the easier parts of 
New Testament Scripture ; others again are more difficult 
and unusual in their structure ; while in very many will 
be discovered shades or specialties of meaning which the 
English Version does not exhibit, and which perhaps no 
translation could reproduce. The study, therefore, of these 
sentences will be an introduction to Biblical exegesis, 


which may prepare not a few readers for more extended 

A Vocabulary to the Avhole New Testament, and a brief 
discussion of the chief New Testament Synonyms, complete 
the plan of the work. 

The work claims, be it remembered, to be an Introduction 
only. By its means, a not inadequate beginning may be 
made in what is surely the noblest of studies. Its aim is to 
familiarise many readers, who else had despaired of the 
possibility, with the words of Christ and of His Apostles. 
Should its purpose in any way be accomplished, it will give 
access also to those criticisms by which expositors in our 
own land and age, as in others, have so variously and nobly 
illustrated the " living oracles." The labour followed by 
such rewards will have been well spent : and readers of the 
New Testament in its own tongue, whether they advance or 
not to that high critical discernment which only the few 
attain, will have found in the acquisition a pure and life- 
long joy. 

Note on the Eeferences to Critical Editions of the New Testa- 
ment. — Several words and phrases of the New Testament diifer in the best 
MSS. from the reading of the ordinary text. In a few cases the variations 
are of some grammatical importance, and it has been necessary, therefore, to 
refer to them. These references have mostly been made by the help of the 
Critical Editions of the New Testament published by J. J. Griesbach (1796- 
1806); by Dr. Tischendorf, Leipsic, seventh ed., 1859; by Dr. Lachmann, 
Berlin (1842-1850) ; and by Dr. S. P. Tregelles (including as yet only the 
Gospels, the Acts, and the General Epistles), 1844-1861. 






Names, forms, and nimieral values of the 



letters ........ 

Notes on the Alphabet 

The Vowels : [a) their pronunciation, long and short 

(6) The diphthongs (regularly long) 

(c) The "breathings" of initial vowels 

(d) The ' ' breathings " of initial p . . . 
(c) The lengthening of vowels in inflection . 
(/) Tie contraction of vowels. Table. 

Exercise 1. Vowel Contractions . 

(g) Diaeresis , . 

(A) Hiatus, and the ways of avoiding it — 

1. The nu suffixed (v f<pf\icvffTiK6v) 

2. Elision (apostrophe) . . , . 

3. Crasis ....... 

The Consonants 

(a) Division into mutes and liquids 

(6) Classification of mutes ..... 

(c) The sibilant a, and its combinations 

{d) Rules of consonant combination — 

1. Labials or gutturals, with <r . 

2. Labials or gutturals, with a dental 

3. Dentals before <r . . . , , 

4. Mutes before /t 

5. Combinations of v with other consonants 

6. A sharp mute before an aspirated vowel 

7. Consecutive syllables not to begin with an aspirate 

8. Consonants that may be final ..... 
Exercise 2. On the Combinations of Consonants 

Changes of Consonants by assimilation, duplication, transposition, 
omission, or insertion . 7 






(a) Use of the accents 8 

(6) The different accents 8 

(c) Rules of accentuation . . . . • . . . .9 
(d, e) Enclitics and proclitics ....... 9 

On the transference of Greek words into English . . , .10 
Latin the usual medium ........ 10 

Equivalents of k, v, at, oi, ei, ov, initial I and 'P . . . .10 

Panctuation . . .11 

Marks of pause, interrogation, quotation, and for "&c." . .11 
Heading Lessons — 

1. Acts ii. 1-13 11 

2. Romans iv. 1-16 12 

3. Matt. V. 1-16, in Roman characters 13 



9. The " Parts of Speech " . . . , 

10. THE ROOT and STEM 

Pure and (impure) liquid or mute stems 
(The stem to be marked by thick letters) , 




General significance of the Cases 

12, 13. The Definite Article and Indefinite Pronoun 

Types of Substantive and Adjective Declension . 

1 4. Characteristics of all declensions of Nouns 

(a) Neuter Nominatives and Accusatives alike . 

Their plural termination always a 
(6) The Dative Singular in i ("iota subscript") . 
(c) The Genitive Plural in w;/ . 
{d) Masculine like the Neuter in Genitive and Dative 

1 5. Rides for determining the Gender of Nouns . 

(a) Masculine : names of males, rivers, winds 








1 6. 






Feminine : names of females, trees, countries, islands, and 
abstract nouns ......... IS 

Neuter: diminutives, iudeclinables, and the verbal noun 
(infinitive) ........ 

(Note on common and epiccene words) 
Three leading types ....... 

Illustrations : iri\ri, dvOpanros, ttois .... 

Resemblances between the first and second . 
The A and O declensions (parisyllabic) . 
The Separable declension (unpai'isyilabic) 

The Fiest Declension (A) 

Feminine Paradigms (v/j-epa, 8d|a, ti/u^, ffKia) and Remarks 
Masculine Paradigms {ixaOriTTis, veavias) and Remarks . 

Exercise 3. Nouns of the First Declension 

Irregular forms of the First Declension 

The Second Declension (O) 

Mascidine {\6yos) and Feminine {656s) Paradigms, and Remarks 

Neuter Paradigm {(tvkov) and Remarks 

Paradigm of Contracted Nouns in eo-, 00-, voiis, offrow ('AttoAAws 

Declension of 'IrjaoCs .... ... 

Exercise 4. Nouns of tlie Second Declension 

The Third Declension (imparisy liable) 
Importance of knowing the stem .... 

General Paradigms : aldiv, ^rifia ..... 

Terminations of this Declension ..... 

Varieties according to stem-endings . _ . 

Consonants and vowels that may be stem-endings . 
Rules for the Nominative ...... 

1. s added to the stem ...... 

The stem lengthened ...... 

Digammated stems (ev-, av-, ov-} . 

Neuter stems in es- (os) 

Stem unchanged . . . . .- , 



30. Paradigms illustrating these five rides 

1. "Apaif/, K^pvJ, IxOvs, irdMs 

2. iroL/j.iii', Kiiiiv, aiSctfS, irarrjp, avrjp .... 

3. fiacTiKivs, fiovs . , 

4. yevos ......... 

5. Referred to § 26 

Exercise 5. Nouns of the Third Declension 

31- Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension . 
',2. Substantives of Varlable Declension 




32. (a) Interchanges between the second and third . . . .34 

(6) The word aa&^aTov, Sabbath 34 

(c) Proper names, especially Moses, Jerusalem .... 34 

Hebrew indeclinables . . . . . . . .34 

Exercise 6. Promiscuous List of Nouns - . .35 


33. THREE FORMS, correspondent with substantive declensions . 36 

34. First Form 36 

Paradigms of ayaOSs, St/caios, fxiKpSs, and Eemarks . . .36 

35. Contracted Adjectives, x^''<''<'i's ; Remarks ..... 37 

36. Second Form 38 

General Remarks .38 

37. Paradigms of 6|uy, iras, (kwv ....... 38 

38. Particijjles of this class (declension of eoraJs) . . . .39 

39. Adjectives of double form : /te'T'as, ToA,u J, TTpaw .... 40 

40. Third Form 41 

General Remarks ......... 41 

41. Paradigms of aXriBris, (ruxppccy . 41 


42. First Method % 42 

Comparison of iriffTos, aArjfl^s, aoipis, veos . . . . .42 

43. Second Method 43 

Comparison of raxvs, alffXP^s, Ka\6s, fj.4yas . . . .43 

44. Declension of comparatives in -Iwv {fiei^wv) , . . . .43 

45. Irregular and alternative comparisons ..... 44 

a.yad6s, kukSs, fiiKpSs, iroXvs ....... 44 

46. Defective Comparatives and Superlatives .... 44 

47. Emphatic Methods of Comparison 44 

Exercise 7. Adjectives for Practice . . . .45 

48. The Cardinal Numbers 46 

(a) Signs of numeration 46 

(b) Disused letters as numeral signs ...... 46 

(c) Composite numerical expressions . . . . .46 

49. Declension of the cardinal numbers ...... 46 

eTs, Svo, Tpe7s, Ttaaapes .... .... 46 

50. The Ordinal Numbers 47 

51. Table of Cardinals and Ordinals, and Remark . . 47 

52. Distributive Numbers 49 

Exercise 8. Numbers: Numerical symbols, and phrases 
for translation 50 







1. Substantive-personal (" personal") . 

First person, iyd, ^fieis ; second, av, vfius 
54^ Third person, by avT6s, rj, 6 

55. 2. Reflexive 

First person, inamov ; second, aeavrov 
Third, tavrov (aiiTov) .... 

56. 3. Adjective-personal (possessive) , 

(a) e/x(5s, TjfxiTepos, aos, vfifrepos . 

(b, c) Genitive of the personal pronouns as 


Framed upon the model of the Article 
(a, b, c, d) o5e, ovTOJ, (Kilvot, (5 ahrds 
(e) toioDtos, Toaodros, ttiMkovtos 


^- (a, 6) OS, 7}, 3 ; (c, d) '6<ttis, ocnrep, '6aye 

(e) Relatives of quality, quantity, number, degree 


(a) The simple Interrogative, n's ; ri ; 

(6) Correlatives of quality, quantity, number, degree . 

(c) Direct interrogatives in indirect construction 

(d) Interrogatives properly indirect .... 


(a, b) The ordinary Indefinite, ns, and negative compound 
(c) The old Indefinite, 6 5e7pa ..... 


(a) &\\os, (h) tVepos, (c) aWrjXciii', (d) iKaaros 

62. Table of Correlative Pronouns 



, 51 



, 52 


63. THE VOICES 58 

Four things predicated by the Verb ...... 58 

Threefold modification of the verbal stem ..... 58 

Active, Middle, Passive 58 

64. THE MOODS 58 

Four Modes or Moods 58 

1. The Indicative, and its use 58 

2. The Imperative 58 

3. The Subjunctive 69 

^ b 















The Optative (properly a division of the Subjunctive) 

Interrogative Forms 

The Infinitive, ) . . . , 

The Participles, 1 ^articipials 


Time and State jointly expressed 

Nine possible Tenses. Scheme . 

Seven actual Tenses (in common use, six) 
"Principal" and "Historical" Tenses 
Arrangement of Tenses. Tenses of \iu 
The Two Conjugations 

Remark on the Greek and English typical forms 
The Verbal Stem .... 

How ascertained : affixes and suffixes . 
Augment and Reduplication 

(a) Augment in the historical tenses, indicative 

1. The syllabic augment — with initial consonants 

2. The temporal augment — with initial vowels 
(6) BedupUcation in the perfect tenses throughout 

An initial consonant repeated, with e . 
An initial vowel lengthened (Uke temporal augment) 
(c) Augment and reduplication in compound verbs 

Inflexional Termnations 

(a) Denoting voice, mood, tense, number, and person 
(6) Personal endings originally fragments of pronouns 
Normal forms .... 
Tense-characteristics (consonant) 
Active Future and First Aorist, (t 

,, Perfect and Pluperfect, k 
Passive Future and First Aorist, d 

Modal Vowels 

Subjunctive — lengthened indicative vowels 
Optative — diphthongal forms 

Terminations of aU the Moods and Tenses 

Paradigm of the Fikst Conjugation : pure uncontracted 

iriffnvoi. Principal parts 

Conjugation throughout 
All other forms variations of this type . 

Exercise 9. On pure, uncontracted Verbs 

Verbs of the pure uncontracted class 
Possible stem- endings .... 
Pure, mute, and liquid verbs 





78. Pore Verbs. Special Rules 72 

(a) The stem-vowels ........ 72 

{b) Contraction with a, «, or o . . . . . .72 

(c) Contraction confined to Present and Impei-fect Tenses . 72 

(d) Peculiarities of contraction. Compare § 3, / . . .80 

79. Paradigms of Tifidu, <(>i\4a>, Sr]\6a>, Present and Imperfect . SO 

80. Note on remaining Tenses ....... 83 

Exercise 10. On pure, contracted Verbs ... 83 

81. Mute Verbs. Special Rules ....... 84 

87.. Stem unaffected by a following vowel 84 

83. (a) Tense-characteristics (§ 71) and terminations beginning 

with a consonant modify the stem .84 

(6) Rules of modification ....... 84 

1. As caused by -a after the verbal stem . . . 84 

2. „ by-e „ „ ... 84 

3. ,, by -T ,, „ ... 84 

4. ,, by -/J. „ „ ... 85 

5. „ by -ffO „ „ ... 85 

6. ,, by -vT ,, „ ... 85 

7. „ by-K „ „ ... 85 

84. Paradigms of the Mute Verbs. Remarks (a, b, c) . . .85 

Conjugation of rpi^ai, &yu>, ireiBu ....... 86 

85. Modification of the Present (and Imperfect) . . . . .90 

(a) The stem of the Present not always the stem of the Verb . 90 

1. Labial verbal stems, that add t . . . . .90 

2. Guttural verbal stems, that change the stem-consonant 

to (Tff or ( 90 

3. Dental verbal stems, that change the stem-consonant to f 90 

(b) All other tenses formed from the verbal stem . . .90 

(c) Vowels changed to diphthongs in short stem-syllables . . 91 

Here the Future and Perfect formed from the Present stem 9 1 

86. The (Secondary Te/ises of modified Verbs 91 

In these Tenses, the simple verbal-stem always appears . . 91 

87. The Second Aorist 91 

Conjugated like the Imperfect Indicative (in other moods as 
Present) 92 

niustratioDS from cpvy- {(pevyw), tut- (rvirrw) . . .92 

Active, Middle, and Passive ...... 92 

Note on Accentuation .92 

88. The Second Future (Passive) 93 

Illustration from tvtt- (tutttoj) 93 

89. The Second Perfect (Active) 93 

Illustration from irpay- {TrpJurcru) 93 












verb, except in 

V, vt, av 

General Rules for the Second Tenses 

1. In what verbs they do not occur 

2, 3. Seldom found in First Tenses in the same 
Passive . . . . 

4. First and Second Perfects, Active . 
Exercise 11. On mute Verbs 
Liquid Verbs. Special Pvules . . 

(a) Present stem mostly modified 
. (6) Future Active and Middle, contracted 

(c) First Aorist Active and Middle 

(d) Perfect Active, variations 

(e) Perfect passive, variations 
Paeadigms of Liquid Verbs 

wyyiKKoi, Kp'ivai, aipw .... 

Exercise 12. On liquid Verbs 

Notes on the Tenses. [ These Sections, to the close of § 99, deeding 
chiefly with minute variations and seeming irregularities in par- 
ticular verbs, may be omitted in the first study of the book.] 

The Present and Imperfect. I. The Present 
1-4. Details of modification, as § 85 

5. Modifications of pure and impure stems by 

6. Alternative stems, consonant and e- . 

7. Inchoative forms in aK- or iffK- 

8. Reduplicated stems .... 
II. The Imperfect ..... 

Peculiarities of Augment 

Double p-. Double augment. Attic augment in ^. 
The Second Aorist, Active and Middle 
Contains the simple verbal stem 

(Reduplicated Second Aorist. Change of short stem-vowel) 
The Vowel Aorist, as of Second Conjugation 
The Future, Active and Middle . 
(o) Lengthening or otherwise of pure stems 

(b) The Attic Future of Verbs in -.5 (iC«) . 

(c) The digammated future of verbs in ef- (4a>) 

(d) Future in middle form, with active meaning 
The First Aorist, Active and Middle 

(a) Connection of Aorist with Future stem 

(1) In pm-e and mute ; (2) in liquid verbs 
(6) Peculiarities of Augment 

Note on Accentuation . . . 

The Aorists and Futures Passive . . 
(a) Modified like the Perfect Passive . 


















(b) Vowel stem-endings, lengthened, shortened, or with <r 

(c) Transposition of vowel and liquids in short roots 

(d) Change of a weak vowel into o . . . 
{e) First and Second Tenses seldom in the same verb 

Notes on Irregularities of Augment, and on Accentuation 
Perfect and Pluperfect .... 

(a) Varieties in reduplication 

1. e- before a double consonant 

2. ei\ri<pa from A.aj3- (A.o/iy3aV&>) . 

3. Double reduplication and augment 

4. Pluperfect generally omits augment 

(b) Third person plural Perfect Active in -av 

(c) The Second Perfect active : its special sense 
{d) The Perfect Passive : its peculiarities . 

(e) The Future Perfect passive (or mid. ) 

Note on accentuation 

Active and Passive, as determined by the Aorist 

Their use ...... 

List and usual forms of the chief Impersoaals 

Originally caused by redundancy 
Principal Defective Verbs and their Paradigms 

alpeo), fpxofJ-ai, eadica, dpau), Tp€'x«, 'p^pof, fhov . 

Exercise 13. On the Defective Verbs 
The chief peculiarity of these Verbs 
Future, First Aorist, and Perfect like Verbs in u 
Modifications of the Verbal Stem . 

(a) Vowel of a pure stem lengthened 

(b) Reduplication prefixed 

(c) The syllable -yv- {-i/yv-) affixed . 
{d) Two classes thus formed . 

First Class — Paradigms in two divisions 
First division — regular forms . 
Paradigms of 'ttrrri/jn, Ti'eij/ui, SiSwfn 
Remarks on the Paradigms . 

1. First Aorist Active, with -k- (Ti'07j/xi, USoifxi) 

2. Peculiarities iu augment of 'IffTijixi 

3. Active Aorists of '/o-ttjjui — their difference 

4. The verb aTijKw 

List of Verbs in this division . 
















































1 10. 



A-stems : a. Active ; b. Deponent 
E-stems : Deponent only .... 

SecoTul Division — Stems iff- (ei/ii), '(e^i^Oj e('''?/^') 
Conjugation of flf^i (elmi), to be . 
„ flfii {(fyai), to go 

,, tTjjUi in its compound a^lrifii 

Second Class — Verbs in -wfjn or -vyvfit 

Remarks ....... 

Paradigms of Se'iKvvfj.i and ^wwufxi 
Remarks on Paradigms 
New Testament Verbs like 5fiKcu/n 
New Testament Verbs like ^wvvvfxi 
A-stems ..... 

E-stems ..... 

O-stems ..... 

Exercise 14. On the Verbs in -a" 
Exercise 15. General, on the Verbs (from 
Exercise 16. Short Sentences 

i. The Beatitudes ..... 

ii. Parts of John i. . .... 

iii. Selected Sentences .... 



, 1.38 


ii8. THE THREE CASES : general relations of place, &c. . 140 

Prepositions extend these relations indefinitely . . . 140 
They may govern the Genitive, Dative, or Accusative; one, 

two, or all. ......... 140 

1 1 9. Prepositions Governing the Genitive only, wtI, o.tt6, sk 

(e'l), TTp6 140 

120. Prepositions Governing the Dative only, iv, avv . . 141 

121. Prepositions Governing the Accusative only, ava, us. . 141 

122. Prepositions Governing the Genitive and Accusative, Sid, 

Kara, ^uero, irtpi, virep, vtto ...... . 141 

123. Prepositions Governing the Genitive, Dative, and Accu- 

sative, €jr(, irapd, irpSs 142 

124. Synoptical Table of the Prepositions . . . .142 

125. Note on the various meanings of the Prepositions . . . . 143 

126. Adverbs in their Original Form, from Substantives 







{a) As an Accusative Noun, Adjective, or Pronoun. . . 144 

(6) As a Dative ,, „ . . 144 

(c) As a Genitive ,, ,, . . 144 

(d) As a Preposition, with its Case ...... 144 

(p) Old Case-endings in -Oev, -di, and -de 144 

Adverbs from Adjectives (in -ws) 145 

Comparison of Adverbs 145 

Pronominal Adverbs. Table, with Correlatives . . 146 

Numeral Adverbs (in -kis or -oku 147 

Adverbs from Verbs 147 

Ancient verbal forms, Sevpo, Sevre 147 

Derivatives from Verbs in ifco ....... 147 

Adverbs from Prepositions (or in -uj) 147 

Prepositive Adverbs ("improper Prepositions"). List. . 147 

Negative Adverbs, ov and /i^ 148 



135. Meaning of the word Particles 

136. Classification of Conjunctive Particles 

1. Conjunctions of Annexation 

2. , , Comparison 

3. ,, Disjunction 

4. ,, Antithesis 

5. , , Condition 

6. ,, Cause 

7. „ Inference 

8. ,, Intention or Result 

137. (a) Particles of Emphasis, yt, Se, -irtp, -toi . 
(6) Particles of Interrogation, ei, ij, . 

138. Interjections 

(a) Natural instinctive sounds. 

(b) The Interjection ^5e, idov I behold ! . 


[Cliapters IX., X., XI., XII., may be omitted in the first reading of (he. booli.\ 

139. 1. ROOTS, with primary, tertiary, &c., formations . . . 153 

2. Classes of Words 153 

3. Modification of Stem-endings 154 


SECT. ^^ff 

140. Classes of Substantives 1^4 

(a) First Declension 154 

1. Masculine, in -rris . . . . . • .154 

2. Feminine, in -la, -oaivi) 154 

(&) Second Declenfdon 154 

1. Masculine, in -nos . 154 

2. Neuter, in -rpov, -iov {-ipiov, -iZtov) .... 155 

3. Masculine and Feminine Diminutives, -ickos, 'ktkti . 155 
(c) Third Declension 155 

1. Masculine, -eis, riip, rap 155 

2. Feminine, -tris, -ttjs ....... 155 

3. Neuter, -fta, -os ....••• • 156 

141. Scheme of Terminations of Derivative Nouns. . 156 

142. Classes of Adjectives 157 

1. First Form 157 

(a) In -10s (-10), -lov ........ 157 

(h) In -Mos, -i\, -Of . . . . . . • ' 157 

(c) In -ivos, -IvT], -ivov ....... 157 

(So -foj, contr., -ovs, -ovv) ..... 157 

(d) In -p6s, -pa, pov ........ 157 

(e) In -(<r)</ios, -ov ....... • 158 

(/) Verbals in -tos and -rios 158 

2. Second and Third Forms 158 

(a) In --(js, -es ........ . 158 

(b) In -fuov, -fiof ........ 158 

143. Scheme of Terminations of Derivative Adjectives. 158 
Classes of Verbs 159 

(a) Verbs from subst. or adj. roots ("denominative") . . 159 
Their principal terminations ...... 159 

(&) Verbs from verbal stems (" Inceptives," " Frequentatives " 

(or emphatic), " Causatives," &c 159 

145. General remark on Derivation ....... 159 


146. " Parathetic " and " Synthetic " Compounds .... 161 

147. Parathetic Compounds 161 

The former element a Particle . . . . . .161 

(a) Significance of the Preposition in Composition . . 162 

(b) „ Adverbs ,, . . 162 

(c) ,, /Mse^arrt6Ze Pari jcie^ in Composition 163 
(a, Compound Nouns and Adjectives generally from Verbs) . 163 








(b, c, Adverbs and Inseparable Particles not found with Verbs, 

except 0-) 163 

{d. Combination of Prepositions) ...... 163 

Synthetic Compounds 163 

The former element a Noun or Verb . . . . .163 

Connective vowels -o-, -1- . . . . . , . 164 

Compound Verbs usually from Compound Nouns , . . 164 
The chief significance, in the latter element . . . .164 

Illustrations . . . . . . . . .164 

Derivation and Composition illustrated by the Varia- 
tions and Combinations in the New Testament of the root 
tpt-, verbal stem, Kpiv-, to separate, to judge .... 164 



150. Languages of Palestine: Hebrew .... 

What was the " Hebrew tongue " in New Testament times ? 
Question as to St. Matthew's Gospel 

151. The introduction of Greek . 

Various influences contributing to this 
Greek the usual language of our Lord 

The Dialect of Galilee 
Difference of New Testament writers in style 

152. Infusion of Latin .... 

Influences contributory to this 
Classes of words derived from Latin 

153. Aramaic (Hebrew) Words and Phrases 

(a) Assimilated words 
(6) Indeclinable words 

1. Proper Names 

2. Common Nouns 

3. Special Phrases 

154. Latin Words 

(a) Names of Coins . 

(b) Judicial terms . 

(c) Military terms . 

(d) Political terms . 
(ft) Articles of Dress 
(/) General terms . 










These Names from the three languages (Chapter XL) . , .173 

Hebrew Names 173 

(a) Indeclinable Hebrew forms . . . . . . 173 

(fc) Indeclinable and assimilated ...... 173 

(c) Assimilated, Hebrew, -ah; Greek, -as ... . 174 

(d) Later forms, Hebrew, -a; Greek, -as ... . 174 
Double Names 174 

(a) Greek the translation of the Hebrew ..... 174 
(6) ,, t'ocal imitation „ ..... 174 

(c) Name and Surname . . . . . . . .174 

1. The latter being characteristic ..... 174 

2. ,, patronymic . . . . .174 

3. ,, local 174 

(d) Dififerent names of the same man among Jews and Greeks . 174 
Greek Names 175 

(n) Pure Greek— "The Seven" 175 

(b) Contracted forms 175 

Latin Names 176 

(a) In connexion with Rome ....... 176 

(6) Names of the Emperors . . . . . . .176 

(c) The name of " Paul" 176 

(d) Contractions, "Luke," "Silas," &c 176 




161. The Sentence — as consisting of Propositions 

162. The Proposition — Subject and Predicate . 

163. The Sdbject — a Substantive or its equivalent 

164. The Predicate— a Substantive, Adjective, or equivalent 

165. The Copula — a tense of the verb "to be" . 

166. Omission of the Copula 

167. The Verbal Predicate 

160. The Substantive verb as Predicate 




SECT p,^g 

169. Omission of the Pronominal Subject ]79 

Its insertion for emphasis. Examples I79 

170. Omitted in third person plural, "generalized assertion" . 180 

171. Omitted in third person singular, " impersonals " . . .180 

172. The Nominative the case of the Subject 180 


173. Excej^tions, (i) Neuter plural Nominative with singular Verb 181 

174. Variations in this idiom, a, b, c, d . . , . .181 
175- (2) "Rational Concord." Collective singular Subject 

with plural Verb, a. b 182 

176. Combined Nominatives, a, 6 182 

177- Agreement of substantival Predicate with the Subject . . . 18.3 

Law of Apposition 184 

178. Agreement of adjective Predicate with the Subject . , . 184 


179- "Rational Concord," (i) Collective singular Subject with 

plural Adjective 185 

180. (2) Masculine or Feminine Subject with neuter Adjective . 185 

181. Hule /or Copulative Verbs . . . . . . . .185 

182. Complements of the simple Sentence 185 

183. Extension of the Subject 186 

184.. „ Substantival Predicate .... 186 

185. ,, Adjective-Predicate 186 

186. ,, Verbal Predicate 186 

187. Accessory Clauses . . . . . . . , .186 

188. Co-ordinate .......... 187 

189. Subordinate 187 

190- Methods of introducing subordinate Sentences . . 187 

191. Difficulties in the resolution of Sentences — illustrated . . . 187 

192. Rule for the resolution of Compound Sentences .... 188 


Construction of the Article . 

193. Employed with Substantives ; by the Second Concord 

194. Originally a Demonstrative Pronoun . 

195. Shown by its often standing alone 

196. By its being followed by a Genitive 

197. Or by a Preposition and its Case 

198. By its construction with Adverbs. 

199. The Article with Adjectives 

200. With Participles 

Often equivalent to a Relative and Verb 














With the Infinitive, in all the Cases . 

Note on the verbal in ing (Lat., gerund) 

With Phrases or Sentences .... 

With Pronouns. (See § 220) .... 

Svhstantivized Words or Phrases 

Signiflcance of the Article : its insertion or omission 

The Article strictly definite 

The Article marks the Subject ..... 
Definition of the Predicate by the Article . 
(The Article may be omitted before words already defined) 
Use of the Article with Monadic Substantives 

For individual emphasis ..... 

In collective expressions ...... 

To make renewed mention ..... 
(This sometimes implicit) .... 
Passages where the Article, omitted in our Version, should 

supplied from the original ..... 
The Article with Abstract Substantives, a, h, c 
The Article as an Unemphatic Possessive . 
The Article with Proper Names .... 

With the Divine Names 

(a) Qfds, God 

(b) Kvpios, Lord ...... 

(c) vihs Qfov, Son of God ..... 

(d) 'iTjtroCs, Jesus ...... 

(e) XpiarSs, Anointed, Christ .... 
(/) Xlvevfxa (aytov), Holy Spirit .... 

Monadic Nouns (as Proper Names) without the Article 
Prepositional Phrases without the Article 
The Article with Demonstrative Pronouns 

Omitted with t/caTTOs, tociovtos .... 

The Article with outcJs, the same ..... 

With Possessive Pronouns .... 

With iras, iravrei, all ...... 

With '6\os, whole ....... 

With &Kkos, irepos, other 

With TToXv, mv,ch ; iroWoi, many .... 
With the Nominative for Vocative 
The Article separated from its Substantive by qualifying words 

(a) A Preposition with its Case 

(b) An Adverb, ...... 

Repeated after its Substantive for emphasis . 

(6) Sometimes where no Article precedes . . 


, 192 
, 192 
, 193 
. 193 
. 193 
. 193 
. 194 
. 194 
. 195 
. 195 
. 195 
. 196 
. 197 
. 197 







The Article with Participles 
The Article in Enumerations 

(fl) Combined Enumeration 

(b) Separate Enumeration 
The Omission of the Article marks Indefiniteness 
The Article with v6iios, law — illustrations . 

. 215 

. 215 
. 215 
. 216 
. 217 
. 217 














Singular and Plural used as in other languages 

Singular Nouns for a whole class . 

Nouns predicated of several individuals (as (tw/uo, 

Abstract Substantives in the Plural 

The Plural, by a speaker of himself 

Plural to denote a single agent or object 

(a) As viewing it in Us constituent parts . 

(b) As generalizing the statement, (1), (2) 


The Nominative and Vocative 
Nominative as Subject and Predicate 
The Suspended Nominative . 
The Elliptical Nominative 

(a) After tSov, behold 

(b) „ Svoixa, name 

(c) The j)hrase, ^ iiv koX 6 ^v koI 5 ipxif-fvos 
Nominative for Vocative : an elliptical usage 
The Vocative, with and without S> 
The Genitive .... 
Primarily signifying motion from . 

Modifications, 1 — 7 
Genitive of origin 

After Substantives, to denote the source, or 
After Verbs of sense, or mental affection 

(1) Of sense, as heai-ing, taste, touch 

(2) Of affection, as desire, caring for, despising 
(.3) Of remembrance a,nd forgetting 

After Verbs of accusation, condemnation, &c, 
After Verbs and Adjectives oi plenty, want, fulness. 
Genitive of separation or ablation 
After Verbs of separation, removal, hindrance, &c, 
















2 7.5- 


Genitive of comparison. ..... 

(1) After Verbs 

(2) After Adjectives in the Comparative Degree 

III. Genitive of Possession 

After Substantives, "the Possessive Case" . 

The Genitive Personal Pronouns so used 

Words of kindred, &c., omitted before Possessive, 1 — 7 

Attributive Possessive Genitive . 

Special Possessive phrases .... 

The Genitive of Apposition .... 
Position of the Genitive .... 

(a) Generally after the governing Substantive 

(6) Instances where the Genitive precedes 

IV. Genitive of Partition 

After Partitive Adjectives . 

Pronouns .... 

Numerals .... 

Superlatives .... 
After Verbs of partaking 
After Verbs of taking hold of, attaining, &c 

Different usage of Active and Middle 
A-iier Adverbs of time .... 
Partitive Phrases of Time or Place 
Partitive Genitive after Verb, to be 

V. Genitive of Object .... 

May be expressed by various Prepositions ; Illustrations 
Phrases that may be Possessive or Objective 

VI. Genitive of Relation 

In respect of, as shown by the context ; Illustrations 
After Adjectives, generally ..... 
Specially after Adjectives of worthiness, fitness, &c. 
Genitive of pric,, penalty, &c. .... 
Genitives of different relations with the same Substantive 

VII. The Genitive Absolute .... 

Originally causal ...... 

The Dative 

Primarily signiiying juxtaposition .... 

Modifications, 1 — 4 

I. Dative of Association 

(a) After Verbs of intercourse, companionship, &c. 

(b) After Verbs and Adjectives of likeness, fitness, &c. 

(c) After the Substantive Verb : to expiesa property 

Verb sometimes omitted .... 




278. II. Dative of Transmission 243 

(a) After Verbs of giving (indirect Object) .... 243 

{J}) „ information, command, &c. . . . 244 

(c) ,, succour, assistance, &c. .... 244 

(d) „ mental affection, obedience, faith . . 244 
Distinction from Genitive ...... 244 

279. III. Dative of Reference 245 

May be expressed in English hy for (or against) . . . 245 

280. IV, Dative of Accessory Circumstance .... 240 

(a) Expressing the modes of an action ..... 246 
(h) Sometimes repeating the notion of the Verb (Hebraism) . 246 

(c) Dative of cause or motive 

(d) ,, instrument 
Dative after xpaoM"'; io ^^^ 

! (e) Dative of agent (rare) 


(/) ,, sphere, that in which a quality inheres . . 248 


{g) „ Time 

(1) A space of time : for , 

(2) A point of time : at, on 

281. The Accusative .... 
Primarily signifying motion towards . 

Hence used as the Object of Transitive Verbs . . 250 

(a) Verbs intransitive in English, transitive in Greek . . 250 

(b) The same Verbs sometimes transitive and intransitive . 250 

(c) Especially those denoting facidty ..... 250 

(d) The direct Object omitted after certain Verbs . , 251 

282. The iwierrttt? 06;'ec< of Verbs, or " cognate Accusative" . , 251 

283. Accusative of Z>e^«i<Jo?i . 252 

Dative of Accessory more common . . . . . 252 

284. The Double Accusative, "nearer" and "remoter Object" . . 252 

285. The Accusative as Subject of Infinitive Verbs. . . 253 

To be rendered as Nominative with that .... 253 

Generally different from the .Subject of the principal Verb . 253 

Accusative with the substantivized Inhuitive . . , 253 

286. Accusative of Time and Space 254 

(a) Space : Distance ........ 254 

(b) Time: (1) :i Point; (2) Duration; or (3) Succession . 254 

287. The Accusative in ^W/pi/ca^, or unusual constructions . . . 255 

Two elements to be considered, the Preposition and the Case . 255 

Variety of combinations hence resulting .... 255 

289. Interchangeable ViQiiositioos: not identical . .... 256 

290. Note on the correspondence of words in different languages . . 256 



290. Prepositions with the Gtenitive only .... 257 

291. aj/Ti, over ar/aJHS<; opposition as an equivalent .... 257 

Hence, instead of , for ; adverbial phrase, avd^ Siv . . . 257 

292. a.Tv6, from, the exterior ..... .... 258 

Hence, (1) from; (2) of; (3) on account of, (4) elliptical use; 

(5) use with Adverbs ....... 258 

293. fK, i^, from the interior ........ 259 

Hence, (1) out of; (2) from,; (3) by; (4) made of; (5) 

helonfrng to ; (6) springing /rom ; (7) temporal use . 259 

294. iTp6, in front of ......... . 260 

Hence, before in (1) time; (2) place; (3) degree . . . 260 
Prepositions with the Dative only 260 

295. iv, in . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 

Hence, (1) in, of place; (2) among; (3) "the eV of in- 
vestiture;" (4) in "the sjihere ;" (5) special uses, by; 

(6) adverbial phrases; (7) temporal use ; (8) "constructio 
prffignans" . . . . . . . . . 261 

296. ffvv, in conjunction with (co-operation) ...... 263 

Hence, with, together with (beside) ..... 263 
Prepositions with the Accds.vtive only .... 264 

297. avi, up to, upby . . . . . . . . . • 264 

Only in special phrases in the New Testament . . . 264 

298. (Is, to the interior .......... 264 

Hence (1) of place, into; (2) unto, to; (3) towards, against; 
(4) in order to, for ; (5) into, a state ; (6) for, as, of 
equivalence; (7) of time, during, or up to; (8) "con- 
structio praeguans " 264 

Prepositions with the Genitive and Accusative . . 268 

299. Sid, through ........... 268 

o. Genitive : (1) through, of place ; (2) of agency ; (3) of 

time, during or after ....... 268 

$. Accusative : on account of 269 

300. Kara, down 270 

a. Genitive: (1) doion from; (2) against; (3) by; (4) 

throughout, as Accusative ...... 270 

j3. Accusative: (I) throughout ; (2) over against ; (3) at the 
time of; (1) distributive use; (5) according to; (6) 
adverbial phrases . . 271 

301. uerd, in association with .....••• 272 

a. Genitive: {\) ivith, among ; {2) together with ; (3) "with 

and on behalf of " . . . . . • • • 272 
)3. Accusative : after (beyond) 273 

302. T«pi, around ......•••• -^70 



302. a. Genitive: aboia, concerning 273 

0. Accusative: {1) around ; (2) about, of time; (3) about, 

in reference to 274 

303. vTrep, over ........... 274 

a. Genitive : (!) on behalf of; (2) for the sake of; (3) in 

reference to 274 

p. Accusative : beyond, above 276 

304.. virS, under ........... 276 

o. Genitive : by, of the Agent 276 

B. Accusative: (\) under ; [2) close upon . . . . 277 

Prepositions with the Genitj"e, Dative, and Accusative 277 

305. e'lri, iqDon ... 277 

o. Genitive: (1) on, ot basis; (2) over, of superintendence; 
(3) upon, fig.; (4) before; (5) in the time of; (6) "con- 

structio praegnans" ....... 277 

p. Dative : (1) on, of basis ; (2) over, of superintendence ; 
(3) upon, fig.; (5) in addition to; (6) "constructio 

praegnans" ......... 279 

y. Accusative: (1) upon, motion implied; {2) over ; (3) to 
(for, against) ; (4) with regard to ; (5) up to, of quantity ; 

(6) during, of time 280 

306. irapd, beside 282 

a. Genitive : from, of persons only ..... 282 

iS. Dative : (1) with, near ; (2) in the esteem ox power of . 282 
7. Accusative : (1) by, near ; (2) contrary to ; (3) above; (4) 

consequence ......... 282 

. 283 

. 283 

. 283 

307. irp6s, towards ......... 

a. Genitive : conducive to 

3. Dative : near ........ 

7. Accusative': (1) to; (2) with; (3) mental direction; (4) 

estimate ; (5) intention ....... 284 

On the Interchange of Certain Prepositions . . . 285 

308. Mutual approach in meaning ; real distinction .... 285 

309. Interchange of Sia with 6k, airS, eV [els, eVt, Kara) .... 285 

310. Interchange of e/c and cnr({ ........ 287 

311. ,, eV and the simple Dative ..... 287 

312. ,, els with irptJs, eVi and Dative (also eV) . . . 287 

Note on 2 Cor. iv. 17 288 

313. „ TrepI with 5ia and virip ...... 289 

314. Repetition or otherwise of Prepositions governing several words . 289 














SECOND COWCORD, re-stated 
Omission of Substantives .... 

Occasional ambiguities 

List of Substantives frequently omitted 
"Rational Concord" in Number and Gender 
Adjectives referring to several Substantives 
Adjectives in adverbial relations . 

The Degrees of Comparison . 

The Comparative 
Followed by a Genitive of Object 

Or by ^, than, as a Conjunction . 

Employed in special cases, 1, 2, 3 
Omitted before Numerals after more, less 
{(jiaKKov) ^ after the Positive, sometimes after a Substantive 
or Verb .... 
Comparative strengthened by xmep or -napi. 

Emphatic Comparatives, as in § 51 
Comparative -without expressed Object 

(1) Where the context supplies it 

(2) Where the Comparative is a familiar phrase 

(3) Where the Object may be supplied mentally 
The Superlative 

General significance ...... 

Emphatic Superlatives ..... 

Followed by irdvTtcv, preceded by ws, Srt 
Use of ■npSiTos ....... 

Hebraistic Superlatives ..... 

(1) By Preposition eV after simple Adjective 

(2) By Adjective repeated in the Genitive . 

Other so-called Hebraisms to be rejected 

The Numerals 

Special uses of the Cardinal els, one , 

(1) As an Indefinite Pronoun (Indefinite Article) 

(2) For the Correlatives, one . . . otiier . 

(3) Its proper Negative combined with the Predicate 

(4) Ordinal ^rs< instead of it 
Adverbial Particles with Numerals 
Omission of Names of Quantity after Numerals 
The Ordinals in Enumerations , , 


















The Personal Pronotms 303 

Subject to the rules for Substantives 303 

Omission of Pronominal Subject 303 

Possessive Genitive of Pronouns instead of the Adjective . . 303 

Possessive Adjective Pronoun instead of the Genitive , . 303 

Redundant or repeated Personal Pronoun ..... 304 

Use of ai/rds, self, in apposition 304 

As a Nominative, always emphatic .... 304 

[The reflexive iavrov for the Second Person .... 305 

,, eavTuv for First and Second] .... 305 

"Rational Concord," with aiiTos — Gender — Number . . . 305 

The Possessive Pronouns 306 

Their various uses exemplified ....... 306 

In ajipositiou with a Genitive Substantive .... 307 

Unemphatic Possessive Pronouns by the Article .... 307 

Emphatic Possessive Pronouns by ^Sios, own .... 307 

The Demonstrative Pronouns 307 

Use of ovTos, this (near), and iKelvos, that ..... 307 

Use of b'Se, this (here) ......... 307 

Excej)tions to the ordinary use of ovros, skuvos .... 308 

iKuvos, the Emphatic Demonstrative ..... 308 

Emphatic (or redundant) Demonstrative Constructions . . 308 

Special uses of tovto, ravra ........ 309 

The Relative Pronoun 309 

Agreement of the Relative. THE THIRD COI^CORD . 3U9 
A clause as Neuter Antecedent . . . . . . .310 

" Rational Concord " with the Relative — Gender — Nimiber . . 310 

Attraction 310 

(a) Attraction of the Relative to the Predicate . . . 310 

(6) Attraction of the Relative to the Antecedent . . . 311 

Inverse Attraction (transposed Antecedent) . . .311 

Demonstrative Antecedent omitted ...... 312 

outJs complementary to the Relative (a Hebraism) . . . 312 
The Compound Relative, oa-ris, strictly Indefinite .... 313 

But also explicative, and logical ...... 313 

Used often with Proper Names . . . . . .313 

The Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns . . 314 

Various ixses of the Interrogative, ris ; ..... 314 

(1) Simply, with or without a Substantive . . . .314 

(2) Elliptically, as 'iva. ri, why ? 314 



3 50. 

(3) Adverbially, Jiow! 

(4) In alternative questions . 
The Interrogative in indirect questions 
Transition from the Interrogative to the Indefinite 

Uses of the Indefinite, tij .... 

(1) Simply, with or without a Substantive 

(2) Emphatically, somebody ! 

(3) As "a kind of" .... 

(4) "Some" approximately with numbers 

(5) In alternative expressi(^ns 

[Negatives of t»s, i.e., oi/Ms, fi-qSeis] 


, 314 
, 315 
, 315 
. 316 
. 316 
. 316 
. 317 
. 317 
. 317 
. 317 





3 57- 




Voice : the distinction in /(;r??i and %?ii^ca?jce . 

The Active Voice 

Intransitives used as Transitives .... 

Variations in meaning according to form ('IffTTJixi) . 

Special use of eX'*' 

The Middle Voice : its three senses .... 

1. Reflexive (the " Accusative Middle") 

But Pronouns generally employed with Active 

2. .4 jH/^ro^jriaitve (the " Dative Middle ") 

The direct Object of the Active retained 

3. Causative (nearly resembling the Passive) 

This meaning sometimes becomes reciprocal . 

The Passive Voice 

Its Subject. The primary or secondary Object of the Active 
(In the latter case, the primary Object remains in the Ace.) 

Agent after Passive Verbs 

Frequent difiiculty of distinguishing Passive and Middle 

Sifnificauce of the Moods . . . . . . " • 

The Indicative — Declarative and Interrogative 
The Tenses. The six employed (the., three others essential to 
completeness) "Historical" and "principal" Tenses . 

The Present Tekse 

General meaning, and Illustrations 

(a) A state as now existing, a process 

(h) An habitual or usual act 































(c) Past time, in vivid narration (the Historical Present) . 325 

(d) Certain futurity ........ 325 

The Imperfect Tense 326 

General meaning, with Ilhistrations ..... 326 

(«) An act unriuished at a jiast time ..... 326 

{b) An act statedly repeated ...... 326 

(c) To be distinguished from the Aorist .... 326 

(<i) An inchoative act ........ 328 

(e) The "resolved Imperfect" ...... 328 

363. The Future Tense 329 

General meaning, with Illustrations ..... 329 

(a) Indefinite futurity ........ 329 

(b) Command, especially in prohibitions .... 329 

(c) General truths or maxims, "Ethical Future" . . 329 

(d) Future with ov, fxri (see § 377) 330 

(e) The "resolved Future," or Future Imperfect. . . 330 
(/) The Future Auxiliary, /^sA\a) 330 

Use of BeKo), to tvill, emphatic ; ^'ith Examples . . 331 

The Aorist Tenses 331 

General meaning, with Illustrations ..... 331 

(a) The absolutely past, " Preterite " 331 

Distinction between Aorist, Imperfect, and Perfect . 331 

(5) The Aorist, as Pluperfect 332 

(c) The " Epistolary Aorist " 333 

(d) Sometimes equivalent to our Present Indicative . . 333 

(e) Marking the completeness of an act .... 333 
The Perfect Tense 333 

General moaning, and Illustrations ...... 333 

(a) A completed action, or one whose consequences remain . 333 

(b) Distinction between the Perfect and Aorist . . . 334 
The Pluperfect Tense 334 

Rare in the New Testament : an act repeated in the past . 334 
The ' ' Perfect Present, " and corresponding Pluperfect . . 335 

Interrogative Forms 335 

With or without interrogative words 335 

Elliptic questions ......... 336 

369. Peculiar forms of affirmative reply ...... 336 

370. Negative questions 336 

(a) W ith 01. ; (b) with fi-fi ; (c) with fiiirt . . . .337 

The Imp-rative Mood 3b7 

Used for command or entreaty 337 

ail its proper negative Adverb 337 

372. Employed in simple permission 338 















Tenses of the Imperative ...... 

(«) The Present — generality, continuity, repetition 

(b) The Aorist — instantaneousness, completeness , 

(c) The Perfect (very rare) ..... 

Contrast between Present and Aorist illustrated 

The Subjunctive Mood 

Always really dependent. Elliptical forms 
The Subjunctive in independent sentences 

1. As a hortatory Imjjerative — First Person ' . 

2. As the Imperative in prohibitions . 

3. In questioning or doubt, " Deliberative Subjunctive 

4. In strong denial (Aorist), with oli, iJ.i] 

5. For the Future Perfect (Aorist) 
The Optative ^ood 

Always really dependent ...... 

The Optative in independent sentences . 

1. To exi)ress a wish ...... 

So with fi.7] {fj-ri ■ !) 

2. With &v for Potential 

The Moods in Dependent Clauses. 

Different kinds of Subordinate Clauses 
Mood and Tense in such Clauses 

The Subjunctive after words compounded with &v 

Object Sentences 

'6rL with the Indicative ..... 

(a) Dii'ect quotation : Pleonastic '6ti . 

(b) Indirect quotation : " Oratio obliqua " . 

(c) Indirect interrogation ...... 

Use of the Indicative, the Subjunctive, and the Optative . 

(d) Object and Objective Sentence after some Verbs . 
Conditional Sentences 

The "Protasis" and "Apodosis" 
Four forms of the Conditional Sentence 

a. The supposition of a. fact {ti, Indicative) . 
j8. The supposition of a piossibilUy (idv, Subjunctive) 
7. Entire uncertainty (el, Optative) 
5. A condition unfulfilled (ei. Indicative past ... &v, 
Indicative past) ..... 
Intentional Clauses : expressive of purpose or design 

The Intentional Particles (iva, o-kws, /utj) 
(a) With the Subjunctive, to express intention . 

(Distinction between Intentional and Object Sentences) 
Does 'iva. ever mean so that ? , , , . 



384. Passages relatiug to Scripture prophecy . . . 351 
The negative intentional particle 352 

(6) With the Indicative Future (infrequent), conveying emphasis, 

force .......... 353 

An apparent Indicative Present in Intentional Sentences . 353 

385. The Infinitive 354 

(a) Properly a Verbal Substantive 354 

(b) Negative Adverbs with the Infinitive 354 

(c) The Infinitive governs the same cases as the Verb . , 354 

386. Tenses of the Infinitive 354 

Present, Aorist, Future, Perfect . " . . . . 354 

387. Subject of the Infinitive {cova^axe%2S5) 355 

388. The Infinitive as )S'«&yec^substantivized) .... 355 

389. The Infiuitive as 0&;ec< 356 

(a) After Verbs denoting faculty, act, assertion, &c. . 356 
{&) To denote intention or result 356 

(1) After a Verb 356 

(2) After a Substantive 357 

(3) After an Adjective 357 

390. The Infinitive in oblique cases (as Lat., gerund) . . . 357 

(a) Genitive, with rod 357 

(1) After Substantives 357 

(2) After Verbs 357 

(3) To express design 357 

(6) Dative, with t$, to express cause .... 358 
(c) With Prepositions (tou, rtp, t6) . . . . 358 

Illustrations : 5io, els, iv, fieTd, irp6, irpSs, avrl . . 358 

391. Infinitive of resw^<, with fiSo-re (so Indicative) .... 359 
393. Infinitive as Imperative ........ 360 

393. The Participles 360 

Properly verbal Adjectives 360 

Negatives \^ath the Participles 360 

Subject of a Participle (Genitive Absolute) . . . 360 

394. Predicative uses of Participles 361 

1. After the Substantive Verb: " the resolved Tenses" . 361 

2. Complementary to the verbal Predicate . . . 362 

3. Adjuncts to the verbal Predicate .... 363 

(a) Modal 363 

(6) Temporal 363 

(1) Contemporaneous (Present Participle) . 364 

(2) Preceding (Aorist Participle) . . . 364 

(3) Succeeding (Future Participle) . . 364 
(c) Relatione of cause, condition, &c. . . . 364 








{cl) Intens'nie (Hebraistic) 364 

A Predicative Participle may be modified by iy . . . 366 
Attributive use of Participles ...... 365 

Fvpitbetic (like Adjectives) 365 

With tbe Article : like the Relative and a Finite Verb 365 
The Temporal reference sometimes lost . . . 366 
Usual force of the Present Tense .... 366 

Participles in broken constructions 367 

Anacolouthon (compare § 412) 367 





Their general use ....... 

Adverbial phrases ...... 

(a) A Substantive with or without Preposition 
(6) An Adjective ...... 

c) A Participle 

(d) The combination of two Verbs 
Adverbs as Prepositions (see § 133) 
Combinations of Adverbs 
The Necjative Adverhs, oh and ^1117. 

Combinations of Negatives . 
Comparison sometimes expressed as denial 



402. Rule for words connected by Conjunctions . 

403. Conjunctions OF Annexation : especially Kod, and 

Special uses of Kai ...... 

(a) For rhetorical emphasis .... 

(h) In the enumeration of particulars (with re) 

(c) Marking points of transition . 

(of) Explanatory : "/cal epexegetic" 

(e) As Also, Even 



Frequently in comparisons, and in the rising climax 374 

404. Conjunctions of Antithesis : especially aXKd, S4 ... 375 

1. dA.A.o, btit, marks -opposition, interruption, transition . 375 

(1) To throw emjjhasis on its clauses .... 375 

(2) In the Apodosis of a Conditional Sentence, yet . 375 

(3) After the interrogative, aW' ij, except . . . 376 

2, 5e, but, unemphatic adversative ..... 376 




^04. Often may be rendered, and, then, now, &c. 

KOI . . . 5e', yea . . . moreover . , 
Antithesis with /xev ...Se 
fxiv occasionally without Se (three cases) 

405. The Disjunctives: especially^, eJre . 

^ fiTOi .. ij, eiTc ... tire , 

^ Kai, or even ; ^ "interrogative" 

406. The Ixeekential Conjunctions : especially &pa, ovv 

Their distinction. Slighter meanings . 
Other Inferential Particles . 

407. The Causal Conjunctions : especially yap 

(a) Relative Conjunctions, as 8t«, because 
(6) The Demonstrative Causal yap, for 

Introduces a direct reason . 

Or the reason of some fact implied 

(c) Sometimes refers to a suggested thought 

(d) The combination /cal yap, its two senses 

408. Asyndeton : or the omission of Conjunctions 

(a) Of the Copulative .... 
(6) Of Ka\, Epexegetic .... 
(c) Of the Antithetic .... 
{d) Of the Causal Particle . 


, 376 
, 377 
, 377 
. 377 
, 377 
, 377 
, 378 
. 378 
. 378 
, 379 
. 379 
. 379 
. 379 
. 379 
. 379 
. 380 
. 380 
, 381 
. 381 
. 381 
. 381 
. 381 



409. The Arrangement of Words 382 

(a) General rules ......... 382 

{b, c) Emphasis gained by variety of arrangement . . 382 

410. Special forms of Ellipsis 383 

1. Aposiopesis . . ....... 383 

2. Zeugma 383 

3. Inaniticial collocation of Clauses ..... 383 

411. Apparent Uedundancy 384 

(«) For special emphasis ; frequently ; in three ways . . 384 

(b) Object and Object-sentence (see § 382) .... 384 

412. Anacolouthon 384 

(Not to be hastily assumed) 384 

(a) Transition from indirect to direct speech . . . 385 

(b) Transition trom a Participle to a Finite Verb . . 385 

(c) Nominative Participles standing alone (see § 397) . . 385 
{d) A sudden change of structure ..... 385 




412. (e) The non-completion of a Compound Sentence 

413. Attention to Sound and Ehythm . 




Paronomasia ....... 

Simple alliteration ..... 

Alliteration associated with kindred meanings 
(h) Parallelisms, after the manner of Hebrew 

Christian hymns ..... 

Rhythmic constructions in passages of strong emotion 387 

"Chiasmus" 387 

(c) (1) Quotations of Greek poetry in the New Testament . 388 
(2) Metrical lines apparently unconsciously introduced . 388 

Analytical Exercise on 2 Thess 389 

On some New Testament Synonyms 403 

Introductory Remarks 403 

List of Words illustrated 405 

I. Verbs in ordinary use ........ 408 

II. Words chiefly expressive of moral quality .... 412 

III. Theological and Ecclesiastical words 415 

IV. Miscellaneous .419 




1. The Greek Alphabet contains 
arranged and named as follows : — 

twenty-four letters, 




Somid. Nmnerical value 








/3 01 






y sometimes J" 

g Giard) 










e (short) 











e Gong) 



6 or 







































TT sometimes ro" 





p or 






O" final s 





r sometimes 7 
















Ch (guttural) 












2 notes on the alphabet — the vowels. [§ 2. 

2. Notes on the Alphabet. 

a. The word Alphabet is derived from the names of the first 
two letters, alpha, beta. The forms of the Greek letters, which, it 
will be seen, greatly resemble those of our own language (the 
Roman letter), are originally modified from the Phoenician. 

h. The second forms of certain letters are used interchangeably 
with the first, but less frequently. Those of gamma and tau are 
almost obsolete. The final s, besides being always employed at the 
end of words, is often used in the middle of compound terms when 
a part of the compound ends with sigma. Thus, 7rpos(pepai. 

c. For an explanation of the numeral use of letters, and espe- 
cially of omissions in the list, see § 48. 

3. The Vowels. 

The vowels are a, e, rj, i, o, v, a>. 

a. In this countiy they are generally pronounced according to 
the English sounds. The Continental pronunciation of a, i], i, is 
undoubtedly the more strictly correct ; but the matter is of little 
practical importance. Absolute conformity to the ancient mode is 
unattainable, and it is most convenient to adopt the method of 
pronunciation current among scholars of our own country. 

H and w are long vowels. Care must be taken to distinguish 
them from the short c and o. Thus, [lev is pronounced like the 
English men ; fxtju, like mean. In top, the o is pronounced as in 
on ; in twv, as in own; a, i, v, may be either long or short. 

b. The diphthongs are at, av, ei, ev, oi, ov, pronounced as in Eng- 
lish ; also a, Tj, a (or, with capitals. At, Hi, i2i), where the i occurs 
with a long vowel, and is not 2}'>'onounced, being, therefore, written 
underneath the vowel (excepting in the case of capitals), and 
called iota subscript. It will be important to note this in the 
declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs. 

Hf is pronounced like ev, eu ; and vi like wi. 

§3, c] THE VOWELS. 3 

c. Every vowel, when standing as the fii'st letter of a word, has 
what is called a breathing over it, written as an apostrophe, either 
turned outwards, as (') or inwards, as ('). The former is termed 
the soft breathing, and shows that the vowel is simply to have its 
own sound ; the latter the hard, and is equivalent to the English 
h aspirated. To note the latter is most necessary for correct pro- 
nunciation. Thus o, rj must be pronounced ho, he. 

The initial v is always aspirated. So vrrfp, huper. 

d. At the beginning of a word, the consonant (or semivowel) p 
always takes the aspirate, becoming rh. When two p's come toge- 
ther in the middle of a word, the aspii'ate and soft breathing are 
successively employed. Thus pe<x>, rhed ; dpprjros, arrhetos. When 
a word begins with a diphthong, the breathing is placed upon the 
second letter : avTov, auton ; avrov, hauton. 

e. In the lengthening of vowels for purposes of inflection or 
derivation, a becomes d, or more generally tj ; c becomes i], or €i ; 
I, V, become respectively i, v ; o becomes w, or ov. 

f. Two vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, occurring together 
in different syllables are often contracted into one, according to the 
following Table : — 

followed by ... a e ?/ o co at et rj ot o) ov 

a becomes aaacocoaaawwoj 

e „ a or 7j et 7] oi; -co ?/ ei t/ ot m ov 

,, fa) ov CO ou CO <j) ot* ot ot fa) ov 

The left perpendicular line in this table gives the former vowel 
in each combination, the upper horizontal line tlie latter, and the 
result of the contraction will easily be found. Thus eo gives ov ; ae, 
long a ; and so of the rest. It must be noted that where the letter (T 
occurs in iutlection between two short vowels, it is generally dropped, 
and contraction takes place according to the table. 

* Or ou, when the ei is the contraction of ee, as in the infinitive of verba 
contract in o. 


It ■will be observed by inspection of the table that an o soitnd 
always preponderates in contraction with the other vowels ; that an 
a sound, when first, prevails over an e sound following it, and vice versd. 
Some special and exceptional methods of contraction will be found 
noticed in Etymology. 

Exercise 1.— Vowel Contractions. 

Write tlie contracted forms of rtjuaco, niiaeis, nuaei, Tifiaonev, 
Tijiaere, ^tXeo), (piXeeis, CJiiXeei, (j^ikfofxev, cfjiXeere, StjXoco, drjXoeis, 8t]\ofi, 
S-qXoonev, BrjXoere, (j)i\fr]s, Ti[iaoi, drjXorjTe, voos, voov, yeveos, ai8oa, opea, 
/SacrtXees, /uet^oa. 

g. Diaeresis is tlie opposite of contraction, and is expressed by- 
two dots ( " ) over the second of two vowels whicli are to be sepa- 
rately pronounced. Thus Ka'ivav, CaA-nan, not Cai-nan. 

h. Hiatus, and the ways of avoiding it. — The hiatus {i.e. yawning) 
caused by the meeting of vowels at the end of one word and the 
beginning of the next is often prevented by one or other of the 
following ways : — 

1. The vv e(j)e\KV(rTiK6v, ov nu-suffixed. This v is added to datives 
plural ending in i, and to the third persons of verbs ending in « or i, 
when the following word begins with a vowel, or at the end of a 
sentence. These words will be marked in declension and conju- 
gation by a bracketed {y) ; thus, alaxri (v), inia-reva-e {v). In a similar 
manner, ovrm, fifxP'-' ^^^ "xpt, as a rule add s when followed by a 
vowel. In the last two words, however, the New Testament text 
is not by any means uniform ; and on all three the best MSS. 
greatly differ. 

The negative ov becomes ovk when the next word begins with 
a vowel,* and the preposition e'/c becomes e^. 

2. Elision marked hy an apostrophe. — The following words lose 
their final vowel before an initial vowel in the next word ; the 

* Compare § 4 c?, 6. 


prepositions urro, Bid, enl, Trapd, nerd, and the conjunction dWd ; with 
(occasionally) the particle de and its negative compound ovde ; also 
(before S)v) the preposition avrl. "When the initial vowel is aspi- 
rated, IT, T, become <j), 6 (see § 4, b). Thus, d-n-o avrav becomes ott 

avTa>v, and tiTTo eavTojV, «<^' eavTcov ', SO for ^era dWrfKav, jj-eT dWrjXav, 
but for [XfTci Tjfxuiv, fled rjjxaiv ', and for dvrl wv, dvd' hv. 

This elision was, in classical Greek poets, used much more fre- 
quently in words ending in a, e, t, o ; and hence, in one passage of 
the New Testament, in a poetical quotation, the adjective xpw^^ 
suffers this elision (1 Cor. xv. 33), XPW^' SfiiKlai. 

3. Crasis. — An hiatus is sometimes prevented by a Crasis (lit. a 
" mixing "), or the xmion of the two words ; the vowels forming 
a long vowel, or diphthong. This takes place but rarely, and only 
when the former word is very short and closely connected with the 
latter. The breathing of the vowel in the second word is retained, 
to mark the fusion, and is then called a Goronis. Thus, for ra 
avrd, the same things, ralrd is sometimes written ; for koI eyw, and I, 
Kaya ; for to ivavTiov, the contrary, Tovvavrlov ; and once for t6 ovofia, 
the name, rovvona (Matt, xxvii. 57). 

4. The Consonants. 

a. As in the orthography of other languages, the four con- 
sonants, X, /i, V, p, are termed liquids ; the nine consonants, ^, y, 8, 
T, K, T, cf), X, d, are mutes. 

h. The mutes may be evidently arranged according to the organs 
of speech specially concerned in their formation. 

Thus, TTj /S, 0, are labials (p-sounds) ; 

Kj Vj V, are gutturals (A;-sounds) ; 

r, 5j 6 J are dentals (^-sounds). 
Each of these divisions has, it is also plain, a sharp, flat, and 
aspirate consonant. Hence the highly important classification of 
the following Table : — 







Labials . . 
Gutturals . 
Dentals . 








The o-uttural 7 is pronounced, before a /t-souud or |, like the 
nasal ng. Thus, ayyikos, ang-gelos (the second 7, as always, being 
hard) ; dyKvpa, ang-kura. 

c. S is the simple sibilant, which, in composition with a ^-sound, 
oives ylr - ira-, po-, or <t>o- ; in composition with a Ar-sound gives 
^=:K<r, 70-, ya-; in composition with 8 gives ^=8op; these three, 
C ^' X» t»«iiig double letters. 

d. The following eight rules must be carefully observed, as they 
relate to the changes which are imposed by the necessities of 
orthography on the conjugation and declension of words, and 
will explain much hereafter that would otherwise be found very 

1. As above, a labial followed by a becomes \\/ ; a guttural followed 
by (T becomes |. 

2. A labial or guttural before a dental must be of the same order, 
i.e. must be changed, if not already so, into a sharp, flat, or aspirate, 
according to the nature of the dental. 

3. A dental, followed by o", disajjpears. 

4. Before the letter [jl, a labial becomes n ; a guttural becomes 7 ; a 
dental becomes <i. 

5. The letter v becomes fi before labials ; 7 before gidturals ; before 
a liquid is changed into the same liquid ; and before o- or J* is dropped. 

The combination of v with a dental and the sibilant, as vra, becomes 
simply a, with compensation by the lengthenmg of the preceding vowel; 
6 becoming ei, and 0, ov. Thus, 

yiyavTcrt becomes yiya^i ; 

eK/xivdci , , ehixlffi ; 

TVipdivrai ,, Tv<pQ(i<n ; 

TVTTTovrai M rv-nrovari. 


6. A sharp mute before aa aspirated vowel is changed into the cor- 
responding aspirate. Sometimes this change will take place when the 
mute occurs at the end of one word, and the vowel at the beginning 
of the next. Thus, acp' aiv for an iiu ; ohx 6paa> for ovk dpaw. 

7. When two consecutive syllables of the same word begin with an 
aspirate, the former often loses its as^nration. Thus, dpixos is changed 
into rpixos ; and exc into ex*. But affixes generally lose their a3j)i- 
ration in preference to the stem, whether they are placed first or last ; 
as Ti-Be-ri, for 6i-6e-6i, where the last syllable is a mere adjunct to the 

8. No consonant can end a Greek word, except v, p, cr, ^, \p; the last two 
being compounds of s. The preposition ?'« before a consonant, and the 
negative adverb ovk before a vowel, are apparent exceptions ; but, having 
no accent, they may be counted as parts of the following words. 

Exercise 2.— On the Combination of Consonants. 

Eule 1. Write down the propei' forms of ypacpaei, vnTraa, Xeycrov, 
(Xcrcj, (TTpe(})(T€is, Tpi^aofxev, Xeycras, Trepncrop. 

Z. Oi netdcroi, eXTTtScreis, aSaoiTfs, dvvr(Tfi. 

3. Of Terpi^TM, yeypa(pTai, XeXtyrai, ^fl3pe)(Tai, erpilBdr]!/, nXeKdrjvai, 
Xeydrji/ai, inep.Tt6r]v. 

4. Of Terpi/3/iai, yeypa^/iat, ^e^pexpai, Treireidpai, rjvvTpai, TrfnXfKpai. 

5. Of TravTToXvs, (Tvv(prjpi, avvyvcopr], crvvxaipui, (rvv^vyos., avvcTTpa 
TicoTTjs '} also of navTS, Xvovrai, Xvdevraiv. 

5. Changes of Consonants. 

Some other changes of consonants may be noticed, though they 
do not so invariably conlorm to general rules as the preceding. 

1. Assimilation. — The labials v, p, 4> before jji, and v before the 
other liquids, are regularly assimilated to the following letters; 
i. e. changed into the same letter (see ^ i d, 5). Sometimes a 
latter consonant is assimilated to a former one; as, oXXvpi lor 


2. Duplication. The letter p is regularly doubled when a vowel 
is placed before it. Thus, drro-pinTa becomes aTToppmra. 



Sometimes X is doubled, to compensate for the loss of a vowel ; 
as, fia.T^'Kov for ixaXiov, dyyeXXo) for ayye\e(o. In Comparatives and in 
veibs, 0-0- or tt is sometimes put for a guttural k, 7, x, with a fol- 
lowing vowel ; as, rja-crov for fjKiov, Tapda-a-a for rapax^eco. In some 
words, I appears instead of o-o- : as pel^wv for fieyiwv. 

3. Transposition. — A vowel with a liquid is often transposed ; 

aSj 6i/r](TKai for Bav-a-KO). 

4. Omission. — Any consonants which make a harsh sound may- 
be omitted in the formation or inflexion of words. 

5. Insertion. — Sometimes, though rarely, a consonant is inserted 
to assist the sound ; as, from dvfip, gen. {avepos, dv-pos) dvSp6s ; so 
avBpaiTos is from dvnp o}\j/, making ai>-po7ros, and, with 8 inserted, 


6. The Accents. 

a. Every Greek word, except the proclitics and enclitics, 
which will be noticed under their respective parts of speech, has 
an accent expressed on one of its last three syllables. The accents 
are used in writing, but mostly disregarded in pronunciation. Their 
use was to mark a certain stress (or "rising" or "falling" inflexion) 
on the syllables where they are placed. It is said that they were 
invented by Greek grammarians, as a guide to foreigners in jaro- 
nouncing the language. Some linguists of our own day have 
endeavoured to reinstate them as helps in this respect, but without 
much success. 

b. The accents are the acute ('), the gi-ave ('), and the cir- 
cumflex ( " ). 

The accent is marked upon a vowel, and in diphthongs upon 
the latter vowel ; as avros, ovtojs. The acute and grave are placed 
after the breathing, and the circumflex over it ; as 6s, ovtos. 
The acute on the last syllable becomes grave, unless the word ends 
a sentence ; except rls the interrogative, which always keeps its 
acute. Every unaccented syllable is said to have the grave tone ; 

§ G, 6.] THE ACCENTS. 9 

but the grave accent is not marked, except where it stauds for 
a final acute. 

c. Words are called, with reference to accent — Oxytone (lit. sharp- 
toned), when the acute is on the last syllable, as tkirls ; Paroxytone, 
when the acute is on the penultiraa (last but one), as oZtcos ; Pro- 
paroxytone, when the acute is on the antepenultiina (last but two), 
as (f)L\ios ; Perispomeno7i (lit. drawn-out), when the circumflex is 
on the last syllable, as avrov ; Properisj^O'menon, when the circum- 
flex is on the penultima, as ovtos. The circumflex cannot be 
farther back than the penultima. 

If the last syllable of the word contains a long vowel, the acute 
accent must be on the last or last but one, the circumflex only on 
the last. Should, thei-efore, the final syllable of a proparoxytone 
be lengthened by declension, the accent is thrown forward, i. e. the 
word becomes paroxytone. Thus, avOpwrros, avBpioTvav. But if the 
final syllable of a properispomenon is lengthened, the accent is 
changed to the acute, i.e. the word becomes paroxytone. Thus, 
Xt/3eprtfos, Xi^eprivcov. 

It should be observed that the circumflex accent is always the 
result of contraction, i.e. of an acute and grave ( ' ^ ) — not of a grave 
and acute ( ^' ) — as will be shown under Etymology. 

d. Enclitics are words which merge their accent into the word 
immediately preceding, which are affected as follows : — A pro- 
paroxytone or properispomenon takes an acute accent on the last 
syllable also. Thus, av6pa>T:6s ns, oIkos ns. An oxytone that would 
otherwise (see above) take the grave accent retains the acute. Thus, 
padT]Tr]s ris. Paroxytones and perispomena show no alteration. 

e. Proclitics lose their accent in the words following. In an 
emphatic position, a proclitic becomes oxytone. Thus ov with a 
verb is not ; ov alone, no ! A proclitic followed by an enclitic is 
also oxytoned, as ov ns. The two may be written as one word. 

Special rules of accentuation will be given under the sections of 
Etymology. The learner is recommended to accentuate from the fiist, 
in writing Greek ; especially as the accent of very many words can only 
be known by acquaintance with the words themselves, and if neglected 
at first, will be extremely difficult to acquire afterwards. 

10 orthography, greek and english. [§ 7. 

7. On the Transference of Greek Words into English. 

Most proper names, and some few other words, are literally 
transcribed from tbe one language into the othei*. The medium of 
transference is almost always the Latin, and therefore the oi'tho- 
graphy conforms to Latin rules. For the most part, the Greek 
letters are represented by the equivalents given (§ 1). The fol- 
lowing exceptions must, however, be noted : — 

K is always c, the letter ^ not being found in the usual Roman 
alphabet. AVhere the c would be soft in ordinary English pro- 
nunciation, it is generally so in Greek names, as KvprjvT], Gyrene. 
In some words of infrequent use, good speakers sometimes deviate 
from this rule, saying, e.g. A^-eldama, not Aseldama. 
The vowel v is represented by y, as Supi'a, Syria. 
The diphthong ai becomes ce, as Kaio-ap, Coisar. Occasionally, 
the diphthong is made simply e ; so, Aiyu7rr(oy), Egypt; TpxxpaLva, 

The diphthong oi becomes ce, as ^oi^rj, Phoebe; sometimes, as 
above, only e : thus, ^oivUr], Phenice. 

The diphthong £i becomes e or I, as AaotiKfia, Laodicea ; Qvdreipa, 
Thyatira : sometimes (in practice) t, as SfAevKfia, Seleucia. But 
the i ought really to be long, or long e ; so Attalia. 

The diphthong ov appears as u, as Aovkcls, Luke; or, before a 
vowel, as v, as, likovavos, Silvanus. 

The initial I before a vowel becomes J, as lovbas, Judas. 
The initial P, always aspirated in Greek (§ 3, c/), is generally 
without the aspirate in English. Thus, 'Pa/3/3t, Rabbi. But 'Prjyiov, 
llhegium ; '?6^rj, Rhoda ; and 'Pofioj, Rhodes, are exceptions, being 
original Greek words. 

Changes iu the terminations of these transferred words belong to 
Etymology. No rule can be given but usage why some should have 
their endings changed, while others are exactly transcribed. Occa- 
sionally, the same word appears in two forms. Thus, Marcus and 
Mark, Lucas and Luke. The learner is recommended to read carefully 
parts of the New Testament where many proper names occur, comparing 
the English with the Greek. No better portion for the purpose could 
be found than Komans xvi. 

^ 8.] punctuation — reading lessons. 11 

8. Punctuation. 

Four marks of punctuation are used for the division of sentences j 
the comma, the colon, the period, and the note of interrogation. 
The comma ( , ) and the period ( . ) are like our own. 

In modern typography, it is very usual not to begin new sentences 
with capital letters ; reserving these for jjroper names, for the com- 
mencement of quotations, and for the beginning of paragraphs. 

The colon (sometimes called semicolon) is expressed by a point 
above the line, thus ( • ). 

Interrogation is marked by a sign, after the question, resembling 
our semicolon ( ; ). 

Inverted commas, as marks of quotation, are sometimes, though 
rarely, employed in printed Greek. 

The Greek equivalent for &c., et ccetera, is in the initials k. t. X , 
fur Kai ra Xonra, and the rest. 

The following sentence exhibits the different marks of punctu- 
ation (John ix. 40) : — 

Kai eiTTOv avTu, Mr] Koi fjiie'is TU0Xot eafiev ; eiTrev avTois 6 'irjaovs, Ei 
TvcpiXol rJTe ovK av e'tx^^ afiapriav' vvv fie Xeyere, "Ort /3XeVo/xey. rj ovv 
ajiapTLa vfiiov fiej/ei. 


I. Acts ii. 1-13. 

Write the following in Roman letters, carefully inserting the 
initial aspirate whei'ever it occurs, and discriminating between the 
long and the short o and e, as in Lesson III below : — 

Kai €V Tw crv{XTT\r]povcr9ai. ttjv* ijixepav rfjs Yl€VTi]KO(rn]s, 

2 Tjcrav airavT^s ojxodvixahov evrt to ai/ro'.f Kat iyivero a(j)Po) eK 
Tov ovpavov r))(^os ojcnrep (pepofievqs iri'orjs ^lalas, koX k~Kri- 

3 pco(T€V okov TOV oIkov ov rjcrav Kadrjix€.voi. koX &(p6i]aav 
avTois Staw.epi^o'/xei'at yXu>aaai oicrel TTvpbs, eKadiaeX Te i(f)* 

* According to what rule is the accent on the final syllable made (jrave 1 
t Why does this accent remain acute ? 
% "Why has this word two accents ? 

12 READING LESSONS. [§§ 1-8. 

4 eva eKacrrov avT<av, koI €7Tki](r6rjcrav airavres Ylvevixaros 
AyCov, Kol ijp^avTO XaKeiv erepats yXcocrarais, KaOths to 

5 Tlvevfjia iblbov avrots airofpO^yyea-daL. '^H.crav he ev 'fe- 
povaaki^jx KaToiKovvres 'louSatot avbpes €v\a(3ei<: cnro itav- 

6 To^ e6povs T&v VTTO TOP ovpavov. Tevop.evr]s 8e r?]? (pcavrjs 
ravTris, avvfjKde to ttXtjOos kol (rvvexvdrj ' otl ijnovov els 

7 eKacTTOs Tj] tSta SmAeKrw \a\ovvTcov avrStv. 'E^tWayro 8e 
iravres Kal e6avp.a(pv, XeyovTes irpos akk7]\ov<i, Ovk Ibov 

8 TTCivTes ovToi* elcnv o{ KakovvTes Takikaloi ; Kal ttQs rj/uels 
CLKovoixev eKacTTOs tjj Ihia biakeKTio i]p.Siv ev i] eyevvi]9i]p.ev, 

9 ndpOoi Kol Mi]boL Kol 'EA-a/itrat, Kal ol KaToiKovvres ti]v 
MecroTtOTapiLav, ^iovbatav re Kal KaimaboKLav, IIovtov Kal 

10 ttjv 'AaCav, ^pvyiav re Kal YIap.(fivk[av, AlyvnTov, Kal to, 
p.eprj TTji Ai[3vr]s Tijs KaTo. Kvpiprjv, Kal ol eTnbrjpiovi'Tes 

11 Fcop.a'ioL, ^lovba'ioL* re Kal ■npocn'jkvToi, KpTyre? Kal "ApajBes, 
aKovop.ev kakovvTU)V avT&v rats rjpieTepais ykcoaaaLs Th [xe- 

12 yake'ia tov Qeov ; 'E^tWaz^ro 8e Tiavres Kal birjiTopovVf 
akkos TTpbs akkov keyovTes, Tt av 6ekot tovto elvai ; eTepoL 

13 8e xkeva^ovTes ekeyov, "Otl ykevKovs /lie/xecrrcojue'i'ot elcrt. 

II. Eo:.iANS iv. 1-16. 

Read tlie following, carefully attending to the ptmctuation, 
wliich in this passage is marked with unusual decisiveness : — 

Tt ovv epovp.ev ^ Ajipaap. tov iraTepa r/jU.oSi' evpr]Kevai KaTa 

2 (xapKa ; el yap AlSpaafi e£ epyu>v eOLKauoOrj, e)(eL KaH^JJixa, 

3 dAA.' ov TTpbs TOV Qeov. Tt yap i) ypa(jii] keyet', ''ETTt- 
' (TTevae be AjSpaap, rw 0ec5, /cat ekoyiaQq avT<^ et9 liKaio- 

4 ' avvi]vJ Tw be epya^op.ev(o 6 fxta-Obs ov koyi^eTai KaTa 

5 yapiv, akka KaTa to d(^etA?;/^a* rw be jxr] epyaCop.ev(^, 
TTLaTtvovTL be em tov btKaCovvTa tov aaeliij, koyl^eTai i) 

6 TTtcrrts avTov els biKaioa-vvrjV. KaOdirep Kal AajSlb keyei 
TOV p.aKapL(T\iov tcv dvOpooTTOv, w 6 &ebs koyi^eTai biKaio- 

* Why has this word two accents ? 

§§ 1-8.] READING LESSONS. 13 

7 (Jvin]v X'*^P'5 epy(i)V, ' MaKapioi S>v acpiOrjcrav al dro/xt'at, 

8 ' Koi S)V €TTeKa\v<pdr]aav al aixapriai.. Ma/captos avqp (Z ov 

9 ' pi] XoyCarjTat Kvpios ap-apriav^ 'O p.aKapi(Tp6s ovv ovtos, 
iirl Tr]v TT£pLTop.i]v, i] Kol 6771 TTjv aKpofivaTiav ; klyop^v 
yap OTL ekoytaOi] rcS ^ Aj3paap. ?/ Trtcrns ets hiKaiocrviniv. 

10 TTco? ovv eXoytaOr] ; iv TiepLTopfj ovtl, rj iv aKpo(3v(TT[a ; 

11 ovK eu irepLTop-rj, akX kv aKpojivcTTia' Kal ar^pelov ekajBe 
TT€ptTopi]s, (Tippaylba rijs biKaLoavvns tt/s TTiVrecos r^s iv 
Tij aKpofivaTia' els to elvaL avrbv irarepa Travrcov tQv 
TTiaTevovTOiV hi aKpo(3vaTLas, els rb XoyiaOijvaL Kal avTols 

12 Ti]v biKaioavvqv' Kal irarepa TtepLToprjs rots ovk e/c Trept- 
Toprjs p.6vov, aXXa Kal to'is orot^oScrt rots 'ix^vecn ti]s ev 

13 TTj aKpofivcTTia TTLaTecos Tov TTarpos i]pS>v 'A/3paa/x. Ov yap 
biCL vopov 7] eirayyeXia t<2 A^paap ?; rw aireppart avrov, 
TO KXripovopov avTov elvai tov KocrpLOV, aXXa bia hiKaiocrvvrjs 

14 TTicrreco?. Et yap ol e;< v6p.ov KX-i]pov6poi, KeKevcoTat i) 

15 TiicTTis, KOL KaTripyr]Tai i] enayyeXia' 6 yap vopos 6pyi]V 
KaTepydCiTat.' ov yap ovk €(ttl vopos, ovhe TrapajSacrts. Am 

16 tovto Ik Titcrrecos, tva KaTa yapiv. 

The quotation-marks (inverted commas) introduced in verses 3, 7, 8, 
are used, as is the practice in some editions of the Greek Testament, to 
indicate a citation from the ancient Scriptures. 

III. Matthew v. 1-16. 

Write the following in Greek characters, punctuating the sen- 
tences, inserting the soft and aspirate " breathings" but not 
attempting accentuation. The usual marks ( ~ ) and ( "^ ) discri- 
minate the long and the short vowels. In the diphthongs, the 
short and e are to be used. Where an iota is to be subscribed, 
the vowel is italicised ; thus, o = «. 

1 Idon d6 tons ochlous, angbe eis t5 SrSs ; kai kathisantSs 

2 autou, proselthCn auto 3ioi mathetai autou ; kai anoixas 

3 t3 stSma hautou, gdidaskgn autous, legon, Makarioi hoi pto- 


4 choi to pneumati ; liSti auton gstin he basileJa ton ouranon. 

5 Makarioi hoi pSnthountes ; h5ti autoi paraklethesontai 
Makarioi hoi praeis ; hoti autoi klerSnomesoiisi ten gen. 

6 Makarioi hoi peinontes kai dipsontSs ten dikaiosunen ; huti 

7 autoi chortasthesQntai. Makarioi hoi elSemonSs ; hoti autoi 

8 glSethesontai. Makarioi hoi katharoi te kardia : hSti autoi ton 

9 Theon ops5ntai. Makarioi hoi eirenopoioi ; h5ti autoi huioi 

10 Theoii klethesontai. Makarioi hoi dediogmgnoi hengken dikai- 

11 osunes ; hoti auton gstin he basileia ton ouranon. Makarioi 
Sstjg, hotan oneidisosin humas kai dioxosi, kai ei2:)osi pan 
poneron rhenia kath' huiuon pseudomenoi, hgneken 6mou. 

12 ChairgtS kai agalliasthS, hSti h5 misthos humon polus en tois 
ouranois ; houto gar edioxan tons prophetas tons prS hunion. 

13 Humeis estS tS halas tes ges ; ean dg t5 halas moranthe, en 
tini halisthesetai 1 eis outlgn ischuei gti, ei me blethenai gxo, 

14 kai katapateisthai hupS ton anthropon. Humeis gste tQ phos 
tou kSsmou ; ou dunatai p5lis krubenai gpano orous keimgne ; 

15 oudg kaiousi luchnQn kai tithgasin aut5n hupS ton mSdion, a,!!' 

16 gpi ten luchnian, kai lampei pasi tois en te oikia. Houto 
larapsato t5 phos humon gmprosthen ton anthropon, hopos 
idosin humon ta kala grga, kai doxasosi ton Patgra humon ton 
gn tois ouranois. 

The Greek Testament will furnish many other exercises, which 
should be repeated until the learner can read the language with 
])erfect facility. A little care and time now devoted to this point, 
even before the meaning of a single word is understood, will very 
greatly contribute to future progi-ess. 


PART 11. 


9. Etymology treats of the classification, the derivation, 
and the inflection of words. 

a. The parts of speech in Greek, and in all other languages, are 
substantially the same. 

h. More important than any others are the Noun and the Verb. 
These, as the necessaiy elements of a sentence, will first be treated 
of, in their various inflections. With the Noun are closely con- 
nected the Article^ Adjective, and Pronoun. The Verb also has its 
noun, the Infinitive, and its adjective, the Participle. Of these 
two the latter only is inflected. 

10. The elementary part of every word is called its stem, 
as every inflection presupjjoses it, and branches from it. 

The Root of a word is its yet simpler element in the same or 
another language. With this, practical grammar has comparatively 
little to do ; but to know the stem is of the utmost importance in 
the analysis of any word. Throvighout the etymology the stem will 
be marked by thick letters., with a hyphen indicating the (general) 
incompleteness of the stem until some letter or syllable be added 
by way of inflection. 

The last letter of a stem is called the stem-ending. If the letter 
is a vowel, the stem is called " vowel," or pure. So a stem ending 
with a liquid is called a liquid stem ; ending with a mute, a mute 
stem. Liquid and mute stems are sometimes called impure. 



11, Nouns have three genders, Masculine, Femhiine, and 
Neuter; also three numbers, Singular, Dual, and Plural. 
The dual number denotes two, or a pair of anything ; but as 
it is not found in the Greek Testament, it will not be noticed 
in the forms of declension given. 

There are five cases : the Nominative, or case of the 
Sabject ; the Genitive, or Possessive ; the Dative, or Con- 
junctive ; the Accusative, or Ohiectiye; the Fbcfl //re, employed 
in direct address. 

Strictly speaking, the Nominative and Vocative are not cases : 
the word imj^ying dependence. Of the three true cases, often 
called oblique,* the Genitive originally signifies motion from, then, 
more generally, separation; the Dative, rest in, hence conjunction 
with ; the Accusative, motion towards, hence denoting simply the 
object of the transitive verb. This general description of the 
three cases, for the further illustration of which see Syntax, will 
explain most of their uses. 

In the paradigms of Nouns Substantive, a convenient English ren- 
dering of the Genitive is by the preposition of, and of the Dative by to. 
It must, however, be remembered that these words are used for the 
sake of distinction merely, and not as intimating that such are the most 
correct or usual renderings. 

12. Before proceeding to the inflection of Nouns, it will be 
convenient to give the Definite Article in its numbers, genders, 
and cases. This must be thoroughly committed to memory. 

There is no indefinite article in Greek, the nearest equivalent 
being the Indefinite pronoun tls, an^/.f This is also subjoined, chiefly 
for the reason that the two words together furnish a model, nearly 
complete, of the declension of all substantives and adjectives. 

* Oblique, or slanting, from the habit among old grammarians of 
expressing the forms of the nonn by a diagram, the nominative being an 
upright stem, from which the cases branched at different angles. 

t Or the numeral ets, one, as iruiSdowr eV, a lad (John vi. 9). 




Definite Article, 



m. n. 

TO-, fera. 





































Accentuation.— T\\Q nominative, masculine canci feminine, singular and 
plural, is proclitic ; the genitive and dative of both numbers are perispo- 
menon ; the rest oxytone. 

13. Indefinite Pronoun : any, a certain, a. Stem, tlv - 



M. and 



M, and F. 






















Accentuation. — The -word is generally enclitic, as here given; the 
accent being regarded as transferred to the previous word (§ 5, d). 
When accented, the forms are oxytone, except the genitive plural, which 
is ])erispomeno7i. Thus, riv6s, nai, nviUv. 

14. A comparison of tlie two forms now given will show 
four particulars, applicable to all nouns, adjectives, and pro- 
nouns ; and, therefore, at the outset, important to remember. 

a. Neuters have but one form in each number for the nomina- 
tive and accusative. Perhaps this might have arisen from things 
without life being regarded as objects only. Neuters plui-al, 
nominative and accusative, always end in a (short), except when 
contracted, as Teixq for reixea (Heb. xi. 30). 

b. The dative singular always ends in t ; though, where the 
letter preceding is a long vowel, the iota is subscript. 

G. The genitive plural always ends in «v. 

d. Masculine and neuter forms are always alike in the genitive 
and dative. 


15. Gender of Substantives. General Rules, 

Many names of inanimate objects ai-e of the masculine or femi- 
nine o-ender. This fact, no doubt, arose from the habit of personi- 
fication, common in early ages. The English, indeed, is the only 
creat lancuase in which viasculine and fendnine, with almost 
undeviating strictness, denote male and female. The French 
idiom, in the opposite extreme, entirely rejects the neuter. 

Considerable difiiculty, therefore, is felt by beginners in deter- 
minino' the gender of many nouns. In some cases, it will be neces- 
sary to consult the Lexicon ; in others, the termination of the 
word will be a guide, as is shown under the several declensions. 

The following rules, however, are of general application : — 

a. The names of males are Masculine* ; so of rivers and ivinds, 
which were regarded by the early Greeks as gods. 

b. The names of females are Feminine*; so also of trees, 
countries, islands, most towns, and abstract terms. 

c. Diminutives in -ov are Neuter, even though the names of 
persons. To the class of neuters also belongs the verbal substan- 
tive, or infinitive verb, with i7ideclinable nouns generally. 

16. Declension of ISTouns Substantive. 

There are three leading types of inflection, under one or other 
of which all declinable nouns may be classified. These are called 
the Three Declensions, and, as has been stated, the model of each 
may be traced in the Article and the Indefinite Pronoun. 

The First Declension corresponds with the feminine of the 
article, 17. The Second Declension corresponds with the masculine 
or neuter of the article, 6, to. The Third Declension corresponds 
with the form of the indefinite pronoun, tIs, tL 

A model of each declension is here given. 

* The generic names of animals are sometimes common, i.e., of either masc. 
or f em. gender, according to circumstances (so also vois, child); more fre- 
quently epiccene, i.e., of one gender, used indifferently for both sexes. Th'is 
in Greek, wolf is always masc, /occ always fem., even in Luke xiiL 32. 




First Declension. 
Trvkri, a gate. Stem, TTvXa- 


N. TTvXri, a gate {siibj.) 
G. TTvkris, of a gate 
TTvX-)], to a gate 
Tiv\i)v, a gate {obj.) 
7Tv\i], gate ! 


Tivkai, gates {si(hj) 
T!vXG>v, of gates 
TtvXais, to gates 
TivkaSf gates {obJ.) 
Tivkai, gates ! 

Second Declension. 
av6p(OTros, a man. Stem, avOpcoiro- 




avOpcoTTos, a man (subj.) 
avdpcaiTov, of a man 
av9p(a7T(jc>, to a man 
avOpooTTov, a man (obj.) 
avdpu)TT€, man ! 


avOpwTTot, men (subj.) 
avOpuiTiaiv, of men 
avdpoiTtoL's, to men 
av6pu)TTovs, men (o^'.) 
avOpdnroi, men ! 

Accentuation. — The reason why the place of the accent varies in the 
genitive and dative is explained, § 6, c. 

Third Declension. 

-nais, a child, boy, servant. Stem, TraiS- 
(Accent of this word irregular. ) 



Trats, a child (subJ.) 
TTaibos, of a child 
■naihi, to a child 
-nalha, a child {obj.) 
■nal, child ! 


Tralhes, children (siibJ.) 
iraibcov, of children 
TTOiat, to children 
TTulbas, children (obj.) 
■na'ibes, children ! 

These three paradigms having been committed to memoiy, th<! 
several declensious, with their rules of foi'matioii, their analogies 
and variations, may now be more particularly discussed. 

A certain likeness will, on examination, be detected between 
the First and Second, especially in the plural number. The 
plural terminations may be set side by side, thus : — 




N. and V. First Declension, -at 

G. „ -«V 

D. „ ais 

A. „ as 

Second Declension, -oi 

„ -WV 

„ -ois 

In the former, the predominant vowel is evidently a; in the 
latter, o. So in the singular, the first declension in the dative 
has T] (for a lengthened, § 3, e) ; the second, « (for o lengthened). 
In the accusative, the first has av, or r\v ; the second, ov. 

The two may accordingly be discriminated as the A declension 
and the O declension ; a distinction which the further examination 
of their structure makes yet more plain. 

Both, again, are distinguished from the tJdrcl by admitting the 
termination which marks the case into the last syllable of the 
■word ; while the latter adds the termination as a distinct syllable. 

The First and Second Declensions are, on account of this last 
peculiarity, called the Insejmrable, or P arisy liable ; the Third, the 
Separable, or Imparisyllabic declension. 

All three admit, however, of many variations, as will now be 
shown in detail. 

17. First (inseparable), or A Declension. 

This declension includes both masculine and feminine nouns. 
The stem invariably ends in a. As the feminine has already beeu 
given as containing the typical form, that may be placed first. 

18. Feminine Paradigms. First Declension. 

rjixipa, day. 
Stem, rjixepa- 




7] fie pa 







bo^a, opinion. 
Stem, ^o^a- 


ho^a bo^aL 

ho^ris bo^MV 

boiji b6$ats 

lo^av bo^as 

bo^a bo^aL 









, Tifxa- 

































a. The stem-ending a becomes y\ in the nominative and accu- 
sative singular whenever preceded by a consonant ; except by the 
liquid p, the double consonants, or o-, sometimes v preceded by a 
diphthong or long vowel. In these cases, the a remains, long 
after p, short in the other cases. Preceded by a vowel, the a 
remains, generally long. Thus we have the nominatives ivrokr), 
(Tvvaymyfj, '^v)(rj j but dvpd, 86^a, yXucrcra, /SocrtAtcrcra, Xeaiva, CTKia, ^acri- 

b. In the genitive and dative singular, the stem-ending a, when 
not preceded by a vowel or p, becomes i\. After a vowel or p, it 
remains. Thvis, N. 86^a ; G. fio|/;? ; d. 86^r] ; but ?5/x//3a, fjfiepas, 
T/fi-epa, and cr/ctd, crKias, aKia. 

c. The plural terminations in all forms of this declension are 
exactly alike, the a in -as of the accusative being long. 

d. Accentuation. — Whatever syllable is accented in the nominative 
retains the accent throughout, so long as the laws in § 6, c, permit. 
The only apparent exception is in the genitive plural, which in this 
declension is always perisponienon. This, however, is accounted for by 
its being a contraction of -awv. Oxytone words become perispomenon 
in the genitive and dative of both numbers. For purposes of accentua- 
tion, the termination oi in the plural nominative is considered short. 




19. Masculine Paradigms. First Declension, 

fxaOrjTrjs, discijile. 

v€avCas, a youth. 



Stem, veavLa- 







veavLas veavCat 




veavLov veaviQiv 




veavCa veavLais 




veai'Cav veavias 




veavia veaviai 


a. All masculine nouns of tlie first declension form the nomina- 
tive from the stem by adding s, lengthening a into r\ after all 
consonants except the liquid p, and retaining a after vowels and p. 
The vowel of the nominative is retained in the dat. and ace. siaa:. 

h. The genitive singular of all masculine nouns of this declen- 
sion ends in ov, originally ao. The vocative gives the simple stem. 
Other cases conform entirely to the feminine type. 

c. Accentuation. — The remarks under the femiaine paradigms are 
appHcable to masculine also. 

Exercise 3.— Nouns of the First Declension, for Practice. 

(Selected from the " Sermon on the Mount.") 
1. Masculike. 

T€\u>vr]s, tax-gatherer, "pub- 

KpLTrjs, judge 
o^etAeVrjs, debtor 
7Tpo(f)i]Tr}9, prophet 

fiaa-LXeia, kingdom 

hiKaioavvr], righteousness 

iVToki'], commandment 

^0)?/, life 

6vpa, gate 

The learner should commit these words to memory, with their mean- 
ings, and should then write them down in different numbers and cases, 
with and without the corresponding articles, until all the forms are 
mastered. So with the other Exercises. 

lican " 
virrjpeTrjs, attendant, servant 

K€(j)aXri, head 

Xvxvta, lampstand 

oLKLa, house 

Tt^Tpa, rock 

^vy^i], soul, natural life 



20. Irregular Forms of the First Declension. 

a. Masculine proper names in as of this declension form the 
genitive in a, excepting when preceded by a vowel. Thus, 'loi/ay, 
Jonah, gen. 'icom ; Krjcpas, Cephas, gen. Kr](pa ; BapvdIBas, gen. 
BajwdlSa ] 'lovSas, Judah Or Judas, gen. 'louSa. The accent of the 
genitive corresponds with that of the nominative. But 'Audpeas, 
Andreto, makes "Av8peov ; 'Haatas, Isaiah, 'Haatov. These names 
are from the Hebrew, with the exception of 'Avdpeas. 

h. In Acts V. 1, we fiiid ^ancpelpr], dative of the proper name 
Sapphira ; and in Acts x. 1, airelprjs is used as the genitive of 
(TTTeipa, coliort — in both cases contrary to the rule in § 19, a. 
Similar variations from the regular form are found in good MSS. 
in the case of other substantives. 

21. Second (inseparable), or 0-Declension. 

This declension contains masculine, feminine, and neuter nouns. 
The stem invariably ends in o, to which -s is added to form mascu- 
line and feminine nominatives, and -v to form the neuter. 

22. Masculine and Feminine Paradigms. 




word, masc. 

obos, way, feni. 

Stem, A070- 

Stem, odo- 







6b69 oboC 




obov obSiv 




68a) oboLi 




obov obovs 




6b4 hhoL 




a. As before noticed, this paradigm corresponds Mitli that of 
the first declension, o- being substituted for a-. Tlie differences 
are, that in the nominative singular the stem-vowel is not 
lengthened, and that the vocative singular changes this vowel 
into t In the accusative plural, the termination ovs is for -ovs 
(§ 4, d, 5), as in the first declension -ds is for -avs; in each case, 
s being added to the accusative singular. 

Accentuation. — The remarks on the first declensiou are mostly appli- 
cable. The syllable accented in the nominative retains the accent 
throughout wherever possible ; oxytones becoming perisj^omena in the 
genitive and dative of both numbers. The genitive plural of other 
nouns is not, as in the first declension, perispomenon. In the nomina- 
tive plural, the tei'minatiou ot is treated with reference to the accent as 
a short syllable. 

23. Neuter Paradigm. Second Declension. 
(rvKov, fig-tree. Stem, ctvko - 





The only difference between this paradigm and that of the 
masculine and leminine is that already stated, § li, a. The accu- 
sative of all neutei-s is the same foi'm with the nominative and 
vocative ; and in the plural these cases end in a. 

Accentuation. — For the accentual changes in the declension of avnov, 
see § 6, c. 

24. Paradigm of GoNTRA<:TiiD Nouns. Second Declension. 

Nouns of this declension whose stem-vowel o- is preceded by « 
or o, generally suffer contraction, according to the scheme in § 3,^1 















Thus, voos, mindj becomes vovs ; oa-reov, bone, oarovv. The coa- 
tracted forms of these words are not invariably employed in the 
Septuagiut or New Testament. On povs, see Variable Nouns, § 32, a. 
To this head may also be referred some nouns in -coj, like tlie 
proper names, 'AttoXXcos-, Kws. 

Q(TT€ov, bone, n. Stem, oarew 


{oa-reov) oarovv (ocrrea) oara 

(oareov) ocrrov (oareaiv) 6ar<2v 

(oore'co) dcrro) (ooreoij) oarols 

(oareov) oarovv (oarea) oara 

(oareov) oarovv [oaria) oara 

voos, mind, va. Stem., voo- 


N. (z^oos) VOVS (vooi) vol 

G. (voov) vov (voiov) V(2v 

D. (i^om) rw (wots) vols 

A. (voov) vovv (voovs) vovs 

V. (i'oe) vov (vool) vol 

'AttoAAcos, Apollos. 

N. 'AttoAAw? 

G. 'AttoAAw 

D. 'AttoAAoJ 

A. knoXXdiv, or 'AttoAAw (irreg.) 

V. 'AttoAAw 

25. The word 'Itjo-ous, Jesus, is thus declined : — 

N. 'Ij/o-oSs a. ^Ivjaovv 

G. 'Irjo-ou V. 'JjycroS 

D. 'Ijjo-ou 

Exercise 4.— Nouns of the Second Declension, for Practice. 
Selected from the "Sermon on the Mount." 

1. Masculine. 

d8eA(po'?j brother 

KvKos, wolf 

kxQpos, enemy 

vofxos, law 

avOpwTTos, man 

d(p6a\fx6s, eye 

jjki.os, sun 

■noraixos, river 

2. Feminine. 

OLfj-ixos, sand 

SoKos, beam 




3. Neuter. 

b^pov, gift 
^pyov, work 
liirpov, measure 

Kpivov, lily 
Ttpv/SaTov, sheep 
riKvov, child 

26. Third (or Separable) Declension. 

Nouns in this declension are masculine, feminine, or neuter. 
Tlieir varieties necessitate the giving of several paradigms, although 
all are reducible to a simple form, already illustrated in the inde- 
finite pronoun rts, and shown in the two nouns declined below. 

The one essential thing, in this declension especially, is to know 
the stem, which may end in a consonant {impure, mute or liquid), 
or in a vowel (j^ure). From this the nominative, as well as every 
other case, is derived ; but the stem-ending is better seen in the 
genitive, which, in Yocabularies and Lexicons, is therefore given 
with the nominative. 

The termination of the genitive singular in this declension is 
always os. Take this away, and the remaining part of the word 
is the stem. 

27. General Paradigm of the Third Declension. 


M. or F. 


altav, age, duration, mase. 

pTJixa, word 

Stem, al(ov- 






ai(ov alcoves 



alcovoi ai(i>v(i)V 



aMVi. atc2crt(z;) 



alcova amvas 



al(av at'core? 



§ 28. j the third declension. 27 

28. Terminations of this Declension. 

These paradigms ai-e essentially alike in termination, setting 
aside the invariable differences between neuter and other forms 
(§ 14, a). 

We tlius find that the terminations of the third declension are, 
in the singular — 

Genitive, os, appended to the stem. 

Dative, I, also appended to the stem. 

Accusative, a. This, however, is really a substitute for v, which 
we find in the first and second declensions, and which in pure 
stems often appears in the third also. 

Vocative, the stem, subject to necessary modifications (§ 4, d, 8). 
or like the nominative. 

In the PLURAL — 

Nominative, ts, appended to the stem. 

Genitive, «v, ajipended to the stem. 

Dative, o-i, added to the stem, with necessary modifications 
(§ 4, d, 1, 5). On the v ('(peXKva-TiKov, see § 3, h, 1. 

Accusative, as, the a shoH or s added to the accusative singular. 
Compare the First and Second Declensions, § 22, a. 

Vocative, like the nominative. 

Accentuation. — The accented syllable of the nominative, as in other 
nouns, retains the accent throughout, wherever possible. For a special 
rule respecting monosyllables, see § 29. In the above paradigms, al<iv 
in the nominative is written for aiwv. 

29. Varieties in the Third Declension according 

TO STEM- endings. 

The stem of this declension may end in any consonant (except 
p. and the double consonants, %, |, «|/) and in the vowels t and v. 

First Rule. — The most usual termination of the nominative 
singular is s added to the stem, in accordance with the orthographic 
law, § 4, c. 




Tims (1), a labial stem makes tlie nominative in i}/. 

"Apa'^jr, Arabian, from dpaP-, gen. cipajSos 
Aldio-^, Ethiopian, „ alGiow-, gen. aWioiros 

(2) A guttural stem makes the nominative in |. 

from 4>\o7-, gen. (fAoyos 

„ KTlpuK-, gen. Kl']pVKOS 

(f)\6^, flame, 
KTjpv^, herald, 
vv^, night, 
dpi^, hair. 

„ WKT-, gen. VVKTOS 

„ ep^X-, gen. rpix6s (§ 4, d, 7.) 

(3) A dental stem drops the stem-termination before s. 


Trais, child. 


iraiS -, 



opvis, bird. 





xapis, favour, 





oSous, tooth. 




686vTos (§ 4, (i, 5.) 

gen. TToXetos, for TrdXtoy 
gen. i^dvos 

(4) Vowel stems add s simply. 

TToXis, city, from ttoXi-, 

lx6vs,fish, „ IxSv-, 

Second Rule. — Stems ending in v and vt [generally), in p (cdmost 
always), and in s {invariably, except in neuters), form the nomi- 
native by lengthening the vowel preceding the termination. 

iroi.p.f}v, shepherd, from uoificv-, gen. Troifievos 
Xeav, lion, „ XeovT-, gen. \fovTos 

pT]T<op, orator, „ pT]Top-, gen. prjropos 

al8<i>s, modesty, „ alSos-, (gen. al86aos) 

The genitive of this last word is contracted by dropping thr s 
Detween two short vowels, and combining them; aldoos, atSoC*-. 
(See § 3,/, Table and Note.) 


Certain nouiis with the stem-ending p preceded by £ are synco- 
pated, i.e., omit this vowel in some of their cases. One, avrjp, man, 
dvcp-, in omitting €, inserts the letter 8 between v and p. (See § 5, 5.) 
The dative plural of these nouns also adds a after p. (See the 

Third Rule. — Stems in ev, av, ov, while adding s in the nomina- 
tive singular, according to the first rule, drop the v in the genitive 
singular and other cases, thus forming an apparent exception to 
the rule that the genitive gives the stem by taking away the 
tei-mination os. The irregularity is only apparent, as the v of the 
stem is in reality the old consonant v (written in Greek f, and 
called, from its shape, digamma), which originally belonged to 
the genitive, like the other consonant stem-endings. Thus, ^nvs, 
ox, pof-, gen. ^oFoi, now written /3odr. Some of the cases of these 
nouns are also contracted, as the paradigm will show. Stems in 
€v take a special form of the genitive singular, called the " Attic 
Genitive," ending in €ws. 

Fourth Rule. — Neuter stems in ts change this termination in 
the nominative into -os, and suffer contraction in other cases by 

Example. — opos, mountain, opes-, gen. {opea-os, opeos) opovs, nomina- 
tive and accusative plural [opea-a, opea) oprj. (See Pai'adigm.) 

Fifth Rule. — Other neuter nouns, together with those masculines 
and feminines which ha^ve liquid stems preceded by a long vowel, 
retain the stem in the nominative unchanged, save by the general 
orthographic law. Thus, aliov, pripa, already given. The latter 
becomes pr)pa from pt\Y.o.T-, according to § 4, d, 8. 

Accentuation. — Monosyllabic neuters are oxytone in all their dissyl- 
labic forms, except the genitive plural, which, is perispomenon. Mascu- 
line and feminine monosyllables accent the penultimate in the accusative 
singular and nominative and accusative plural; in other cases follow 
the rule of neuters. 

so third declension pakadigms. [§ 30. 

30, Paradigms illustrating the Five foregoing Rules. 
I. The letter s affixed to the stem. 

a. Consonant Stems {mute), labial and guttural. 




G. "Apafios 

D. "ApajSi 

A. ApajSa 

V. "Apaxjr 

"Apayjr, Arabian 
Stem, 'Ayoa/3- 







K7]pv^, herald, masc 
Stem, KT]pVK- 






Per example of a dental stem (neuter), see Introductory Paradigm 
of the Declensions, § 16. The feminine noun ^ap'? ix'^-p'-'r-), /C'l^our, 
makes ace. x'^P'-"'} k^^ls, key, fern. (kXciS-) has ace. sing. /cXelSa ; ace. 
plur. bj syncope and contraction, /cXeis (Matt. xvi. 19 ; Rev. i. 18). 

h. YowEL Stems. 



ixOvs, fish, masc 
Stem, l-)(6v- 







(ixdvas) Ix^vs 

TTo'Ats, city, fern. 
Stem, TToXt - 


ttoXls (iTokees) -TroAeis 

TToAecoS (Attic gen.) 770 ACQ)V 

(TToAet) TToAei ■7roAc(n(y) 
ttoKlv (TToAeas) TTokeis 

TTo'At (TTo'Aees) ttoAcis 


One neuter noun, a-lvain, mustard (singular only), is declined 
like Ti-oXiy, excepting that the accusative is, of course, like the nom. 

Accentuation. — For accentual purposes, the genitive termination, eois 
or toiv, in these nouns, is considered as one syllable, and does not, there- 
fort?, require the acute accent to be thrown forward. 





II. The vowel of the last syllable 

stem lengthened. 

TTOl/XTjr, s 

hcpherd, masc. 

Xecov, lion, masc. 


, Tvoifiev- 

Stem, XeovT- 







Xicov XioVT^'i 




XeovTos XeovTcav 




XiovTi A^ovaL^v) 




Xiovra Xeovras 




Xioov \iovT€^ 


aib(as, modesty, fem. Stem, aloo^- 


N. atScos 

G. (at8o'(cr)oj) alhovs 

D. (at8o'(cr)i) alhoi 

A. (ai8o((T)a) alhS} 

V. alh(as 

Syncopated Nouns of this Form. 

TTarrip, father. 
Stem, irarep- 


N. TTarrjp 






avrip, man. 
Stem, avep- 










To this class of syncopated nouns belong firjTTjp, mother ; Bvyarrjp, 
daughter ; yaarrjp, belly. Aa-rfip, star, has daTpuai, (j/) in the dative 
plural, but is not syncopated in any other case. 

Accentuation. — These words are paroxjrfcone in the cases that retain e, 
and throughout the plural (excepting avrip, which is irregular). The 
syncopated cases of the singular are oxytoue, and the vocative throws 
back its accent as far as possible. 


III. Nouus in -avs, -svs, -ovs, with original digamma. 

/BacnXevs, king, masc. 

Sf.em, paaiXer- 





(i8a(riAees) iSacnXeis 





ifiacnXi'i) fiaatX^l 







(/3a(nAees) ySacriAeis 

^ovs, ox, masc. 

Stem, /3of- 



N. j3ovs 


G. /3oo's 


D. l3ot 


A. ySoSy 

{[Soai) ^ovs 

V. /Sou 



Nouns in -evs form tlie accusative singular in -ea {the a long) ; 
those in -avs and -ovs take v. 

Accentuation. — Nouns in -£vs are all oxytone in the nominative 
singular, and perispomenon in the vocative. 

IV. Neuter nouns in -os, from the stem ending €s-. 

yivos, race. 

Stem, yei>€9' 





{y€ve{a)a) yivr] 


(yei'e(o-)os) yivovs 

yevecoy and y€vS>v 


[yiv€{(j)i) y4v€L 




{yive(a)a) yivr] 



(y€Pe{cr)a) yivx} 

Y. The simple stem as nominative. See omv and fir^a.^ alieady 
giren, § 27. 





Exercise 5.— Nouns of the Third Declension, for Practice. 

Selected from the " Sermon on the Mount." 
*^^* The learner should assi.^n each noun to its proper class. 


ypafxfjiaTevs, -ecos, scribe 
yj.Tc!iv, -covos, vest, inner 

ohov^, ohSvTos, tooth 
6'(^t?, oipiuis, snake 

bvi'aixLs, -ecos, power 
dpL^, rpLXos, hair 

e$vos, -ovs, nation 
deKrijia, -aro^, will 
ovoixa, -aros, name 


Kpicri's, -eo)?, judgment 
X^ip, x^'po^j hand, dat. plur. 


o/yos, -ov^, mountain 
Tivp, TTvpos, fire 
(/xSj, (poiiTos, light 

31. Irregular JS'guns of the Third Declension. 

These are irregtilar, chiefly in the nominative. Thus, ywrif 
woman, takes gen. ywaiKos, and forms all its cases from the stem 
■yvvaiK-, the vocative being ywai by § 4, d, 8. 

Tow, knee, is declined regularly as from the stem ^ovaT- (neuter), 
gen. yovaTos, nom. plur. yovara, &C. 

Kvojj/, dog (masculine, also feminine in singular), is declined as 
from KVV-, gen. kvvos, &c. ; but voc. sing, kvou, dat. plur. k'j(ti{v). 

Mdprvs, witness (masculine), is from the stem jAaprvp-, wliicli it 
follows throughout, except in dat. plur. ixdpTV(Ti(v). 

"vScop, water, is declined regularly as from the neuter stem {rSar-, 
gen. vdaTos, nom. plnr. vSara, &c. 

Some neuter stems in -ar- form the nominative by changing the 
T into S; instead of dropping it. Thus, Kepar-, horn, nom. sing. 
Kepas, nom. plur. Kipara, gen. Kepdrccv ; Kpiar-,Jlesh, nom. sing. Kpeas, 
nom. plur. Kpea, by syncope from Kpeara; repar-, prodigy, nom. sing. 
Ttpas, nom. plur. repara, dat. Tfpa(Ti.(v). 


The accusative plural form, apvas, lambs, is ouce found (Luke x. 3), 
and may be referred to the stem ciptv-, nom. sing, aprjv, the e dropped 
in inflection by syncope. 

In one passage, the name of the Greek deity Zeus is found 
(nom. Zfvs) gen. Aids-, ace. Ala (Acts xiv. 12, 13). 

32. Nouns of variable declension in the New Testament. 

a. A few substantives in -os are found with forms both of the 
second declension and of the third (neuter stem -€s- like yeVoy). 
Thus, (TKoros, darkness, is generally neuter of the third, but once 
masculine of the second (Heb. xii. 18, o-koto)) ; ttXovtos, wealth, is 
properly masculine of the second, but is found in good MSS. neuter 
of the third ; eXeos, mercy, is also of both declensions in the accu- 
sative case only (eXeoi/, Matt. ix. 13, Titus iii. 5, Heb. iv. 16, cfec), 
but the genitive is always e'XeoDS', dat. eXeei. NoDy, mind (see § 24), 
second declension, occasionally takes a genitive and dative as of the 
third declension; voo'i (1 Cor. xiv. 19), v6i (Kom. vii. 25; 1 Cor. 
i. 10, xiv. 15). So ttXoo's (Acts xxvii. 9) for jrXoO. 

h. The word (ra^^arov, sahhath, is a regular noun, second declen- 
sion, neuter, except in the dative plural, which in the New Testa- 
ment is ad^^aai (as if from tra^^ar-, cra^^a). But the Septuagint 
has also aa^Sdrois (1 Chron. xxiii. 31). 

c. In projjer names much irregularity exists. Mwcr^s (or Muvo-^s), 
Moses, is thus declined : — 

G. Maaecos 

D. Mcoo-et, or Mcoarj 

A. Mcoa-ea, Or Mcocrrju 

V. Ma>(X^ (LXX). 

The name of Jo-usalem is found in a threefold form : (1) 'Upov- 
(rakr)fi, indeclinable, a trauscriptof the Hebrew word; (2) 'lepocrdAv/xa, 
neuter plural, second declension; (3) 'lepoaokvpa, feminine singular 
(Matt. ii. 3, only). Many proper names analogous in form to nomi- 
natives of the different declensions are indeclinable. So Kara, 
Bij^tratSu, BT]$(j)ayf], To\yoSa, 'Pajxd, ^Aapav, 2vp.fui/, KeSpuv, 'Upi^m. 




To this class may be referred the indeclinable neuters, ndaxa, pass- 
over ; aiKepa, strong drink (Luke i. 15). The last two are, in fact, 
but adaptations of Hebrew words, 'lura, jot (Matt. v. 18),"A\0a 
and ojixeya (Rev. i. 8), the names of Greek letters, are also treated 
as neuter nouns without inflection. 

Exercise 6.— Promiscuous List of Nouns, for Practice. 

*** The Genitive case is given, to show the Declension and the Stem. 
Learners should, wherever possible, infer the gender from the form. 

acTos, ov, ni. eagle 
alfxa, arcs, blood 
ai'dos, ovs, /lower 
apviov, ov, lamb 
^ovXrj, ijs, counsel 
■yovevs, eo?, parent 
hcLKpy, vos, tear 
bevbpov, ov, tree 
hcbdcTKaKos, ov, teacher 
iXiTLs, Cbos,/. hope 
koprrj, ijs, festival 
'HpwSrjs, ov, Serod 

QvyaTTqp, rpos. daughter 
KaKLa, as, vice 
KtOapa, as, harp 
fxaa-Ti^, iyos,f. scourge 
juepos, ovs, part 
o(f)Ls, ((OS, m. serpent 
TToXCrris, ov, citizen 
TTovos, ov, m. labour 
irpaypa, aros, thing 
crakiny^, lyyos, trumpet 
arTopia, aros, mouth 
uipa, as, hour 





33. Adjtx^tives in Greek follow prooisoly the inflection 
of Substantives. Every declension, almost every form, ix^- 
^ppoars, but in different combinations. 

In respect of form, adjectives are diNided into tlu-ee cIassos : — 

1. Thojie which combine the first and second declensious. 

2. Those which combine the fii-st and third. 

3. Those winch follow e:xclusively the type of the thii\L 

In the first two, the form of the fii"st declension is feminine, 

34. First Form, Par-vdigms. (Stems, o- m. a- f. o- n.) 

aya0o-, -a-, good. 

F. X. I M. F. 

oyaOi] ayaOoi' \ ayadoi ayadaC 
aya&iji ayaSov ayadm' ayaOotv 

aya^rj ayat^u) 
dyatHjr ayadov 
aya&ij ayadov 
All participles in .pevos are declined like aya$6s. 

diKCUO-, -a-, jusf. 


2J. ayados 

G. ayaOov 

r. ayad^ 

A. ayadSv 

V. ayaOe 

ayadois ayaOaXs 
ayadovs ayadds 
ayadoC ayadai 






G. biKoiov 

1). biKaCtji 

A. Sucaior 

V, diixaie 

G. fjuxpov 

D. M^P<? 

A. ^llKp6v 

T. ^LKpi 





ducat a 








bUaLOi bixaiai 

biKaicav bLKaCiav 

biKaCois bucaiais 

biKaiovs biKaCas 

bUaioi ducaiai 

■a-, IUth\ 







lUKpOVS fli.Kpds 







§ 34.] 



a. The feminine singialar of these adjectives, as will be i^een in 
the above paradigms, is formed in strict analogy -with the usage of 
the first declension. The rule is, that where the laasculine bas -o$ 
j/receded by a vowel or p, tbe feminine ends in a long, which vowel 
is preserved through all the cases of the singular.- Os preceded by 
a consonant becomes •»), which also runs through the singular. 

b. Several adjectives belonging to this First Porm employ the 
masculine terminations for the feminine also, conforming thus 
througJwvX to the second declension. This is especially the case 
with polysyllables and compound words. But as there is no 
definite rule to distinguish these "Adjectives of Two Termina- 
tions " from those of three, it will be necessary in doubtful cases 
to consult the Vocabulary or Lexicon. 

c. Acc^ducdion. — The rules in § 18 are etrictly observed. Observe, 
however, that the feminioe plural is not, Mke that of the first dedension, 
necessarily perispomenon, but like the other cases, follows the stem of 
the word. Thus from iixaioi, f. pi. gen. hiKolw (the accent being thrown 
one gyllaLle forward by the terminal long syllable (j 5, a) ; but fuKp6s 
makes fwcpwy. 


Adjectives in eo- and oo- Vjelong to this class. The exjjlanations 
given with Contracted Substantives (§ 24), and the scheme in § Sy 
will sufficiently show the reason of each contraction.. 

■)(pv(T€o-, -a-, golden. By contraction, ■xpvtrov's (eo?), 
~V i^v)' ~o^^ {eov). 














































a. 'Apyvpeos, silver (adjective), occurs in the 'New Testament in 
two forms : ace. plxir. dpyvpovs, neut. nom. and ace. plur. upyvpa. 

h. These adjectives occur very infrequently. It will be observed 
that the feminine of ;Ypwo-6oj is formed irregularly; as -os preceded 
by a vowel, according to rule, requires -o. The adjective o-repedy, 
eci, eovyjirm, is declined without contraction. 

c. Accentuation. — The final syllable in these adjectives, when con- 
tracted, is circumflexed throughout. Thus we have, not only airXovs 
from airXoos, simple (regular, see § G, c), but XP"^"^^ from xpweos, and 
apyvpovs from apyvpeus, anomalous. 

36, Second Form. General Remarks. 

Masculine. — The nominative is formed from the stem, according 
to the methods of the Third Declension. Thus, 6^v- gives nom. masc. 
o^vs, sharj) (§ 29, i. (4) ; -iravr- becomes ttos, all (§§ 29, i. (3) ; id 5); 
and Ikovt- gives iKav, willing (§§ 29, ii. ; 4, d, 8). 

Feminine. — The nominative always ends in o ; the other cases 
in the singular follow the model of the First Declension (§ 18, a). 
The stem-ending v becomes -eia, as o^i;?, o^eia ; vt- becomes -o-o, as 
Tray, iraa-a, and encov, eKovaa. But stems in -v- insert an t before 
that consonant, as fxeXas, black, \i.tka.v-, f. peXaiva ; and or- (originally 
for) becomes -via. Thus, XeXuKcos (participle), having loosened, 
XeXvKOT-, f. \ikvKvla. 

Neuter. — The neuter nominative contains the simple stem, altered 
only by the general euphonic rules ; as o|v, Trav, Uov, p-tKav, XeXvKos. 

37. Paradigms of the Second Form. 
o^v-, -€ia-, sharp 


M. F. N. 

N. o^vs o^eta o^v 

G. o^€os o^€ias o^eos 

D. o^ei o^eia o^ei 

A. o^vv o^etai o^v 


M. F. N. 

o^eLS o^eiat o^sa 

o^ecov o^etcov o^ioiV 

6^icn{v) o^etats 6^iai{v) 

ofets o^etciJ o^^a. 

o^ets dfetat o^ia 




Note. The stem-ending v becomes c in the genitive and dative 
singular, and throughout the plural : e'i", dative singular, being 
contracted into «; and ter, eay, in the plural, into etj. But eor, 
genitive singular, and ea in the neuter plural, are uncontracted. 
A very few substantives also change d into € ; the only instance in 
the New Testament being -nr^x^v (John xxi. 8; Rev. xxi. 17) for 
Trrjxet^f, from tt^x^^j cubit. 

iravT-, -aaa-, all, every. 












































Participles in -os are similarly declined (stem, avr-) as Xvaas, 
having loosed. The participial stem-ending tvr- makes, nom. -eis, 
-€io-a, -^v, gen. -e'vros, -tCo-qs, -e'vros, &c. ; as ^ovXevdeis, having been 

eKOUT-, -ovcra-, willing. 












































Participles in -wv, -ovo-o, -ov, are declined on this model. 

38. The declension of adjectives like fiikas, niXaiva, neXav, black, 
gen. fiekavos, ixeXaivrjs, fitXavos, dat. plur., m. and n. fiiXa(Ti(v), and 
of participles like XeXvKojs, XeXvKvla, XeXv/cds, having loosened, gen. 
XeXvKOTos, XfXvKvias, XiXvKoros, will not now present any difficulty. 
One participle, i(TTT]Ka)s, having stood, from the verb to-nj/nt, takes 
the alternative form, ea-ras, the result of syncope and contraction, 
and is thus declined : — / 
















eoT cores 




















k (XT COS 




The contraction is from eo-racB?. (See § 6, c.) 

Accentuation. — Oxytones circumflex tlie feminine. Adjectives of the 
second class otlierwise follow the ordinary rules. It wiil be observed 
that in the genitive and dative singular, masculine and neuter, irus 
takes oxytone forms, otherwise accenting the stem-syllable throughout. 

39. Two adjectives of common occurrence are irregular in the 
singular masculine and neuter, owing to a combination of forms. 
Their declension is as follows : — 

1. fxeya- [fxeyaXo-, fieyaXa-), great. 


, M. 



















Plural regular, as if from [xeyaXos. 

2. TToXv- [ttoXXo-, TToXXa-j, many. 

Sing. M. 
N. TioXys 

D. TToAAw 
A. TTokvV 

F. N. 

ttoAAtj ttoAv 

ttoXXtjs ttoXXov 


TToXXrjV iroXv 

Plural regular, as if from rroXkos. 

The adjective npavs, or irpaos, meek, is found in diflferent forms of 
declension. Thus, in Matt. xi. 29, we have nom. sing, irpdos, some- 
times written Tvpaos ; * in xxi. 5, irpavs ; in 1 Pet. iii. 4, gen. sing. 
jTpaios ; and in Matt. v. 5, nom. plur. Trpaeh. 

* Lachmann and others r»ad iroats here, thus removing the irregularity. 


40. Third Form. General Remarks. 

Adjectives of tliis class being altogether of the thii'd declension, 
have no special form for the feminine, and are, therefore, of two 
tei'minations or (sometimes) of only one. Compare m, § 13. 

For the most part, the declension of these adjectives is without 
peculiarity. It should be noted that an adjective in -wv (nominative 
singulai") may be from one or other of the stem-endings ovt and ov. 
If from the latter, it belongs to the third class. Thus, eKau, fi'om 
Ikovt-, has three terminations; but aaxjipayv, from a-w^pov-, only two. 

By far the largest and most important class of adjectives in this 
division are those in -r\s, neut. -cs, where the stem-ending es is not 
changed into os in the nominative and accusative singular, as in 
the corresponding class of substantives (§ 29, iv.), but where similar 
contractions to those of nouns take place in the other cases. 

41. Paradigms of the Third Form, 

aXr}6e9', true. 


M. and F. 






{a\r\6^os) aXrjdovs 



(aXrjO^X) aArj^et 



(aXrjOda) aXrjdrj 






M. and F. 



(aXr]di€s) dXr)6n^ 




(aXrjOecov) aX-qdutv 







(aXrjdias) aX-qOds 




(aXrjehs) aX-qdiLs 







o'co(f)poi> -, sober-minded. 



M. and F. 


M. and F. 



























To this class belong comparatives in wv. (See § 44.) 


42. There are two regular methods of forming the Greek 
comparative and superlative. 

The first and most usual is by adding to the stem of the 
positive the further stem-ending repo- for the comparative, 
TttTo- for the superlative. These forms are then declined 
exactly like the first form of adjectives. 

Thus, from ma-Tos, faithful, stem irwrro-, we have — 

Comparative, nom. sing. Tricrrorfpos, tna-TOTepa, iria-roTepou. 
Superlative, nom. sing. Tria-ToraTos, TriaTOTaTT], niaTOTaTov. 

From dXTj6T]s, true, stem dXTjOes- 

ComparativCj dXrjdea-Tepos, oK-qdetTTepa, aKr^diimpov. 
Superlative, dXrjdeaTaTOS, okqdtcrTaTr], d\r]6i(TTaT0V. 

Adjectives of the first class which have a short syllable before 
the stem-ending o- change this vowel into «. 
Thus, (To(j)6s, wise, makes — 

Comparative, a-ocpiiTepos, cro(pa)T€pa, (TO(f)a)Tfpov. 

Superlative, crocpcoTaTos, crocfxiOTdTT), (TO(pa)TaTOP, 

From vfos, new, we have in like manner — 
Comparative, ved)T€pos, vearipa, veutrepov. 
Superlative, vearaTos, vecoTaTi], vea>TaTov. 

Accentuation. — Comparatives and superlatives of this form are always 
• proparoxytone, except when the final syllable is long ; then paroxytone. 
In other words, the accent ia thrown back as far as possible. 


43. The second form of comparison is by adding, generally 
to an ahhreviated form of the positive stem, -iwv (stem-ending 
10V-) for the comparative, and -io-tos (stem-ending wtto-) for 
the superlative. 


Taxis, swift, ra;(ia)j/,* tcixkttos 

alaxpos, disgraceful, alaxl-iov, aiaxia-Tos 

KoXoS, y^^i^, KaWlCOV, KaXXlCTTOS 

fjLiyas, gTecit, fiei^Qiv (for jjifylayv), [j.ey(.(TTos 

Accentuation. — In these, as in other comparative and superlative 
forms, the accent is thrown back as far as possible. 

44. Paradigm of Comparatives in -i«v or -«v. 

These follow the third form of adjectives (see a-axppaiv, § 41), but 
are sometimes contracted by the omission of the v bel'ore a or «, and 
the combination of this vowel with the o of the stem. This con- 
traction is, however, infrequent in the New Testament. 

/jL€1^o)V, fxel^ov, greater. 


M. and F. 












IxeiCova or jxeiCo) 





M. and F. 



lj.€L(oves or fxeiCovs 

fiiiCova or juetX<J^ 








fj.€L^ovas or fxeC^ovs 

lidCova or iieiCu) 



lieiCoves or [xetCovs 

IJi€ [Coves or /xet^ous 

* See John xx. 4. In classic Greek, flaTToc is the form generally used. 


45. To this form of comparison belong several irregular 
comparatives and superlatives, of wliicli the following list 
will suffice : — 

dyo.dos, good, 









KQKos, bad. 









fiiKpos, little, 













TvoKvs, Tnany, 


irke'Kov or 




Some adjectives, it will be seen from the above, have an alterna- 
tive comparison, haviug recourse to different roots for the purpose. 
The respective forms are now interchangeable, or nearly so. For 
shades of dilference between them, see Vocabulary and the Chapter 
on Synonyms. 

46. The following comparatives and superlatives have, no 
answering positives : — 

("From ava, adv. up) dvwTfpos, upper ; dviiTaro^, topmost. 

(From (carco, adv. down) Kararepos, lower ; KararaTOS, lowest, 
(From ecro), adv. within) fo-carepos, inner ; iacnTaros, inmost 
(From Trpo, prep, before) irpoTepos, former ; npwToi, first. 

Many of these forms are but seldom used. 

47. Emphasis in Comparison. 

(fl) An emphatic comparative is made by the adverb iiSKKov, 
more. So Mark ix. 42, koKov ea-nv avTo, paXKov, " it is far better 
for him." The same adverb is sometimes prefixed to a compara- 
tive, as in Mark vii. 36, paXKov mpKrcTOTepov, " much (lit. 'more) the 
more abundantly." In Phil. i. 23, yet another adverb of intensity 
is affixed to paXKov with the comparative, ttoXXw paXhov Kpe'ia-aov 
(lit. "by much the more better"). Compare "most unkindest 


cut of all" in Sliakspeare (Julius Ctesar, iii. 2). So Psa. ix. 2 
^Prayer Book version) "O Thou Most Highest." 

(b) Another form of securing emphasis is by affixing a compa- 
rative termination to a comparative or superlative form. Tims, 
from fieiCcov, greater (3 Ep. John 4), fiecCoTepav ovk i'xo) x"P"-'^j " I ^^'-^^'^^ 
no greater (more greater) joy ;" and from ekaxia-ros, least (Eph. iii. 8), 
TO) eXaxi'O'TOTepco Tvavrav Ta>v ayicov, well rendered in E. v., " less than 
the least of all saints." 

Exercise 7.— Additional Adjectives, for Practice. 
Selected from the "Sermon on the Mount." 

First Form. 

ayto?, holy 
abiKos, unjust 
apxcuos, ancient 

Kadapos, pure 
TTovrjpos, wicked 

TTTOj^o?, poor, pauper 
crrez'o'?, narrow 
re'Aetos, full-grown, perfect 
(f)av€p69, evident 
(j)p6vL[xos, prudent 

Second Form. 

S.T:as, airaaa, cmav, all, altogether 
jueAas, p.lXaiva, fxikav, black 
TikaTvs, TrAareia, irXarv, broad 

Third Form. 

ap-na^, -ayos, rapacious | iXe^jjiODV, -ovos, merciful 

In practising with these forms, they should be combined with the 
nouns of the previous Exercises. The adjectives should also be put 
into the different forms of the comparative and superlative. Ahnost 
countless combinations will thus result, by which the learner, either 
with or without the aid of an instructor, may become versed in these 
parts of si)eech. 




48. The Cardinal Numbers, 

(a) For the signs of the respective numbers, the letters of the 
Alphabet are used, according to the list in § 1. When a letter is 
employed numerically, an acute accent is appended. Thus, a', 1 • 
0, 2, and so on. To express thousands, an accent is placed beneath 
,a, 1,000; A 2,000; ,t, 10,000, &c. 

(b) It v/ill be seen that the places of some numbers are vacant 
owing to letters having dropped, in very ancient times, out of the 
Greek Alphabet : the Digamma (f) having come between e and (■ 
while the space between tt and p was occupied by Koppa (g) a 
guttural with a hard A-sound, the original of the Latin and Eng- 
lish letter q. As the alphabet ends with &>', 800, another discarded 
letter, Sampi (^) was used for 900.* Three signs have therefore 
been added, as follows : $-' (the sign of a double consonant, st, used 
instead of f ), 6 ; 9', 90 ; ^y, 900. 

(c) Combinations of tens and units, or of hundreds, tens, and 
units, are expressed, not as in our Arabic numeration, by the 
collocation of unit-signs, but by addition. Thus, la, 11; t^S' 12* 
Ky', 23; pd', 104; ,aw^rj-, 1868; ^Ir' (Rev. xiii. 18), 666. 'in these' 
expressions, the numeral accent is only written once, excepting 
with thousands. 

49. The cardinal numbers, els, one; hvo, hco ; Tp€Ls, three; 
Teaaapes, four, are declined as follows. The rest are inde- 
clinable up to two hundred, which, with the other hundi-eds, 
follows the plural of the first form of adjectives in -01, -01, -a. 

ets, fiCa, €v (stem, eu-^, one. 







^. ets 

[XL a 






J. hos 


{ t 





* Hebrew students will recollect that these are the places of Vau, Koph, 
and Shin resijectively. 




Like (Is are declined its compounds, ovSels, no one (absolutely), 
and fxrjBeis, no one (hypotlietically). The accentuation of all three 
is irregular, as seen above. 

bvo, two. 
N. G.* and A. hvo I D. 

r/3etSj Tpia, three. 


M. and F. 


M. and F. 


N. rpets 










M. and F. 
N. Tecrcrapes 
G. TecrcrapctiV 

riaaapes, Teaaapa, four 

N. ' 


M. and F. N. 

D. Tia(japcn.{y) T€a(rap(n(v) 
A. T^a-crapas Ttaaapa 

50. The Ordinal Numbers. 

For first, the superlative form irpooTos (§ 46), is used. The suc- 
ceeding ordinals are derived from the stem of their cardinal num- 
bers, and are declined like adjectives of the first form. Cardinal 
numbers are sometimes used instead of ordinals in reckoning the 
days of the week, &c. (See Syntax.) 

51, Table of Cardinals and Ordinals. 


1, eh, p.ia, €v 

2, hijo 

3, Tpels, Tpia 

4, Teaaapes, Teaarapa 

5, 7T€VT€ 












* In classic Greek the gen. is 8uo?«' or SwcTc (dual forms.) So also the 
dative, sometimes. 








€KTos, sixth 


t r 


e'|88ojuo?, seventh 



oyboos, eighth 



ivvaros, ninth 



beKaros, tenth 



evbeKaros etc. 


bu)b£Ka, or beKahvo 
(Acts xix. 7) 






TcaaapeaKaibeKa, or beKa- 


ricraapes (Matt. 

i. 17) 


TievreKaih^Ka, or 8e/<a TreWe 


(John xi. 18) 








OKr(0Kai8e/ca, or 2 

fKtt /cat 


oKTw (Luke xiii. 










(.'lkoo-l Ka\ et?, \J.ia, 



eUocn Koi bvo 

(Ikoo-tos kol bevrepos 







































































lu compound numbers, the lar-gest is placed first,* and the 
smaller follow in order, with or without the conjunction koX, and. 
The smaller numbers are in many copies treated as enclitics, and 
attached to the larger as one word. 

Examples. — Tea-arapaKovra 8vo, " forty-two" (Kev. xi. 2, xiii. 5) ; 
fKUTov TrevTrjKovra rpicov, " of a hundred and fifty-three" (John 
xxi. 11); dpovot e'UocTL recra-apei, "twenty-four thrones" (Rev. iv. 4); 
Tfo-crapaKovTa (cat e^ 'iTtaiv, "for forty-six years" (John ii. 20); irav 
oy8m]KovTaTi(T(Tdpa)v, " of eighty-four years" (Luke ii. 37) ; Se/<a koI 
oKTM err], " eighteen years" (Luke xiii. 16); to. ivevrjKovTaewia, "the 
ninety -nine" (Matt, xviii. 12; Luke xv. 4). 

52. Distributive Numbehs. 

The distribution or repetition of a number is variously expressed. 
In Mark vi. 7, the simple cardinal is repeated : hvo 8vo, " two and 
two ;" Luke x. 1, for the same thing, more classically employs a 
preposition, ava Svo ; Mark xiv. 19, and John viii. 9, combinft 
another preposition with the cardinal : efy koO' eh, " one by one," 

* The rule in classic Greek is to place the smaller number first, with Ka\, 
or the larger without *coJ. 

50 KUMEEALS. [§ 52. 

Exercise 8.— Wumbers. 

1. Interpret the following numerical symbols : — ^, tj?', kB', /xr, 

2. [Vocabulary/. — &pa, -as, hour; fjfiepa, -as, day ; ad^^arov, -ov 
(lit. sabbath), week, sing, or plur. ; /itjv, firjvos, m. month; eras, -ovs, 
n. year; liKfloiv, comp. adj. more; Ka\, and; rj, or; iv (prep., 
proclitic), in, governing the dative.] 

Translate the following : — 

1. iv erei 7rfvrfKai.Be Kara). 

2. ev TO) [xrjvl rw exToj. 

3. j; apa t] SfKaTTj. 

4. ev rw eVt Ka\ i^aKocrioar^ erei, iv tS> ievrepco p.r)vi. 

5. t] pla {i]pepa) raiv aa^^aTcov. (See John XX. 1, &C.) 

6. fj TTpaTTj aa^^drov. (See Mark xvi. 9.) 

7. T^ rpirr] f]pepa. Supply on, to express the force of the 


8. rjiiipaL Trkeiovs oktw t] BeKu. Supply than, after the com- 


9. diaKocnoi e^boprjKovra e^. 
10. err) oyborjKovra riacrapa. 

3. Render the following into Greek : — 

1. Thirty years. 

2. Eleven months. 

3. In the fourth month, on the sixth day. (See 7, above.) 

4. Twelve hours in the day. 

5. On the first day of the week.* 

* In what two ways vaightjlrst and week respectively be expressed? See 
5, 6, above. 




Chapter IV. PEONOUNS. 

53. Personal Pronouns. 

These are divided iuto (1) the simple substantive-pronoun, (2) the 
reflexive, and (3) the adjective-personal or possessive. 

The Substantive Pronouns of the first Two Persons. 

First person — 


person — 






eyw, i 

r][X€LS, we 

(TV, thou 

vixels, you 


kjxov or jxov 


crov or aov 



ifjLoC or [xoi 


(70 L or croi 



e/xe or jue 


(re or ae 


Accentuation. — In the singular, genitive, dative, and accusative, the 
unemphatic pronoun is enclitic. (See § 6.) 

54. For the third personal pronoun, he, she, it, the New 
Testament employs the three genders of the adjective-pronoun 

avTOS, self (avTO-, -a-). 




































5 t 


The nominative of this pronoun, when used in the personal 
sense, is always emphatic. 




55. Reflexive Pronouns. 

These are formed by tlie combination of tbe personal pronouns 
with the oblique cases of avros. In the singular, the two are 
written as one word. 


G . eixavTov, -rjs, of myself 

D. ejuaurw, -f}, to myself 

A. ejjLavTov, -Tjv, myself (obj.) 


(reavTov, -rJ9, of thyself 
oreavTM, -fi, to thyself 
aeavTov, -i]v, thyself (obj.) 

The plurals of these forms are written separately. Thus, Ijiiav 
airwv, of ourselves ; vfiiv airo'is, to yourselves, &c. 

Third person (from the old stem, I-, him), of himself, herself, 
itself, &c. — 































This reflexive pronoun is sometimes written without the e, as 
avTov, avrSv, &c., and is only distinguished from the cases of avTos by 
the aspirate. This must be very carefully marked. 

Where there is no risk of ambiguity, this reflexive pronoun 
may be used for the first and second persons likewise. Thus, iv 
iavTols, "in ourselves" (Rom. viii. 23); ttjv eavrcou craT-qpiav, "your 
own salvation" (Phil. ii. 12.) 

56. Possessive, or Adjective-personal Pronouns. 

(a) These are declined precisely like adjectives of the first form, 
and are aa follows : — 

First person, ifxos, e'/xr), e'fxop, my. 

„ ^p-eTepos, TjpfTfpa, riperfpov, OUr. 

Second person, aos, a-fj, <t6v, thy. 

I) vperepos, vpertpa, vpLfTepov, your. 



(b) There is no possessive pronoun in the New Testament for 
the third person singular or plural, the genitive case of airos or of 
favTov being used instead. Thus, vl6s eavrov, or avrov, his own son, 
i.e., the son of the person who is subject of the sentence; vl6s avrov, 
Ids son, i.e., the son of another person. In Heb. i. 3, tw ptjixan rrjs 
dwdfiecus avTov is " by the word of His own power," i.e., that oj" 
Christ himself ; avrov, the reading of some editors, would denote 
" of His power/' i.e., that of God the Father. Again, 1 John iii. 3, 
rrjv eXTTi'Sa eV avrm, " the hope in* Him," i.e., in Christ, not avra, 
which would have referred the hope to the subject of the sentence, 
"every one." 

(c) The genitive cases of the other personal pronouns are also 
used most frequently with the force of the possessive. 

57. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

The chief original demonstrative was the article, already given 
(§ 12), and all other demonstrative pronouns are foi'med upon its 

They are— (a) o5e, fjde, robe, this (here). 

(b) ovTos, avrr], rovro, this (near). 

(c) eKihos, iKeivij, fKeluo, that (yonder). 

(d) 6 avroi, T] avTT], rb avro, tJie Same. 

(a) oBe is simply the article declined with the enclitic 8e. 

(b) ovros is thus declined (stem, tovto-). 







































Care must be taken to distinguish the feminine of the nomina- 
tive singular and plural, avrrj, avrai, from the corresponding cases of 

avTos, viz. avTT], avrai, ' 

* The preposition employed in this passage further marks this meaning. 


(c) sKfivos is declined exactly like the article. 

(d) 6 airos in all its cases is only airos (§ 54), with the definite 
article prefixed. The neuter plural, nominative and accusative, 
is sometimes written ravrd, being distinguished by the coronis 
over the v (§ 3 h 3), as well as by the accent, from ravTa, these, 
neuter plural of ovtos. 

(e) The demonstrative pronouns of quality, quantity (number), 
and degree, are declined like {b) preceding : — 

Quality, roiovTos, roiavTT), toiovto, such. 

Quantity, too-ovtos, Toa-avTTj, ToaovTo, SO great. ) 

Jy umber, too-ovtoi roaavTai, roa-avra, SO many. ) 

Degree, ttjXikovtos, TrfKiKav-nrj, TTJkiKovTo, so very great. 

The last-mentioned pronoun is found only in 2 Cor. i. 1 ; Heb. 
ii. 3 ; James iii. 4 ; Rev. xvi. 18. 

58. The Eelative Pronoun. 
(a) The relative os, ij, o, who or which, is thus declined : — 










































(b) The similai-ity between this pronoun and the article will be 
seen at once. In the nominative singular feminine and the nomi- 
native plural masculine and feminine, the only difierence is that the 
article in proclitic. The stem of the relative is 6-, while that of the 
article is to-. 

(c) An indefinite relative, whoever, whatever, is made by com- 
bining the enclitic tls with os, ij, 6. Both parts of the word are 
declined, as follows : — 








































The nominative and accusative neuter singular is divided as 
above (sometimes by a space without the comma), to distinguisb 
the word from the conjunction on, that. 

The genitive masculine singular is sometimes written otov, used 
in the New Testament only in the adverbial phrase eu,s otov, as 
long as, until (Matt. v. 25, &c.). 

(d) Sometimes the relative is declined with the particle -irep 
(marking emphatic identity), and means the very one who. Thus 
(Mark xv. 6) ovnep tjtovvto, the very person whom they demanded. 
Other indeclinable suffixes are often used, e. g., Sayt (Rom. viii. 32), 
&i8T)iroT€ (John v. 4). (See Syntax, on the Particles.) For the 
relative adverb ov, consult § 129. 

(e) Derivative relative pronouns are employed to express quality, 
quantity, and number. 

Quality, ows, such as. 
Quantity, Sa-os, so great as. 
Number, Sa-oi, plural of oa-os, so many as. 
Also the relative of degree, tjXlkos, of what a size, used only in 
two passages (Col. ii. 1 ; James iii. 5). 

59. Interrogative Pronouns. 

(a) The simple interrogative is n's; r/; who? or what? The 
declension of this pronoun is identical with that of the indefinite 
rty (§ 13), except that in the interrogative the i of the stem syllable 
is accented throughout, the dissyllabic forms being paroxytone. 

For the adverbial interrogative form, nrjn, see § 134, c. 

(6) Other interrogative forms are employed, correlative to the 



relative pronouns under § 58, e, and, like them, denoting quality, 
quantity, number, and degree. They all prefix the letter ir- to the 
relative forms. 

Quality, Troioy, of what kind? 

Quantity, noa-os, how great 1 

Number, TroVot, how many ? 

Degree, ttijXikos, how great ? used in the New Tes- 
tament only indirectly: Gal. vi. 11, "with what large letters" 
(probably to mark emphasis) ; Heb. vii. 4. 

(c) Dii-ect interrogatives are often themselves used in the 
indirect construction, as John v. 13, "He that ivas healed knew 
not who (tis) it was." 

(d) The properly indirect interrogatives prefix the letter 6- to 
the direct forms beginning with the letter tt. 'Ottoios, of what 
kind? is the only one of these employed in the New Testament. 

60. Indefinite Pronouns. 

(a) The ordinary indefinite pronoun ti^, any, a certain one, lias 
been given, § 13. The genitive and dative singular are occa- 
sionally rov, rw, enclitic. 

(6) Compounds of this pronoun are oSrcy, /jjjrty, no one. For 
the distinction between them, see § 134, h, and compare under Us, 

(c) The old indefinite pronoun htiva, such a one, used with the 
article, is once found (Matt. xxvi. 18). 

61. Distributive Pronouns. 

These are mostly declined like adjectives, and are as follows : — 

(a) clXXos, ciXXr], aXXo, another (numerically). 
Plur. aXXoi, I'lXXai, (iXXoL, Others. 

(b) erepos, trepa, eTepou, Other (difi"erent). 
Plur. (Tfpoi, €T(pai, erepa, others. 

For the force of the article with these pronouns, see Syntax. 




(c) aWriXav, of each other, only used in the genitive, dative, and 
accusative plural. 

{(1) eKaa-Tos, (KcicrTrj, eKacrrov, each, used only in the singular; with 
doubtful exceptions, in Phil. ii. 4; Rev. vi. 11. 

62. The number of tlie pronouns being so limited, it is 
unnecessary to give exercises for further practice. The fore- 
going forms and inflections must be very accurately com- 
mitted to memory, and the distinctions between similar words 
carefully marked. 

The following table of correlative pronouns will be found useful 
as a summary : — 





Inde- ■' 

Simple .... 
Quality .... 
Degree .... 








TLS . 

• ••• 


Chapter Y. THE YERB. 

63. The Yoices. 

There are four principal things which verbs are employed 
to predicate concerning a given subject : — 

1. Its state. 

2. Its action npon an object. 

3. Its action upon itself. 

4. The action of the object upon it. 

Hence arises a fourfold division of verbs : into neuter (or intran- 
sitive), active (or transitive), reflexive, and passive. 

The Greek language employs a threefold modification of 
the verbal stem to express these varieties of meaning. The 
modifications, or " voices," are named as follows : — 

The Active Yoice, as Xuca, / loosen. 

The Reflexive, or Middle Yoice, as Xiofxat, I loosen myself. 
The Passive Yoice, as \vofiai, I am loosened. 
Neuter verbs borrow the Active or the Middle form, as ttoo-xw, 
/ suffer ; ^oCXofxai, I wish. 

64. The Moods. 

The Greek verb has four modes, or moods :* the Indicative, 
Imperative, Subjunctive, and Infinitive. 

1. The Indicative asserts absolutely, as eXvaa tuu StV/xtoi/, / 
loosened the prisoner. 

2. The Imperative commands, as Xilere top Sea-fnov, loosen (ye) the 
prisoner I 

* Compare "Handbook of the English Tongue," § 277. 

§ 64,] MOODS OF THE VERB. 59 

3. The Subjunctive asserts conditionally, as orav Xvarjre tov 
hecrixiov, when you have loosened the prisoner. A subjunctive 
clause, it is evident, requires another to complete its meaning ; 
hence the name of the mood, the " subjoined " mood. It is often 
also called the " Conjunctive." 

4. A division of the Subjunctive is called the Optative Mood, 
because sometimes employed to express a wish, as in the frequent 
phrase, /x/) yivoiro (rendered E, Y. "God forbid") may it not be 1 
It is really the subjunctive of the historical tenses. Thus, in the 
phrase, He asks if it be so, the verb be, subjoined to the principal 
tense "asks " (present), would, in Greek, be subjunctive. He asked 
if it were so, would require were to be in the optative after the 
historical tense " asked " (aorist). For fui-ther detail, the Syntax 
must be consulted. 

5. For the Interrogative, either the Indicative or the Subjunctive 
may be employed, according to the nature of the question. (See 

6. The Infinitive expresses the action or state denoted by the 
verb, as in itself an object of thought, as \veiv tov bia-jxLov, to loosen 
the prisoner, i.e., "the act of loosening him." The Infinitive, it is 
plain, partakes of the nature of a substantive, and is often called 
the verbal noun; being, moreover, employed as an uninHected 
singular neuter, with the article in all its cases. (See Syntax.) 

7. To the Moods must be added the Participles, which are verbal 
adjectives, and agree with substantives expressed or understood, 
as 6 SeV/itos Xvdeis, the prisoner, being loosened ; 6 Xekovjxevos, he who 
has been washed. 

As the Infinitive " partakes " the nature of the substantive, and 
the Participle that of the adjective, they are sometimes both called 
participials. It is, however, more common to distinguish them 
by the phrase " the infinitive verb," the remaining moods being 
known as " the finite verb." 

Both the Infinitive and the Participles are used in dififerent 
tenses, for which see the paradigm of the Verb. 




65. The Tenses. 

a. Time is present, past, and future. In each, an action 
may be predicated, as indefinite {i.e., having regard to the 
act itself rather than to the time), imperfect {i.e., going on), 
or perfect {i.e., finished). Hence nine possible tenses, of 
which the Greek language has seven, as follows : — 

Present time 
Past time ... 
Futiu-e time. 

Indefinite state. 

(I write) 

Aorist (I wrote) 

Future (I shall 

Imperfect state. 

Present (I am writ- 

Imperfect (I was 

(I shall 

be writing) 

Perfect state. 

Perfect (I have writ- 

Pluperfect (I had 

Future- perfect* (I 
shall have written) 

li. More detailed exposition of these tenses, the names of which 
the table gives in italics, will be found in the Syntax, where it will 
also be explained how the meaning of the deficient tenses, the 
Present Indefinite and the Future Imperfect, is supplied. 

The Aorist {aopKrro'i, indefinite) is properly an indefinite past, 
but it has other uses, which will also be afterwards explained. 

c. Of the above, the Present, Perfect, Future, and Future 
Perfect, are called principal tenses; the Imperfect, Aorist, and 
Pluperfect, historical tenses. 

d. The tenses are usually arranged as follows : — 

1. Present, as Xvo), / loosen. 

2. Imperfect, as eXvou, I was loosening. 

3. Future, as Xvcra, I shall or vMl loosen. 

4. Aorist, as k'Xva-a, I loosened. 

* Very rare. See d, 7. 

§ 65.] FORMS OF THE VERB. 61 

5. Pert'ect, as XeXvKa, I have loosened. 

6. Pluperfect, as (t)XeXvKeiv, I had loosened. 

7. Future-perfect, found only in the passive or middle, 

XeXva-ofiai, I shall have been loosened. 

QQ. Numbers and Persons. 

There are in the Greek verb three persons, corresponding with 
those in other languages, and three numbers, the singular, dual, 
and plural, of which the dual is disused in the New Testament. 
(iSee § 9.) Only the singular and plural, therefore, are given. 

67. Conjugations. 

There are two principal forms of conjugation. In the most 
ancient, the first person singular, present indicative active of the 
verb has the termination m; in the later, the termination to. The 
latter being the easier, the more symmetrical, and embracing the 
far larger number of verbs, is generally given first, and is called 
the Fix-st Conjugation. The otlier is termed the Second Conjuga- 
tion, or, more generally, the verb in -|xi,. 

The first person singular, present indicative active, is the form of the 
verb given in almost all Vocabularies and Lexicons, and is generally- 
explained by the English infinitive. Thus, Kvw, I loosen ; more pro- 
perly, / am loosening. 

68. The Verbal Stem. 

The chief thing necessary to be known in a verb is the stem, 
which is easily found by abstracting from any given verbal form 
the adjuncts of mood and tense. Thus, a glance over the forms 
of the verb " to loosen " in the preceding section will at once 
disclose its stem, Xv-. 

Additions to the stem are made either at its beginning or its 
end. An addition at the beginning is termed augment or redupli- 


cation ; an addition at the end, the inflexional termination. The 
former belongs alike to the two conjugations ; in the latter, the 
conjugations vary. 

69. Augment and Eeduplication. 

a. The augment characterises the historical tenses (§ %?>, c) in the 
indicative mood. 

(1) Verbs beginning with a consonant prefix the letter I, called 
the syllabic augment. Thus, from Xvw, imperfect JXvov, aorist 

(2) Verbs beginning with a short vowel augment by lengthening 
it : a- into n-, €- into t)- (in a few cases into «i-), t- into i-, -u- into v-, 
and o- into «-. This is termed the temporal augment. Verbs 
beginning with the {" changeable ") diphthongs ai, av, oi, are aug- 
mented by changing the former vowel. Thus, ai- becomes t|., av- is 
changed to t\v-, and oi- becomes <<>-. Sometimes, also, €v- is aug- 
mented into T1V-. The other diphthongs and the long vowels are 
(" unchangeable," i.e.) incapable of augment. 

h. The reduplication, i.e., the repetition of the initial consonant 
of the stem with e, belongs to those tenses which mark a com- 
pleted action (the perfect, pluperfect, and future-perfect), and is 
continued through all the moods. It takes place, in general, only 
when a verb begins with a single consonant or a mute and a liquid. 
Thus \i-\vKa, perf from \va> ; ^i-j3ov\evKa, from BovXeva ; yi-ypa(j)a, 

In verbs beginning with a vowel, only the Temporal Augment 
is employed in these tenses, but it is continued through all the 
moods. To distinguish this augment from that of the historical 
tenses, it is sometimes called the improper reduplication. 

c. Verbs compounded with prepositions almost invariably take 
the augment or reduplication after the preposition and at the 
beginning of the proper verbal stem. Thus, from eK-Xva, to set free, 
comes the Aorist i^ikva-a {^k changed irfto (^ by § 3, h, I), and from 
dno-Xvco, to dismiss, the Aorist is dirtXvaa, the o disappearing by 


elision before the augment vowel (§ 3, A, 2). The prepositions 
Trept and 7rp6, however, do not elide theu- vowels ; and a few other 
exceptions will be noted in their place. 

70. Inflexional Terminations. 

a. As a verb is distinguished by voice, mood, tense, number, 
and person, five diiferent elements will evidently concur in fixing 
the termination in any given case. Thus, if the phrase, We were 
being loosened, is to be translated into Greek, it will be necessary 
to fix " the personal ending " of the first person plural passive, the 
" tense-characteristic " of the imperfect, and the " modal vowel " 
of the indicative. 

b. The Personal endings are no doubt the fragments of ancient 
personal pronouns, affixed to the verb ;* but the original forms are 
in a great measure disused or lost. The attentive student will 
observe the recurrence of -s in the second person singular, and of 
-|j,€v, -T€, in the first and second persons plural, throughout the 
active. It will be seen, also, that in the active principal tenses 
the third person plural ends in -o-i (-o-iv before an initial vowel in 
the next word), and in the historical tenses in -v. In the passive 
and middle, the normal forms are, for the 2>^i''>^cip<^i tenses — 
Sing., -|xai, -o-ai, -rat; Plur., -|xe0a, -o-0e, -vrat ; historical tenses — 
Sing., -[ir\v, -0-0, -to; Plur., -|ie9a, crOe, -vto. The Summaries of 
Terminations which follow will suggest other points of comparison. 

71. Tense-characteristics. 

The Tense-characteristics most important to be noticed are the 
following : — 

a. The Future and (First) Aorist Active have -a--. So from the 
verbal stem irio-Tev- we have the Future stem ino-Teuo--. When 
the verbal stem ends with a short vowel, it is generally lengthened 
in the Future : thus, from \v- is formed Xiio--; from Ti|Aa-, tihtjo-- 
(see § 3, e) ; and from 8ti\o-, 8T]X.«or-. 

* See MuUer's "Lectures on the Science of Language," 1st sen, espe- 
cially p. 272, seq. 


h. The Perfect and Pluperfect Active take -k-. Thus, Trio-rev- 
(with the reduplication, § G9, 6), makes ireirio-TsvK-. Here also 
a final stem-vowel is usually lengthened ; as from Tiutfi,-, TenjjnjK-j 
and from StjXo-, Se8r]\wK-. But Xv- makes \eXvK-. 

c. The Future and (First) Aorist Passive take -6-, lengthening 
the vowel where lengthened in the Perfect Active. Thus, from 
the verbal stems already given, mo-revO-, Xv9-, tijxt]©-, 8t]Xw9-. 

d. In the Perfect and Pluperfect Middle and Passive, the 
normal forms (see § 70, U) are affixed to the verbal stem without 
any connecting letter. 

The successive paradigms will show how the tense-characteristics are 
modified by the consonants of the verbal stem. 

72. Modal Vowels. 

The modal vowels will be sufficiently traced in the Summary of 
Terminations. It will be especially noted how the Subjunctive 
throughout lengthens the vowels of the Indicative, and how the 
Optative abounds in diphthongal forms. In the thrrd person 
plural, it will also be seen that the Subjunctive takes the termina- 
tion of the principal tenses, the Optative of the histo7'ical. 

The Imperfect and Pluperfect tenses occur only in the Indi- 
cative Mood ;* the Future, also, is absent from the Impei-ative and 

73. Terminations of the Several Moods and Tenses. 

The following terminations ai-e, in the simplest form of verbs in 
-«, affixed directly to the verbal stem, and will all be found exem- 
plified in the conjugation of ina-Teva. The ptfeliminary study and 
comparison of the terminations will much facilitate the acquisition 
of the Verb. 

* It will be seen under Syntax that the Optative Mood really is the 
historical Subjunctive. Hence the Present and Perfect Optative are the 
Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive. The ordinary names have, however, 
been retained to prevent unnecessary difficulty to the learner. 


It will be observed that the Middle and Passive Yoices are 
alike in fovir tenses : — Present, Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect. 

Accentuation. — The accent of Verbs is generally thrown as far back 
as possible. Observe, however, some exceptions in the following 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Active — 

Sing, -w, -ets, -ei; I'lur. -ofiev, -€T€, -ov(ri(v). 

Middle and Passive — 

Sing. -o(J.oi, -T)*, -€Tai ; Plur. -ofJieOa, -ecrGe, -ovrai.. 

Imperfect, with Augment. 
Active — 

Sing, -ov, -€s, -e(v) ; Plur. -op-ev, -en, -ov. 

Middle and Passive — 

Sing. -op.Tiv, -ovt, -£To j Plur. -ojjieGa, -eo-fie, -ovto. 

Future (compare Present). 
Active — 

Sing, -crw, -o-€is, -o-£i ; Plur. -crojiev, -<r€T«, -o-ovo-i(v). 

Middle — 

Sing. -o-o[i,ai, -o-t], -creTai ; Plur. -(ro|i€ea, -(r€o-e«, -erovTau 

(Firstt) Acrist, with Augment. 
Active — 

Sing, -o-a, -o-as, -o-€(v); Plur. -<ra|j.€V, -o-are, -o-av. 


Sing. -crd|xi]v, -<r«§, -<raTo ; Plur. -o-ctjieGa, -o-ao-0€, -oravro. 
Passive — 

Sing. -9t]v, -0t]s, -011 ; Plur. -0Tifjicv, -0r,T€, -0T)o-av. 

* Contraction of -eaoi. The contraction into -ei is very unusual 
t Contraction of -euo. 

X The consideration of the Second Aorist (and the Second Tenses gene- 
rally) is defprred to §§ 85-90. 
§ Contraction of -<raao. 


Perfect, with Reduplication, 
Active — 

Sing. -Ka, -Kas, -k€(v) ; Plur. -Kan€v, -Kare, -Kd<ri(v). 

Middle and Passive — 

Sing. -|Aai, -<rai, -rai ; Plur. -n€9a, -orBe, -vrai. 

Pluperfect, with Reduplication and Augment.* 
Active — 

Sing. -K€IV, -K€IS, -K€l j Plur. -K€t|A€V, -KeiTE, -K€(u)<rOV. 

Middle and Passive — 

Sing. -jATjv, -(TO, -TO ; Plur. -jxeGa, -<r9«, -vto. 

Imperative Mood. 

Active — 

Sing. (2nd pers.) -e, (3rd pers.) -eVw ; Plur. -ere, -tTworav.t 

2 fiddle and Passive — 

Sing. (2nd pers.) -ovj, (3rd pers.j -eVOw ; Plur. -eo-Ge, -e'o-Swo-av. 

!Pirst Aorist, without Augment. 

Active — 

Sing. -(Tov, -<rd.Ta) j Plur. -a-are, -cnxTcocrav. 

Middle — 

Sing, -o-ai, -<rao-9w j Plur. -<racr9€j -(rd,<r9wo-av. 

Passive — 

Sing. -9t]ti, -9^tw j Plur. -9t]T€, -BTJTwcrav. 

Perfect, with Reduplication (compare Present). 
Active — 



-K£TW j 




Middle and Passive- 



-o-9w j 




* Augment generally omitted in the New Testament. 

t There is an alternative form in -vtuv, Pass. -a6uv, seldom used. 

X Contracted from -fffo. 


Subjunctive Mood. 


Active — 

Sing, -w, -T]s, -T] ; Plur. -w|i£v, -ijTf, -w(n.(v). 

Middle and Passive — 

Sing, -unai, -T), -ilTai; Plur. -wpitGo, -Tjo-Oe, -wvrai. 

First Acrist, without Augment (compare Present). 
Active — 

Sing. -o-«, -fxis, -o~r\ ; Plur. -a-a^iv, -o-t]T6, -(rwcri(v). 

Middle — 

Sing. -<r<i)(Aai, -(rr|, -otjtoi; Plur. -(rw|ie9a, -o-qo-Oe, -o-wvrat. 

Passive — 

Sing. -Sw, -Gfjs, -0T|; Plur. -e(op.€v, -0tjt6, -ewo-t(v). 

Perfect, with Reduplication (compare Present), 
Active — 

Sing. -K», -KTIS, -KTj ; Plur. -k(0|1€v, -Ktjre, -kwo-i(v). 

Middle and Passive — Made by Perfect Participle with Auxiliary 

Optative Mood. 


Active — 

Sing. -01(1,1., -ois, -01 j Plur. -oijitv, -oire, -oiev. 

Middle and Passive — 

Sing. -OL|Aijv, -010, -oiTo ; Plur. -ovjAtGa, -oio-Ge, -oivro. 

Future (compare Present). 
Active — 

Sing. -o-oi|ii, -o-ots, -o-ot; Plur. -o-oipev, -o-oire, -<roi«v. 
Middle —  

Sing, -o-oijitjv, -o-oio, -o-oiTo j Plur. -o-oipeGa, -o-oio-6«, -coivto. 
Passive — 
Sing. -9t]o-o(|it)v, -Gtio-oio, -Otio-oito; Plur. -Bi)o-OL(itGa -Girjc-oio-Ge, -Gtjo-oivto. 


First Aorist, without Augment. 

Sing. -o-ai|i.i, -o-ais, -<rai ; Plur. -o-ai|xev, -cratTC, -o-aiev.* 

Middle — 

Sine. -o-ai|XTjv, -o-aio, -o-airo ; Plur. -(raL)X69a, -o-aio-0€, -o-atvro. 

Passive — 

Sing. -Qiir]v, -Seiiis, -Oeiri ; Plur. -Qi'ir\\i.ev, -06iT|Te, -OeiTjo-av. 

Perfect, with Reduplication (compare Present). 
Active — 

Sing. -Koijii, -Kois, -KOI ; Plur. -Koiixev, -Koire, -Koiev. 

Middle and Passive — Perfect Particijjle with Auxiliary Verb. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Active, -£iv ; Middle and Passive, -etrSat. 

Active, -<r€iv; Middle, -o-eo-Gai ; Passive, -9r|recr0ai.. 

First Aorist, without Augment. 
Active, -crai ; Middle, -o-acrOai ; Passive, -Gfjvai. 

Perfect, with Reduplication. "* 

Active, -Ke'vai ; Middle and Passive, -o-0ai. 

Active, -«v (stem, -ovt-, see § 37); f. -ovo-a ; n. -ov. Middle and 
Passive, -d(i.€vos, -o^ivi\, -o(j.€vov (see § 34). 

Active, -a-u>v, -o-o\)o-a, -o-ov ; Middle, -trdnevos, -<rop.evt], -o-dn-cvov ; 
Passive, -Orjo-djicvos, -Qr\a-oy.ivr\, 0i]<rdii€vov. 

First Aorist, without Augment. 
Active, -o-tts (^stem, -o-avr-, see § 37), -o-ao-a, -<rav ; Middle, -crdiievos, 
-o-ay.iv(\, -o-a.|i€vov ; Passive, -0eis (stem, -Ocvt-, see § 37), -0€tcrtt, -0ev. 

* The termination -eiav (^olic), for third person plural, is found twice in 
the New Testament (Luke vi. 11 ; Acts xvii. 27). 

§ 73.] VERBS IN « : TTiO-T^via. 69 

Perfect, with Iledu2)lication. 

Active, KcGs (stem, -for-, see § 38), -Kma, -kos ; Middle and 
Passive, -|xevos, -v-^vr\, -jxtvov. 

The Verbal Adjectives. 

Many verbs have, in adJition to their passive participles, a kind 
of participial adjective, to signify capability or duty. The former 
is generally expressed by the termination -tos, -t^, -tov, appended to 
the verbal stem ; the latter by the termination -reos, -T«a, -t€ov. 
Thus, from \v- may be formed Xvro's, ca,pable of being loosened ; 
Xvreos, that ought to be loosened. 

74. Paradigm of the First Conjugation, 

OR OF "the YeRB in -«." 

The verb Tviarevo) has been chosen as a model, because it is a 
characteristic word of the New Testament, and because all its 
forms contain the unaltered stem. The A'erb ^ovkevu), to advise, 
employed by Kiihner and others, only occurs in the New Testa- 
ment in the middle voice ; and Xv&j, to loosen, chosen by Professor 
Curtius and Principal Greenwood, though easy to conjugate, has 
the disadvantage of having the stem long in some forms, and short 
in others, although unaltered to the eye. 

Stenij TTicreu-, to believe or trust ; Mid., to trust one^s self 
or to confide; Pass., to be entrusted. 

a. Principal parts. 

Present Indicative Active, Trio-Tevco 

Future „ „ TtKTTivao) 

Perfect „ „ Tt^-nCaTiVKa 

Perfect Indicative, Mid. and Pass.^ "neTsicTT^vyLai 

(First) Aorist Indicative Passive, ^ina-TevOrjv 

To know these five parts thoroughly, with the addition, in many 
verbs, of the Second Aorist (§§ 8G-88), is to know thk verr 




Active Voice. 


Present Tense. I am helieving. 









Imperfect. I was believing. 





eTT tor eves 




Future. / shall or tcill believe. 









Aorlst (First Aorist*). / believed. 









Perfect. I have believed. 









Pluperfect. I had believed. 









See § 86. 



Present Tense. Believe (continuously). 



2nd pers. -nicrT^v^ 
3rd pers. TrtcrreDeVco 



Aorist. Believe (at once). 





Perfect. Have believed {i.e., remain so). 


TTeTTLo-TevKe 7re77torrevKere 

TreTTtcrreuKerft) TreTrtareuKeTwoay 



Present Tense. / may believe. 




Aorist. I may believe, or ^hall have believed. 


Trtcrrewo) Tn(TTev(Tcx)[j.(v 


Perfect. / may have believed. 




[§ 74. 


(Or, Subjunctive of ifie Historical Tenses.) 
Present (or Imperfect). I might believe. 









Future. I should believe. 










I might or am to believe. 








TTiaT€vaai€v or 

Perfect (or Pluperfect) 





I might have believed. 






Present, Tnfrrfveiv, to believe. 
Future, Trtoreweiy, to be about to believe.  
Aorist, TTLaTevaaL, to believe immediately. 
Perfect, 7T€TTL(jTevK€vat, to have believed. 


Present nom., Tna-revcov, Tnarevovcra, uLcrTevuv, believing; 

stem WWTTtVOVT-. 

Future nom., Tiiir^va-cov, Trio-revo-ouo-a, ruaTtVoov, about to 
believe ; stem moTtuo-ovr-. 




Aorist nom., Tnareva-as, iiKTTivcrdaa, TrioreCo-ar, having 
believed ; stern wKTrevo-avr-. 

Perfect nom., ■nemaTcvKm, TreitLaTevKvla, tt^ttlo-tcvkos, having 
now believed ; stem invumvKOT-. 

Middle and Passive Voices— Forms common to both. 


Present Tense. I am confiding {trusting myself), 
or am being entrusted* 






Imperfect. I was confiding, or was being entrusted. 





Perfect. / have conS 







I, or have been entrusted. 




Pluperfect. I had confided, or had been entrusted. 






* The collocation a7n being is doubtlessly inelegant ; but the true force of 
the tense could be given in no other way. The Gi'eek language has no 
present indefinite. 





Present. Confide, or he thou entrusted. 


TTtaTeviadaiaav or -earOoov 

2ncl pers. Tnorewu 
3rd pers. Trto-reueo-^co 

Perfect. ITave confided, or Aaz^e been entrusted (i.e., remain soj. 




TT^TnaTtvaOitiaav or -crOcov 


Present. / may confide, or be entrusted. 








Perfect. / ma?/ have confided, or hare been entrusted. 


TTeTtaTevixevot cofxev 
TteTniTTevixevot ?]re 

TreTTtcrreujieVos 17s 
7re7rt(rrev//.eVo? rj 

TreTTtorev/xe'i'ot Scn^v) 


(Or, Subjunctive 0/ the Historical Tenses.) 
Present. / might confide, or be entrusted. 





* These forms are made by the perfect participle, with the suljstautive 
verb "to be''' as an auxiliarj'. 



Perfect. / might have confided, or been entrusted. 


TreTrtcrreu/xei'os etr^y 
TTeiTiaTevixivos etrjs 


TreTTto-revjiieVot elr]ij.ev 
TTeTTia-Tevixivoi etr;rt" 
TTeTnaT£v>j.4voi, elrjcrav 


Present, Tna-revea-Oat, to confide, or 5e entrusted. 

Perfect, ■ne-nia-revadai, to have confided, or have been entrusted. 


Present, incrTevoixevo?, incrTevojj.h'ri, TTia-revoixevov, confiding, 
or being entrusted. 

Perfect, TteirLa-TeviJLevos, 7re7TtcrreDjueV?j, TreincrTcvixevov, having 
confided, or having been eutrusted. 

Forms peculiar to the Middle. 


Future Tense. / shall or tvill confide. 


Tn(TT€V( TTLa-revaofxeOa. 

TnaTeTjarj TTiarevaeaOe 

7rtoTevo"erai iTLaTevaoirrak 

(First) Aorist. I confided. 





Aorist. Confide (at once). 


2nd pers. TriaTevcrat 
3rd pers. 7ncrT€vcrd(7du> 


TnaT^vaaadcaaav Or -daduiv 





Aorist. / may confide, or shall have confided. 









(Or, Subjunctive of the Historical Tenses.) 
Future. / should confide. 







Aorist. / might, or am to confide. 










Future, Tna-T^ixrecrOai, to he about to confide. 
Aorist, TTto-Tevo-aa-^ai, to confide immediately. 


Future, 'ni.(TT€V(T6\j.ivos, Tna-reva-oixivr], TTLo-Teva-oixevov, aboilt to 

Aorist, Trtoreuo'a/iei'os, Tna-TevcrafJihr], Tnareva-aixevov, having 


Perms peculiar to the Passive. 


(First) Future Tense. I shall be entrusted. 










(First) Aorist. I was entrusted, 







Aorist. Be thou entrusted (at once). 


2nd pers. Tna-Tevd-qri 
3rd pers. Tna-Tevd/jro} 




Aorist. I may he, or shall have been entrusted. 








Future. / should be entrusted. 




Aorist. / might be, or am to he entrusted. 




77 LarevdeLrjixev 


Future, x-i.aTev6/](T€(T0ai., to be about to he entrusted. 
Aorist, ina-TevOrji'ai,, to he entrusted immediately. 

78 THE VERB IX -« : EXERCTSE. [§ 74. 


Future, TnaTeverja-ofxevo^, -17, -ov, about to he entrusted. 
Aorist, TTL(rTev6 ets, -e'la-a, -h, having been entrusted; stem, 

iri(rT€V0€VT . 


-Trio-revTo'?, -rrj, -tov, capable of entrusting, or of being entrusted; 
TTia-TcvTeos, -ria, -tIov, that ought to be entrusted. 

75. The learner who has thoroughl)' mastered the different 
forms of TTic-Tevoi now given, is ready to encounter with com- 
parative ease the manifold variations of verbs in «. First, 
however, let the following Exercises be written : — 

Exercise 9.— On Pure Uncontracted Verbs. 

1. Write out the whole of tlie regular verb ^ovXeva : active, 
to advise; middle, to deliberate, to advise oneself; passive, to be 

2. [Vocahdary of Verbs selected from the " Sermon on the 
Mount." — aKova,, to hear ; 8ovXev(c, to serve ; Xi'w, to loosen (com- 
pound derivatives, aTroXuM, to put away ; KardKvm, to abrogate) ; 
vrja-Tevo), to fast ; npocprjrfvo}, to prophesy ; (povevco, to murder.] 

Analyse and translate the following forms : — BovXeveiv, KaraXvcrai, 
\v(TTj, r]Kov<Tare, ^ov€v(Tfis, (f)ovev(rr], aTrokvo-r], an-oXeXvfjLevTjv, irqa-TfvrjTf, 
VTjiTTevovTes, TrpoecfirjTevaafifv. 

Also the following : — KaTf\v6r], aTroktXvrat, vrjo-Tfva-ov, in^ovevKaa-iv, 
\e\vKevai, KaraKikvKcoi, vquTevcra, TfpocpriTeva-ov, 7rpo(j)r]Tfvovarai, TTpo- 
(})r]r€vr]Te, bfbovXevKapLev, bovXevovres, fbovXevaev, bovXeveraxrav, ottoXu- 
GevTfs, dnoKeXvadai, dneXvovro. 

76. The verbs in the foregoing Exercise, as well as the 
conjugated verb Trtrrrei^o), are all distinguished by a rou-ol 
stem-ending, which, in the great majority of cases, is the 
letter v in a diphthongal or simple form. They are, there- 
fore, called pu7'e verbs ; and inasmuch as the stem appears 
throughout without contraction or alteration, they are further 
termed uncontracted. 

§ 76.] PURE VERBS IN -w. 79 

To the class of pure iiucontracted verbs belong most with the 
stem-ending v or «., but no others. It is, thei'efore, necessary to see 
how the verbal terminations are to be adapted to other kinds of 
stem ; and to do this thorougldy in the case of all regular verbs, 
little else is needed than the x'emembrance and application of the 
elementaiy laws of euphony, as stated in § 4. 

It must be noted by the learner that, when the terminations of the 
voices, moods, and tenses are once known, and a very few simple 
general rules of conjugation impressed on the memory, the acquisition 
of all the midtifarious "classes" and "species" of verbs in-w is a matter 
of euphony, and nothing else. 

77. Let US take the possible verbal stem-endings according 
to the alphabet. It will appear that the stem may terminate 
(1) in a vowel or (2) in a consonant ; and that the consonant 
may be (1) a mute, (2) a liquid, or (3) a double letter. The 
last may be rejected from the account, as no verbal stems, in 
fact, do so terminate. We have, then, three main divisions : 
the pure verbs, the mute, and the liquid. 

78. Pure Yerbs. — Special Rules. 

a. A verbal stem may end in a, «, i, o, or v ; i.e., in any short 
vowel. Those in i and v, the uncontracted, have been considered 

h. From the rules and tables given under § 3,/, and the partial 
illustrations of them seen in the nouns and adjectives, it has been 
seen that when a, «, or o, precedes a vowel, long or short, it is 
generally contracted with it into one syllable. Hence, vei'bal 
stems ending in these vowels form a second class of pure verbs — 
viz., the contracted. 

c. As, however, it appears from the pai-adigm that the last letter 
of the stem precedes a vowel only in the Present and Imperfect 
tenses, it follows that the contraction will be confined to these 
parts of the verb, and that thex'e will be no deviation in other 
parts from the general form of Trio-revo). 




d. For the Table of Contractions, see § 3,y! Note especially that 
with -ov the stem-vowel a- makes «-, while €- and o- disappear 
before the diphthong. In the Infinitive, also, the combination 
-osiv becomes -ow. 

79. The following paradigms will now present no diffi- 
culty : — 

1. A-stem, Tiixdco, to honour. 

2. E-stem, (piXe'a, to love. 

3. O-stem, 8t]\6(o, to manifest. 

Stem, rlfia- 




Indicative— Present. 

























1- . . -ov 






















Imperative — Present. 



















Stem, T'lfia- (fnXe- SrjXo- 



Subjunctive — Present 



» (j)L\<a 




1 <^i\^? 




1 <^'^^ 




oj <^iA&>/iey 




"^ <j)tXr]T€ 




Optative — Present. 



Tui^fxi or 

-(ar]v (piXolixL or -otrjv 

SrjAotjut or -Oirjv* 


TtjLicri? or - 

■(oris ^tAots or -ou;s 

S^/Aots or -oCrjs 


rt/x(o or -(p>; (f)t\ol or -ot?; 

SrjAot or -ouj 


Tcn^jxiv or (f)iXoliJ.€v or 

br]XoLiJL€v or 





n/iwre or 

-w'r/re (/)tAotTf or -oltjts 

brjXoLTs or -oi^re 



Infin ITI VE — Present. 




Participle — Present. 






f. -ov<ra 




n. -ov 



Middle and Passive. 
Indicative — Present. 





-n, -" 


(fiiXfj, -et 


















* The latter are the more usual terminations. 








Indicative — Imperfect. 

1- . . -6p,T]v 

























Imperative — Present. 

















01' -e<r9a)v 




S u B JUNCTi VE — Present. 





























Optative — Present. 


























Infinitive — Present 






§ 79.] 

Stem, Tijxa- 





m. -c|x€vos 

, -0H€VT1 
B. -0[1.€V0V'os 







80. Note on the Remaining Tenses. 

These ave regularly formed. The lengthening of the vowel 
before the future, aorist, and perfect tense-endings must be 

Principal tenses 

of rt/^tao), 

of ({)lk€(0, 

of StjXo'co — 

Present active 




Puture active 




Perfect active 




1st Aor. passive 




Perf., mid., and pass. 




Exercise 10.— On pure Contracted Verbs. 
[Vocabulary of Verbs, selected from the ^^ Sermon on the Mount." 
— dyaTrno), to love ; alreo), to ask ; (5i\//-aa), fo thirst ; deaofiai, to behold 
(dep.*); ^e/ifXio'co, to found; C^Tfu, to seek; nerpew, to measure; 
Hia-ea), tO hate ; olKoSofxea), tO build ; o^oioco, to liken ; Tretfuci), to 
hunger; noua, to do, make.] 

Analyse and translate the following words : — neivcjvrfs, BLyj^iivTes, 
TTOtel, dyaTvrjaeis, /x;o-?}crets, dyanTja-rjTe, ayanwvras, Trot-rjO-ai, noiovai, rroisiTe, 
TTOulv, deadrivai, Trot?)?, alrtja-ai, Cv^etre, fierpelre, alrrjcrrj, aiToxxnv {dat. 
plur.), TToiuxTLV, noLOVv, o/iotcoo-o), cpKo5d/X7;cre, re^e/ieX/coro, oixoicodrjaeTai. 

Also the following : —dedcraa-Bai, TfOiarai, fiydnrjafv, dyana, Tjyanr]- 
fievrju, dyairdv, ahela-de, jjtovvto, ^TT](ravTO, alrcopev, eir]Tovv, Crjrcov, ^TjTeiVoj, 
i^riTeiro, 6poia6r]ixfv, erreivaaa (see § 96, a), ireiva, ibiy\rrj(Ta, biylra. 

* Deponent, ie., middle form with active meaning: an active form not 
being used. See § 100. 

84 mute verbs — their conjugation. [§ 81. 

81. Mute Verbs. — Special Rules. 

The lai-ge class of jnute verbs comes next in order — i.e., verbs 
whose stem-ending (or "characteristic") is either a labial, w, p, <}) ; 
a guttural, k, -y, x ; or a dental, t, 8, 0. It wdl be convenient to 
retain the names of (§ 4, h) p-sounds (labials), A;-sounds (gut- 
turals), and ^sounds (dentals). The cross-division, into sharp,, 
and aspirate, must also be remembered. 

82. Whenever, in the conjugation of a verb, tlie stem is 
followed immediately by a vowel, the mute stem-ending is 
unaffected. In the Present and Imperfect tenses, therefore, 
the mute verb precisely resembles t:l(tt€vu>. 

83. a. Many tense forms, however, begin with a conso- 
nant : as those of the Future and First Aorist with -o--, that of 
the Perfect with -k-, that of the First Aorist passive with -9- ; 
while in the different parts of the Perfect middle and 
passive, there occur four several consonants immediately fol- 
lowing the stem, the terminations being -jjiai, -<rai, -rai, -peGa, 
-o-e«, -vrai. So with the Pluperfect. 

6. The rules, therefore, in § 4, d, will be applied to modify the 
mute stem-endiugs. 

(1) Thus, with -0- (Fut. act., First Aorist act. and mid., Perf. 
mid. and jmss., second person sing., and imper.)— 

It-, P", <(>-, become tj/. 

•*■) 7") X"5 J5 5' 

T-, 8", 0-, disajjpear. 

(2) Before -0 (pass. Fut. and First Aor.) — 

ir- and p- become «j>. 
K- and "Y- „ x- 
T-, 8-, 6-, „ 0-. 

(3) Before -t (mid. and pass., Perf. ind., third person sing.) — 

IT-, P-, «}>-, become ir 

K-, 7-, X-, „ ^^ 

T-, 8-, 0-, „ <r. 


(4) Before -^ (mid. and pass., Perf., first person sing, and plur., 
and Perf. participle — 

IT-, P-, <J)-, become n. 

K-, y-, X-, „ 7- 
T-, 8-, e-, „ 0-. 

(5) Terminations commencing with -<r9 drop the <r after a 
consonant • the remaining affecting tlie mute according to rule. 
Thus, from rpip-, Te-Tpi^-<r6e (mid. and pass., Perf ind., second 
person plur.) becomes first re-rpi^-de, then TirpKJide. 

(6) The combination -vt in the terminations of the middle and 
passive Perfect (-vrai) and Pluperfect (-vto) is impracticable after 
a consonant. Hence the form is dropped altogether, and the per- 
fect Participle, with the substantive verb, put in its stead, as in 
the Perf, subj., and opt. Thus rpip- would regularly give the 
combination (3rd pers. plur., Perf, mid. and pas.) re-rpi^-vrai, 
which cannot be dealt with by any of the foi-egoing laws.* The 
compound form rerpippeuoi el(n{v) is therefore employed. 

(7) There only remains the -k- of the Perfect active. Before 
this letter the dentals t-, 8-, 0-, are dropped. Thus, -nk- neid- ku 
becomes TreVstKa. But when the stem-ending is a labial or a 
guttural, the k is treated as an aspirate or hard breathing, the 
mute being changed into its corresponding aspirate, and k 
disappearing. So aya gives ijxa for ^y-Ka = rjy-a, and r/jt'/So) gives 

T€-Tp'L-(pa, from Te-T/Ji/3-Ka = re-rpi^-a. 

84. Paradigms of the Mute Verbs. 

a. To facilitate comparison, all the tenses are given. It has 
not, however, been thought necessary to go througli all the 
numbers and persons, excepting in the Perf, mid. and pass. 

h. It will be seen that the sharp labial, the Jlat guttural, and the 
aspirate dental have been selected. No diificulty will be found ia 
applying the laws of inflection to mutes of the kindred classes. 

* In the older Greek writers, the v is sometimes replaced by the asjnrate a. 
Thus the word would become ■Terpi<\>arai ; hut this usage is not confined to 
mute verbs or to the Perfect tense. 




c. The verb //yco, beginning with a vowel, takes the temporal 
augment instead of the reduplication in the perfect tenses. See 
§ 69, b. 


^-sounds. Z;-sounds. ^-sounds. 

Stem, r/)I/3- ay ireLO- 

Present, -w 
Imperf. k- . , -ov 
Future, -cr« 
1st Aor. €-. .-era 
Perf. redup. -d* 
Plup. redup. -etv 

Present, -e 
1st Aor. -o-ov 
Perf, redup. -I 

Present, -» 
1st Aorist, -0-0) 
Perf. redup. -w 

Present, -oi|ai 
Future, -o-oiiii 
1st Aor. -o-ai[i.i 
Perf redup. -oi|Jii 

Present, -eiv 
Future, -o-€tv 
1st Aor. -<rai 
Perfect, -€vai. 



TpL^oci, I rub 

ay 00, I lead 

TTeiOu), I persuade 






























































* lu labials and gutturals. (See § S3, b, 7.) 


Stem, TpljS' ay- TreiO' 



Present, -«v 




Future, -o-wv 




1st Aor. -o-as 




Perf. redup. -ws 




Middle and Passive. 


Present, -ojiai 




Imperf. k. .o'jativ 



























TreTreto-joie'i'ot . 

\ ' 











Plup. (e) 
















yyixevoi 7/ Cray 





Present, -ov 





Perf. -(o-)e(o 







redup. - 








or {jx^Ococrav, or 

Tte-eLaQoioav, or 



776776 tO-^OiZ^ 




Stem, rpi^- ay- ireiO- 

[§ S4. 

Present, -u|xai 
Pert", part, with <& 

Present ol^r^v 
Perf. i^art. witli-| 

€l'T,V I 

Present, -€o-9ai 
Perfect, -(o-)eai 

Present, -<5|i€vos 
Perf. redup. -jjitvos 

ireTTetcr[jt.^vos Si 


Tptj3u) ayuifxai 

rerpt/M/xei'o? S rjyjjievos S 


Tpi.fioLixT]v ayoiiir]v TreLdoifxrjv 



Tp(,8€a9ai ayeadai. 

TeTpL(f)dai i])(dai 





Future, -o-onai 
IstAor.l-. .o-dpfqv 

1st Aor. -<rai 

1st Aor. -o-a)|Aai 

Future, -o-oi|j,T]v 
1st Aor. -o-ai'|niv 

Future, -a-io-Qai 
1st Aor. -o-acrflai 

Middle only. 


TpL-^oixai a^oixat 

eTpLxl/afxriv ij^diirjv 


Tpl\j/ai. a^ai 


Tpiy\ru)jxaL a^ofxaL 

TpL^l/OLIXTjV a^Q(.p.r]V 

Tpf^ai\xi]v a^aip.r]V 


TpL\j/ecr6aL a^icrOai 

TpC-^acrOai a^aa-Qai, 








Stem, TpL^- ay- ireiO' 



1st Aor. 


Tpixlraixevos afdjuei'os 
Passive only. 



1st Aor. 


Tpi.(f)6i]aro[xai ax^di]aop.aL 
irptcpdrjv VX^^^ 



1st Aor. 


Tpi^OrjTi axdriTL 



1st Aor. 




1st Aor. 



TpL(f)9r](roiixi]v ayOrjo-oiinqv 



1st Aor. 


TpL(j)97](re(T6aL a^OriaicrO ai 
TpL(f)6i]vaL aydrivai 



Fut. -0T1< 

1st Aor. 

rd p.€vos 

TpL(jidr]a6[Ji.evos a)(dr]G-6iX€V0S 
TpicpOels ax6€Ls 



-Tos aud 






iV^oi!e.— The Future Perfect, " Paulo-post Future" (see § 65, d, 7), 
is once found in the New Testament : KfKpn^ovrai, (Luke xix. 40), 
from Kpa^o) (stem, Kpa^-, § 85, a, 2, ii.) But as this is the only 
instance, the tense has not been given in the paradigm. 



85. Before treating of the remaining class of consonant- 
verbs, i.e., those with a liquid stem-ending, it is necessary to 
notice a most important modification to which very many 
mute verbs, as well as those of other classes, are subjected. 

a. In the examples given, the stem appears full and unaltered 
in the Present tense, Tpt/3o) is from the stem Tpi.p-, ayco fi-om 0,7-, 
and ireidoj from ireiG-. There are, however, many verbs in which 
the stem is 7nodiJied in the formation of the Present. It is there- 
fore requisite to note two main points : first, the stem, of the Verb, 
from wliich all the tenses are derived ; and secondly, the stem of 
the Present, as found in Lexicons and Vocabularies. 

(1) Labial stems are modified by the introduction of -t- before 
the termiuation. Thus; — stem rvK-, strike, Present tvttto) ; stem 
pXaP", hurt, Present /3Xa7rr<u (for fiXajB-T-co, § 4, d, 3); stem pi<J>-, 
t/irow, Present pinTo (for plcp-r-co, § 4, d, 2). 

(2) Guttural stems are modified by changing the stem-ending 
(i) into -o-or-, or its equivalent -tt-. Tluis from the stem toy-, ^^^ 
in order, we have Present Taa-a-co or rdrrw ; (ii) into -%-, e.g., stem 
Kpa^-, cry out, Present KpdCo. 

(3) Dental stems are modified by changing the stem-ending 
into -t~ : thus, from the stem <|)pa8-, tell, comes the Present (ppa(<xi. 

It will be seen that, as the Present termination -^w may be derived 
either from a guttural or a dental stem, a knowledge of the verb will be 
required before deciding to which of the two to refer it. * 

b. The tenses of these "strengthened" verbs, as they are called, 
are formed, from the verbal stem, according to the rules before 
given. Thus — 

* The original modification of guttural and dental stems was probably by 
the insertion of a short vowel {i or «) after the characteristic. So xav- 
rayiw, -raaaui ; <})pa8-, (ppaSiui, (ppd^co. The softening occasioned l»y the vowel 
luay be compared with the eil'ect of » upon t in the termination -tioii. 






to strike 




perf. TfTv<pa 


to hurt 




„ 3f/3Xa(/>^ 


to throw 




,, tppi(pa 


to arrange 




11 rfraxa 


to cry 




„ KeKpaxa 


to tell 




,, 7re(ppaKa 


c. Every class of mute verbs (as well as others, on which see 
hereafter) may receive modification by the insertion of a vowel 
in a short stem-syllable, so as to form a diphthong. Thus <J>v7-, 
Jlee, gives (pevyoo, and Xiir-, leave, XctVo). Only, in this case, the 
Future and Perfect are formed from the stem of the Present, as 
XeiTTO), Xei'v|/'a), XeXeicjia. 

86. The most important point connected with the modifi- 
cation of the stem is the introduction, into the verbs so 
characterized, of a set of "secondary" tenses, in which the 
unmodified stem appears. These tenses, except in special 
cases, are of precisely similar meaning to the corresponding 
"primary" tenses. For example, the difference between the 
First and the Second Aorist is a difference of form only. 
The same remark can hardly be applied so unreservedly to 
the First and Second Perfect ; but the instances of difference 
belong rather to the Lexicon than to the Grammar, and will 
be explained in the Vocabulary. 

A few verbs unmodified, as exai, have a Second Aorist, as will be 
afterwards noted. Occasionally, too, the Second Aorist differs in 
meaning from the First. The above rule, however, is general. 

87. SecojMD Aorist. 

The Second Aorist Active in the Indicative resembles the 
Imperfect, in the other moods the Present, except that the 
Imperfect is taken from the modified, the Second Aorist from 
the original stem. 



[^ S7. 

Thus from ^eCyw (<|>v"y-)> ^^^^^ — 

Imperfect, tcpevyov, tcfifvyes, ((pevyf{v), e(f)fiiyofxev, K.r.X. 

Sec. Aorist, tcpvynv, e(f)vyes, ((pvytiv), e(f)vyofifv, k.t.X. 

The augment and the terminations of the two tenses will be 
seen to be exactly alike. 

In the moods after the Indicative, the Second Aorist drops the 
augment and follows the Present in termination, but accentuates 
the final syllable of the Infinitive (perispomenon) and Participle 
(oxytoue) . 

With these explanations, the Second Aorist Active paradigm 
will present no difficulty. 

TVTTTU), to strike. 

Stem TVir- 

AetTTco, to leave. 













TVTTiov, ovaa, 6v 


Mire IV 


b. The Second Aorist Middle follows exactly the same analogy. 

The Imperative, however, 







is perispomenon, the Infinitive 










c. Second Aorist Passive. — Here the mood and tense-endings 
are like those of the passive First Aorist, the difierence being that 
the unmodified root is used instead of the aspirated form with -0-. 
First Aorist, irv^Or^v ; Second Aorist, hvitriv. In the Imperative 


second person, -0i is found instead of -xi. One paradigm of this 
tense will suffice : — 

Optative, Tvneirjv 
Infinitive, TviTtjvat, 
Part. Tvirets, rinreto-a, tvtt4v 

Indicative, hvTrrjv 
Imperative, TvinqOi, rvir-qTM 
Subjunctive, Tv-rrd 

88. Second Future. 

a. In the Passive voice, there is a Second Future connected with 
the Second Aorist, exactly as the First Future is connected with the 
First Aorist. Thus from rvn-rw we have, First Aor. pass., eTiKpdrjv ; 
First. Fut., Tv(p6ri(T0jxai ; Second Aor., iTvir-qv ; Second Fut., tutt^- 
a-oyLM. The paradigm is as follows : — 

Infinitive, Tvnria^crOai 
Participle, Tvirrjo-oixevos 

Indicative, Tvn^croiiai 
Imperative, ruTn] (roLiJi.rjv 

89. Second Perfect. 

b. The Second Perfect belongs to the Active voice only, and is 
distinguished from the ordinary Pei-fect of mute verbs by having 
the unmodified stem without the aspirate. Thus : tvitt(o (tvtt-). 
First Perf., T(Tv(f)a ; Second Perf , Tervira. The tense is of rare 
occurrence, and its special significance will have to be explained 
in individual cases. It occurs in some verbs that do not modify 
their stem. The Second Pluperfect accompanies it, where found. 
One paradigm here also will be sufficient. Second Perfect of 
TTodo-o-o) (irpa7-), to do: — 

Indicative, iii-npaya 

„ Plup. (e)7re7r/3ciyeiv 
Subjunctive, -n^npayin 

Optative, TreirpdyoiiJLi, 
Imperative, iriTrpaye 
Infinitive, Tmrpayivai 

Participle, TreTrpayws, -via -o's. 

90. General Rules for the Second Tenses. 

(1) These do not occur in the pure verbs, or in verbs having a 
dental, t, S, 9 (S), for their characteristic. 

(2) The same verb very seldom takes both First and Second 
Aorists in the Active or Middle. 


(3) The Passive may have both First and Second Aorist and 

(4) When both First and Second Perfect active are found, the 
former is often transitive, the latter intransitive. Trtnpaxa, I have 
(lone; Trenpaya, I have fared (^compare English, "How do you 

Remark. — For the vowel-modifications of the second tenses, see 
the sections on Tense-formation, §§ 93 — 99. 

Exercise 11.— On Mute Verbs. 

\yocabulary, from the '■'■Sermon on the Mount" — (1) Labial 
Stems : /SAeVw, to see ; dXelcpco, to anoint ; QXi^a, to straiten ; 
KpvTTTQ), to hide ; vitttco, to wash ; crrpecfiui, to turn ; rpecfio (Qpt^-), to 

(2) GdtturaIj Stems : Sya, to lead; Stcoxw, to pursue ; ('xco {k\), 
to Iiave ; Xeyw, to say ; Ti-pnafvxonat, to pray (dep). 

(3) Dental Stems : y^€, to Ha (dep,); oveidlCo}, to reproach; 

So|a^ai, to glorify; vop-i^oi, to suppose ; prjda, to spin ; aytafw, to 


Analyze and translate the following words : — SeStuy/neVoi, weihi- 
aaxriv, Siat^ovat, i^'euSd/iei'ot, eSla^av, Kpv^rjvai, do^acraxri, vofiLarjTf, e;^et, 
(rTpf\f/ov, Trpoa-evxfade, Sicokoitcoj', e;^eTe, /SXeVcoi', rrpocrdxjji Trpocrtv^ai, 
TrpoaevxofXfvoi, ayiacrdrjTa), aXfi.\j/ai, vi'^ai, /SXeVwi', KkfTVTOvcn, vrjOn, 
Xeyoures, arpacpevres (see § 98, d), Te6\ipLjj.(vrj. 

Also the following : TJXd-^e, fiyiaafievoi, ayidaai, ebicoKov, K(Kpvp.p.eva, 
Kpv\}raT€, fixov, e^co, fxov, e\}/€V(TQ}, ■^evcracrdai, fdpeyj/ap.ef, vl'^^rris, ((TTpf\\re, 
Xeyofiej/os, Xe_;^^fij, Trpocnjvxf'o, TrpoaiV^ap.(voi, Opi-^O). 

91. Liquid Yerbs. 

Verbs witli the stem-endings X, [i, v or p, present many 
Tariations from the foregoing models, which will be noticed 

§ 91.] LIQUID AERBS. 95 

in the sections on Tense-formation. It will be sufficient, as 
introductory to the paradigm, to observe — 

a. The stem of these verbs is generally modified in the Present: 
e. g., stem d77eX-, announce, Present act. ayyeXka; 4)av-, appear, 
Pres. (paiva. 

h. The Future active originally ended in -sVw, middle -^o-opai ; 
but the o- being dropped (see a similar case in Nouns, § 30, iv.), two 
vowels are brought together, and contraction ensues. Thus, eiYyeX-, 
Fut. (dyyeXe-cr-a), ayyeXe-w) ayyekoi] middle (dyyeX-e-o-o/xai, dyyfX-e-o/iai), 
dyyeXoC/zat. The Future, active aud middle, of liquid verbs is there- 
fore declined like the Present of contracted pure verbs with stem- 
en diug e-. 

c. The First Aorist active and middle follows the Future in the 
omission of the cr, but lengthens the vowel of the preceding 
syllable. Thus : — 

<j)av-, fut. ^ava>, 1st Aor. i(pr}va 

dyyeX-, „ dyyeXai, „ fjyyeiKa 

KpXv-, judge, „ Kplvcb, „ cKfjlva 

(Tvp, drag, „ crvpa, ,, ea-vpa 

d. In the Perfect active, as v- and ji.- cannot come before -k, 
various expedients are adopted. Kpivai, to judge, kKlvco, to hend, 
ttXvvco, to wash, drop the v {KinpiKu, &c.) Other verbs, as (paivca, 
adopt a Second Perfect, lengthening the vowel as in the Aorist 
(Trecprjva) . Others, again, form the Perfect as from a pure root in 
6-, as p.evco, to remain, pep.evqKa, as if from p.eviu>. 

e. In the Perfect passive, v- is changed into o-- or into jt- before 
-[iai, as, from <j>av-, welffaa-pat instead of nicpav-pai, and from giipav-, 
{^ instead of e^rjpav-pai. The three verbs which drop v- 
before -Ka in the Perfect active lose it also in the Perfect and First 
Aorist passive. Thus, KeKpi/xai, iKpiQrjv. Those verbs which assume 
a root in €- for the Perfect active, construct the passive Perfect 
and First Aorist after the same analogy. 



92. Paradigms. 






Strengthened, ayyeXk- 












€ up LVOV 


Future sing. 




» jj 




» 5> 



ape I 

„ plur. 




» » 




>> » 

ayyikov(n{v) Kpivovcn{v) 


1st Aorist, 












2nd Aorist, 








1st Aorist, 








2nd Aorist, 








1st Aorist, 

dyy eiAcd 







2nd Aorist, 









ayy^kolfxioroi-qv Kpivol\xi or oCr]V 

apolp.1 or oinv 

Ish Aorist, 








2nd Aorist, 



§ 92.] 



Stem, ayyeX- 
Strengthened, ayyeW- 


1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 

1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 






















Middle and Passive. 


dyyeAAo/xai KpCvofxat 

riyye\\6[xr]v eKpLvofxriv 

ij-yyeXpLai K€ 

■f]yyiKin]V (e)KeKpt/xr]y 


ayyiXkov Kpivov 

ijyyeKaro, -Oca K^Kpiao, -aOoi 


ayyiWa^naL KpLVcojxaL 

TjyyeKpi^vos S KeKptfxivos S 


ayyeX\oinr]v KpLVOLfirjv 

riyyeXlxivos etryy /ce/cpt/xeVos etrjy 










ftpo-o, fjpdd) 

.ripp.ivos CO 





Stem, ayyeX- Kptv- 

Strengthened, ayyeAA- Kplv- 

Middle only. 





dyyeXXeaOaL KpiveadaL 
riyyikdai K^KpiaQai 




dyyeXkop-evos KpLv6p.(vos 
riyyeXp-evos K^Kpip-ivos 


1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 

riyy^i\dp.r]v iKpLvdfxrjv 





1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 

ayyetAat Kpivai 



1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 

dyyeLXoypiai KpivcDp-ai 




dyy€\oip.r]v, oio, Kpivoip.i]V, 


ayy€i\aip.r]v Kpivaip-qv 

oio, dpoipirjv, olo, 


1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 



1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 

dyyeXeirr^at KpwelaOa 
dyydXaaOai KpivaaQai 




I 92.] 



Stem, ayyeX- Kplv- 

Strengthened, ayyeW- Kplv- 



Ist Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 

ayyeXovacvo^ Kpi.voviJ.evos 
ayy€i\d[X€vos Kptvd[xevos 

Passive only. 





1st Future, 
1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 
2nd Future, 

dyy€X6i](Toixat Kpid-qa-oixai 
r]yyekdr]V kKpiOr]V 



1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 

ayyekdrjTL KpiOmi 



1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 

dyye\0(a Kpi65> 



1st Future, 
1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 
2nd Future, 

dyyeXdrj(Toip.r]V KpcOrjcroCpLrjv 
ayye\6iir]v KpcOeL-qv 



1st Future, 
1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 
2nd Future, 

dyye\dr](Te(T6ai. KpiOria-ecrOai 
dyyekdrivai KpiQrjvai 





Stem, ayyeX- Kptu- 

Strengthened, ayyeXX- Kplu- 


1st Future, 
1st Aorist, 
2nd Aorist, 
2nd Future, 


ayy eXeis 



ayy^Xros KpLvos apros 

ayyeXreos Kptreos apr^os 

*^* It is not to be supposed that all the above forms are 
actually in use. They are given as TrapaSe ly nara, examples, of 
words that may occur. 

Exercise 12.— On Liquid Verbs. 

I. [Vocabulary/, from the " Sei'mon on the Mount" — av^dva, to 
grow, to increase; (SdXXo), to throw, cast; 6e\(o, to will (augment 
with Tj, see § 94, ii.) ; Kpivo), to judge ; pcopaivco, to corrupt ; a-wflpo), 
to sow ; (paivco, to show (Second Aorist, passive or middle, a^ppear) ; 
Xaipco, to rejoice.] 

II. Analyze and translate the following forms : — x'"'P"'f> ficopavdjj, 
^\r)6r]vai, (see § 98, c), ^XrjBrjarj, ^ake, ^Xrjd^, OiXovri, KpiBrfvai, ^avrjSf 
(TTTiipovcriv, av^dvei, ^aKkojXivov, KpiOrin, Kpi6ri<Te(T6e, fiakrjTf, BeXrjTe. 

Also the following : — 6(\ei, rjBekov, rjdfkrja-a, deXovres, Kpivei, Kpivel, 
Kpivare, iiia>pdv6r]crav, ipapavev, cnrfipaiv, aTrapeU, eaTTapfxei/ov, ecfiavrj, 
(paiveadi, 'Jiavelrai, ^dXf, /3X';^?/ri, jSaXAetr, /3aXeic, ^aXXco, j3aXS). 

§ 93.] on tense-formation. 101 

93. Notes on the Tenses. 

The foregoing paradigms have fully given the typical 

forms of the First Conjugation, i.e., of the great majority of 

verbs, and of most of the tenses in all verbs. Many minute 

variations must now be noticed, with apparent irregularities, 

which for the most part can themselves be reduced to rule, or 

explained by some early usage of the language. 

Accentuation. — It may be repeated at the outset from § 73, that 
verbal forms mostly retract the. accent, i.e., throw it back as far as 
possible. Exceptions are noted below under the different Tenses. 
When the accent falls on the penultimate, e.g., in dissyllables, along 
vowel is circumflexed, in certain forms, as has been already shown. 

94. The Present and Imperfect : Active, Middle 

AND Passive. 

I. The Present Indicative Active, first person (the form usually 
given in Lexicons, Vocabularies, and Concordances*) contains the 
verbal stem, often modified. 

The principal forms of modified stem are as follows : — 

1. Labial stem-endings, strengthened by t-. (See § 85, a, 1.) 

2. Short stem-syllables lengthened. (See § 85, c.) 

3. The euphonic o-a-, tt-, for a guttural characteristic j t- for 
a dental, or occasionally for 7-. (See § 85, a, 2, 3.) 

4. XX- for the characteristic X-. (See note, § 85.) 

5. The letter v- affixed to the stem-syllable. 

This may take place in dififerent ways. 
1. To a pure stem, simply affixed : 

Thus from <pda-, ^ddva>, to anticipate. 
from iri-, irivo}, to drink, 

6. Two consonant stems follow this model : 

from Ko/i-, Kafivoj, to be weary. 
from 5oK-, SaKuw, to bite. 

• Bruder's Concordance, 4to (Tauchnitz), gives the Present Infiniike. 


c. One affixes vt-, a(piK-, acpiKveS/xai, to arrive. 

d. To a pure stem lengthened, two verbs only : 

from j8a-, jSaiVotf, to go. 
from fKa-, e\avva>, to drive. 

e. To a consonant stem, with connective a : 

from anapT-, afiapTavai, to sin. 
from Aa3-, Kanfidua, to take. 

In the last-mentioned verb, it will be seen that n is also inserted in the 
stem-syllable. This is for -v- (made fi before a labial, § 4, d, 5). So 
tiavQavui, to learn, from fiaQ-, and other verbs. The stem appears in the 
Second Aorist, rifj-aprov, iAaPov, efiadop. 

6. An alternative pure stem in «-. 

This appears generally in the Future, Aorist, and Perfect. 

Thus fx- and ax^; to liave, exi», e'la', or crxrifffo, ^(rxv^a ; Second Aor. , saxov. 
de\- and deKe- (also iOeX-), to will, 64\ai, Q^hiiadi, eOeKriaa. 
Hev- and jJ-eve-, to remain, ^eVoi, fiefxiyriKa. 

Occasionally the e-stem appears in the Pres. Thus Sok- and Soke-, to 
appear, 8okw (So/ce'to), 56^a>, l5o|a. 

Some of the verbs under 5, e, have a similar alternative stem. Thus from 
ajj-aprivw we find a,fiapTi]<7te, rijj.apTi\Ka,. 

7. The inchoative form (so called because some verbs of this class 
denote the beginning of an action), in o-k- or io-k-. 

Pure stems add -ctk-, generally lengthening a short stem-vowel. So Bva-, 
transposed from 6av-, to die, BvijaKti), iQavov, Perf. rkQv7]Ka. 

Consonant stems add -io-k-, and often, as in 6, have an alternative stem 
in e-. Thus eup-, eupe-, to find, evpicrKw, evprjffu, evp7]Ka, evpov. Ttaax"', to suffe.r, 
(vad-, with alternative stem, trivQ-) has Second Aor. e-iraOov, Second Perf. 
■Ke-KovOa. SiSdaKw, to teach, originally from 5a-, assumes a mute guttural stem : 
Fnt., 5iSa|£o; First Aor. pass., iSiSaxdv- 

Verbs of this class are very various in form, as exhibited in the Lexicon 
or Vocabulary. 

8. Reduplicated stems, the initial consonant repeated with X, 

Four verbs of this class are of very common occurrence. 

a. y'lvonai (deponent intriinsitive), to become^ stem yev-, by reduplication 
71761'-, shortened into 7t7>'-, the second 7- being dropped for the sake of 
euphony; Impf., iyivoj^rii'; Inf., ylvtaSai; Second Aor., iyn'ofj.rjv, yevecdai. 


b. yivw(TKt», to become acquainted with, to know. Stem yvo-, which becomes 
yvaxTK-, after the model of class 7; then by reduplication yiyvacK-, when y- 
is dropped, as in the last instance; Fut., ; Perf., tyvwKa; Second 
Aor., ey^wf (like second conjugation). 

c. mfivfiffKo/jLai, to remember (deponent), from /J-fa-, ixv-fjaofxat, i/j-vnaeriv, 

d. w'iiTTw, to fall. This is not a labial verb strengthened by t-. Its root 
is Trer-, by reduplication irnrfT-. The weak vowel -f- is then dropped, leaving 
TriTT-. Second Aor., eirecrov, the or- being softened from t- ; Fut., vfcrovfiai ; 
Perf., iriirruKa. (Compare § 96, d.) 

II. The Imperfect Tense always follows the stem of the Present, 
the Augment being prefixed. 

For the Augment, consult § 69. After the Augment, an initial 
-p- is doubled, as from pvofiai ; Impf , eppvopTjv ; First Aor., €ppva-6j]v. 
A few verbs have the Attic double augment r] instead of €. Thus, 
lieXkco, to be about to do a thing, has epeXKov and ^'peWov inter- 
changeably. 'Opdio, to see, has a double augment also : Impf, 
fapcov ; Perf, fcopSra. (See further, under the Aorist, § 97.) 

95. The Second Aorist, Active and Middle. 

This is the simplest of the Tenses (see § 87), and in general 
contains the exact verbal stem. Hence it is mainly found in verbs 
whose Present-stem is modified. So Imperf , eruTrroi'; Second Aor., 
cTVTTov. In one verb, aya, to lead, where the Present-stem is un- 
modified, the Second Aorist is distinguished from the Imperfect by 
a reduplication ; Impf., ijyov ; Second Aor., fjyaynv; Inf, dyayelv. 

J^ote. — Some short stem-syllables with 6- change this into a in the 
Second Aorist, as from aireipa), to sow (o-Trep-), tairapav. 

The Voioel Aorist.— A few pure stems (like the second conjuga- 
tion, or "verbs in -|xi") afiix the tense-endings to the stem, with 
lengthened vowel, rejecting the usual modal vowel. 

Thus, yivaxxKo ("yvo-, see § 94, 8, b), eyvcov. 
bvvu, to set, as the sun (_8v-), eSuj/. 
Haivu, to go (?«■-), f^rjv. 


For the conjugation of these forms, see paradigms of verbs in 


Accentuation. — The Second Aorist active infinitive circumflexes the 
final syllable; rwe'tu; in the participle accents the stem-syllable -out, 
with a circumflex on the fern, where possible, Tnr<vv, rv-rrova-a, tvk6v. 
In the middle the imperative is perispomenon, tvitov ; the inf. 
paroxytone, rvnecrOai. 

96. The Future, Active and Middle. 

For the relation between the Future stem and the simple stem 
of the verb, consult § 85, b, c. 

a. In pure stems, the vowel is lengthened before the Future 
characteristic -a--. The stem-endings a,- and «- become t] ; o- becomes 
w- ; I- and v- are made long. Thus, Tifiaa, TtiiTja-co ; (piXea, (pihrjo-w ; 
StjXog), drjXbXTco ] Xnto, Xva"a>. 

Exceptions: (i.) a- becomes a- after a vowel or p. Thus : — 

edo), ta permit, Fut. edao/j-ai. 
lao/jiai, to heal, „ Idaofiai. 

Treipdofxai, to try, „ rrfipaa-Ofiai. 

So Treivdco, to hunger, ,, irfivda-a. 
Xa\doi), to loosen, „ ;(aXaa-<i). 

But xpoofiai, to use, makes ^pfia-ofiau 

(ii.) The following verbs do not lengthen their stem-endings for 
the Future : — * 

,o-forms : yeXdco, to laugh, Fut, •yeXdo-M. 

Kkd(o, to break. 


forms : dpKeco, to suffice. 


eiraivio), to praise, 


KoXeco, to call, 


reXeo), to finish. 


(popeco, to carry. 


b. Verbs in tf" (stem i&-) usually drop the -«r- Future charac- 
* Some of these verbs are regular in classic Greek. 

makes Fut. 



KOfiio), mid. KOfjiiovnac. 

KadapiQ) and Kadapi(T<o. 

jBaTTTicroi only. 

pet, „ 

o-aATTio-o) only.* 

§ 96.] ON TE>rSE-FORMATION. 105 

teristic, replacing it by a contraction similar to that of the liquid 
verbs. This form is called the Attic Future. 

Thus : d(f)opL^(ii, to separate, 
(Xttl^o), to hope, 
KoniCa, to carry, 
KadaplCa, to purify, 
^atvTi^u), to haptize, 
(toXttl^o}, to sound a trumpet, „ 

But the verbs of this class which drop -<r- in the Future, resume it in the 
First Aorist ; so far differing from the hquid verbs. 

c. Three verbs in -ia, originally -iFo>, show the digamma (see 
§ 29, iii.) in inflection, as v : — 

TrXeo), to sail, Fut. 
Tvvea, to blow, „ 7rvev(Tco. 
pea, to flow, ,, peva-O). 

Another digammated verb, p^ew, to pour, omits the o- altogether, 
and conforms to the Attic Future, retaining, however, the € before 
the circumflexed final : eKxea, I will pour forth (Acts ii. 17 ) 

In this class the First Aorist characteristic conforms to that of the Future. 
So eirveva-a. From eKxeui is formed First Aor. i^exea, uncontracted. 

To the digammated verbs may be referred Kaia, to burn, Fut. 
Kava-m \ Kkaia, to weep, Fut. KkaiKToi and Kkava-opai (Luke vi. 25 ; 
Eev. xviii. 9). (See d.) 

d. Several active verbs of frequent occurrence have a Future in 
the middle form, still with active meaning ; as — 

OLKovit), to hear, Fut. aKovaonai, or aKovfra. 

Cdco, to live, ,, ^rjaop,aL Or ^rjcro). 

Xap^dvo), to take, „ "kriylfopai (from Xap-, XT|\|r-) 

davpdCo), to wonder, „ Bavpdaopai, once. 

(f)fvyo), to flee, „ (f)(v^opai. 

irivm, to drink, „ ntofxat, -ea-ai, -erai (Luke xvii. 8). 

* Tn classic Greek, cra\ir(y^a>, from stem ffoKmyf-. 

106 on tense-formation. [§ 97. 

97. The First Aorist, Active and Middle. 

a. Connexion of the Aorist stem with that of the Future. — 1. In 
the pure and mute verbs, the o- of the Future is retained. 

2. In the liquid verbs, the Aorist lengthens a short vowel before 
the stem-ending. Thus, «nr€p-, to sow; Fut., a-nepa ; First Aor., 
e(T7reipa; and from ayytk-, rjyyeika. 

Verbs in alvoi, from the stem -oi', generally have o in the Future, a in the 
First Aorist. So Aeu/caiVo;, to whiten, ; Fut., MuKavSt; First Aor., iKevKoiva. 
a-qixaivw, to signify ; First Aor. inf., o-tj^Swi (Acts xxv. 27). Similarly, 
iivKpavai (Luke i. 79), from iiri, ^aivai,* to show, appear. But KipSaivai, to 
gain, Fut. KepMfw, makes tKtpSriira, as from an alternative pure root, nepSa-. 

b. Peculiarities of Augment. — The double augment is occasionally 
found : dvotyco, to open, avtco^a, also Tjvoi^a ; similax'ly, fSovXofiai, to 
will (deponent), Ij^ovXrjdrjv (2 John, 12). Compound verbs gene- 
rally prefix the augment to the verbal stem ; but where the com- 
pound has lost its force, or has usurped the place of the simple 
verb, the augment may precede the whole verb. Thus, from 
vpocprirfiKo, €Trpo(j)r]Tevcra, instead of 7rpoe<pT]TfV(Ta. The prefix, ev, well, 
is sometimes augmented into t]v-, sometimes left unaltered. So 
from evBoKfco, to be well pleased, evboKrjcra (Matth. iii. 17), and 
rjvSoKria-a (Luke iii. 22). But a verbal stem after tv, beginning 
with a, €, o, is itself augmented. So from fvayyeXi^opai, to preach 

the Gosjjel, we have evrjyyikKTajxrjv, not rjvayyeXia-dpjjv. 

The root a^-, to break (second conjugation, &yvvfii (with prefix, Kara, 
makes First Aor. /caTea^a (John xix. 32), instead of kottjIo. But as the e- is 
found in the Future of the same verb (KaTfa^cc, Matth. xii. 20), and in the 
Second Aor. subj. pass. {Karfayixn, John xix. 30), it may mark a collateral 
form of the verb, and not be intended as an augment, f 

The Aorist augment of the verb aipu (see § 92) is variovisly printed p or ij. 
The latter is correct, as it is the simple stem which is lengthened. 

Note. Some verbs in the LXX. have a kind of compound Aorist tense 
("Alexandrian"), like the First in termination, but like the Second in tense- 

* The classical First Aor. of (paivw is i<i>i,va. 

f- Or it may be simjdy to distiuguiali the forms from those of Kariyui, to 
Uad doum. 


form : i.e., attaching First Aorist terminations to the simple verbal stem. 
So in classic Greek, fiv^yKov or ¥ivfyKa. See § 103 (6). An instance in 
the New Testament of the Alexandrian Aorist is Heb. ix. 12, ^vpafxivos. 
Many others occur in the most ancient MSS., and have been adopted into 
critical editions, as iinaav (compare § 94, 8, d), and Utto. in different numbers 
and persons ; in imper., iliraroiaav (Acts xxiv. 20). 

Accentuation. —The active First Aor. Infinitive accents the penultimate, 
circumllexiog all diphthongs and long vowels, as (pu\a|°'> Tio-reDo-ai. 
The act. Optative third pers. sing, has an acute accent on the same 
syllable, the at being here regarded as long, as -Kiorfvaai. The same 
form again is found in the middle Imperative ; the oi, as usual, 
being treated as short, and the accent thrown back, as -Kiarevaai. Only 
in monosyllabic stems, where the accent must be on the penultima, 
a long vowel is circumflexed, as Kvaai. To present the three cases at 
one view : 

Act. Opt., 1st Aor., third pers. sing., irio-reuirai Xixrai <pv\d^ai. 

Active, 1st Aorist, infinitive, TnanvTai. Xvaai (pi\d^at. 

Middle, 1st Aorist, imperative, irlarevaai Avcai <pv\a^ai. 

98. The Aorists and Futures Passive. 

a. The First Aorist, Future aud Perfect (with the Pluperfect), 
Passive, have generally the same modification of the verbal root. 
Thus, fl'Om Ti(i.a-, eTi^i]di]v, TeTijxrjfjiac ; from \v-, eXvdtjv, ^vdrjcrofj-ai, 
\ekvfiai ; and from ireiO-, eireia-dTjv, TTdcrdrja-ofiai, Tre7rfi.( To know 
one of these Tenses is, therefore, a help to the knowledge of the 

rest. But (Tw^co, to save, makes ia-wOrjv and aea-cocrixai, 

h. The chief variation in the stem-syllable of these tenses from 
the ordinary model is in the case of pure verbs. Usually, these 
lengthen the vowel stem-ending. In several verbs, however, the 
short vowel remains, as in ededrjv, i\vdr)v, and others. In many, 
again, the letter a- is inserted after the stem, as in eTeXeadrju (Perf., 
rerfXea-nai), ixoKaal^riv (2 Cor. xi. 33), and from pvox n, to deliver, 
(ppva-drjv (2 Tim. iv. 17). Thus, also, from aKoCco, to hear, T}<ovcr6r,p, 

aKovadrjcro/xai., ^Kovafxai. 

c. The transposition of a vowel and liquid, in .short moncsyl- 
labic roots, is very common in these tenses. Thus, PaX-, to throw, 
becomes pXa-, and gives e^Xijdrjv, ^Xrjd^a-oiJiai, ^i^Xrjfiai. The root 


KoXe-, to call, is treated as Ka\-, KXa- ; Fii-st Aor. pass., (kXtjOtiv ; 
Fut., K\r]6r]<TonaL } Perf., KfKXrjfxai.. 

d. A weak vowel in a short liquid stem is ofteu changed into a. 
This rule generally applies to the Perfects, Active and Passive, 
and to the Aorists and Futures Passive (sometimes also to the 
Second Aorist active: see § 95, note). Thus, from f.TrooTeXXco, to 
send forth (otcX-), aTrfa-ToKKa, drreaTaXfiai, aTreo-raX?;!/, aiTO(TTakT](rojxaL. 
The verb irlva, to drink {KUTanivm, to swallow), changes i into o. 
So we find nencoKa, Karenodrju, KaTaTTodrja-oiJLai. 

e. The First Aorist and Future passive are chiefly found in 
pure stems and derivative verbs ; the Second in original consonant- 
verbs. Where, too, the First would give an inharmonious con- 
currence of lettei'S, the Second will usually be employed. Both 
are seldom used in the same verb. But a verb that has the First 
Aorist ill the Active, may have the Second in the Passive, and 
vice versd. 

For tlie usage of particular verbs, consult the Vocabulary. ttA^o-o-o), Tr\r)y-, 
to strike, makes Second Aor. firK-tiynv ; but in compounds tj becomes a, as 
i^crrxdynaav (Luke ii. 48) ; (pvw, to grow, kas the Second Aor. participle ^ueV, 
(Luke \nii. 6, 8). 

Irregularities of Augment in the Aorists passive. — KaTe»\^(/)67j, in many 
copies of John viii. 4; ainKaTeaT&dTi (e after both prepositions) : Matth. xii. 13. 
From avoi-yw (compare ^ 99, a, 3), we find rivolxdv, aveufxOv", rivecix^V (Rev. 
XX. 12); and Second Aor. Tji/olyriv, with Second Future, a.voiyfi(To/jLai. 

Accentuation. — The Aorists passive circumflex the Subjunctive mood- 
vowel throughout, and the penultimate of the Inf. -rjvat. The participle 
accents the stem-syUable -evr throughout, with a circumflex on the 
fem. , wherever possible. 

Thus : \u6eis, \vde7crc, \vGiv, 

\vdevros, Ai/9ei(r7jJ, Kudevros, k.t.A. 

99. The Perfect and Pluperfect, Active, Middle, 

AND Passive. 
a. For the Pteduplication, see § 69. The following variations 
must be noted : — 

1. A verb beginning with two consonants, other than a mute 


followed by a liquid, or with a double consonant, takes e-. Thus, 
aTeipavoco, to crown, ecTTfcfidvcoKa, icTTecpafconai ', ^rjpaivco, to wither, 
s^rjpafifiat. So when V follows 7-, as from -yvo-, tyvcoKa. 

2. The verb Xa/i/Savm, XaP-, takes eU instead of the reduplication,* 

3. Some verbs beginning with a, e, or o, take a double redupli- 
cation in the active. 

aKovco, to hear, aKTjKoa. 

(iXvd-), to come, iX^Xvda. See § 103 (2). 

The verb dvo'iyco (see §§ 97, 98) may have a double augment in 
the perf. pass., rjvewyfiivq (Rev. iv. 1). 

4. The Pluperfect in the New Testament generally omits the 
augment, taking only the reduplication, as re^e/xeXt'taro, it had been 
founded (Matt. vii. 25). 

h. Termination of the Active Perfect third person plural. — Many 
MSS. frequently give this as -av, like the First Aor. In John 
xvii. 7, the rec. text reads tyvaKav. 


c. The Second Perfect active takes the termination of the 
First without the characteristic -k- or aspirate, and often modifies 
a vowel in the stem-syllable, preferrin^^ o. Thus, Xeiira, XiXmna, 
7Td(rx<o (alternate stem, xev9-), niiTovQa. 

This tense is often intransitive ; as from ire'.Qw, to persuade. First Perf., 
ireireiKa, I have persuaded; but Second Perf., irfTroWa, I have confidence, I 
fully believe. To the class of Second Perfects belong the forms eoHca, / am 
like ifiK-); olSa, I know (fiS-). (See § 103.) 

"When the stem-ending of the verb is an aspirate — mute, labial 
or guttural — the Perfect is in the Second, or unaltered, form : as 
fro:n Ypa4>-, to write, yeypac^a. 

d. Some peculiarities of the Perfect Passive have been noted 
under the head of the Aorist, Vowel changes in the stem-syllable 
are given in the Lexicon or Vocabulary. So, also, the insertion or 
otherwise of -a-- after a vowel stem-ending. 

* So in classic Greek some other verbs, as Kayxduw, eikrixa. 


E.g., Tpe(pQ), to nourish (9pe(}>-), TiTpo(f>a, Again, Bpnva, 
to crush, makes ridpavapai (Luke iv. 18); but Travopai, to cease, 

TTfiravpai (1 Pet. iv. 10). 

c. The Future-Perfect (passive in classic Greek ; called often 
the paulo-post Future) is but the middle Future reduplicated. 
Luke xix. 40, is the only instance in the New Testament : nfupa^ovrai, 
will immediately cry out. 

Accentuation. — The Perfect Infinitive accents the penultimate -4vai. 
In the active Participle, the stem-syllable, masc. -ot, fern, -vi, is accented 
all through, the latter circmnflexed wherever possible. 

AfXuKtiy, \f\vKvia., \(\vk6s, 

KfKvKSros, \e\vKvias, ?il€\vk6tos. 

In the middle and passive, the Infinitive accents the penult. , circumflex 
on diphthongs and long vowels, fie$ov\ev(T6ai, reTifj.ri<^6at, rervcpOai. The 
participle accents the penultimate ; as AeAu/xeVos, AeAu^eVTj, KiKvjjiivov. 

100. Deponent Yerbs. 

Deponent verbs have no active voice, but may be either middle 
or passive in form. This is decided by the Aorist. 

Thus: Se'xo^at, to receive; First Aor., iSe^aprjv (middle). 
^ovXopai, to wish; Fii'st Aor., e^ovX^drjv (passive). 
ala-6dvopai, to ])erceive ; Second Aor., ^a-doprjv (middle). 

Some verbs have both Aorists, active and passive, with the 
same meaning; as anoKplvopai, to answer; First A.or., dneKpivdprju 
and drreKpidrju, I answered 

Deponent transitives often have each tense with its proper force. 

Thus: Idopai, to Ileal; laa-dpijv, I Iiealed; Iddrjv, I was healed. 

Xoyiiopai, to reckon ; fkoyia-dprjv, I reckoned ; eXoyia-Brjv, I 
was reckoned. 

The verb ylyvopai, to hecome (yev-, see 94, 8, a) has the forms, 
Fut., yevfia-opai ; First Aor., eyevrjdrjv ; Second Aor., iyevopr^v ; Perf., 
yiyova (Second Perf); rarely yfyevrjpat.. 

Indio. Pres. 




First Aor. 

• ■• 





Part. Pres. 


§ 101. j impersonal and defective verbs. ill 

101. Impersonal Verbs. 

Impersonal verbs are used only in the Third Person singular, 
and are generally rendered into English with the pronoun it. 
For the grammatical construction of impersonals, see § 171. 

The chief impersonal verbs are fift, it is necessary ; one ought; 
xpr], it is expedient, or fitting ; irpenfi, it becomes; 8oku, it seems; 
fieXfi, it is a care. 

The following forms of these verbs almost all occur in the New Testa- 
ment. The participle, it will be observed, is neuter. Some of the verbs are 
also found personally : — 

XP^, irpeiret, SoKe7, fie\ei. 

fXPV''f in pf 1^(11), 65($(C€t, 

•.. ... e5o^e(i') ... 


Ttpiirov, SoKovv, ... 

From, elm, ^^^ substantive verb, is formed the impersonal ?§€a-Tt., 
it is lawful ; part., t^ov. 

102. Defective Verbs of the First Conjugation. 

The explanations given under the several Tenses have suf- 
ficiently accounted for most of the so-called " irregularities " 
in the conjugation of verbs in -«. 

Some verbs, however, of very frequent occurrence, are 
anomalous in another way. 

The ancient Greek tongue, like all early languages, while 
destitute of words expressing the more complex ideas, had 
a redundancv of terms denoting some of the simplest actions. 
Hence arose many synonymous words, some of which, bein^ 
evidently unnecessary, were afterwards dropped. But in 
several instances, of two or three verbs meaning the same 
thing, different tenses were discontinued in each, so that 
forms of distinct verbs had to be brought together to con- 
stitute a whole. Compare in English go, without a Preterite, 
and went, without a Present, except in some phrases, wend. 

]12 DEFECTIVE VERBS. [§ 102. 

Occasionall}^, again, where the same tense of two syno- 
nymous verbs has been retained, it expresses two different 
shades of meaning. 

103. The following are the principal verbs which thus 
derive their forms from different roots : — 

(1) alpeco, to take (in COmp., Kadaipew, to take down; TTpoaipe'co, to 

take beforehand, &c.) ; Mid., alpovfiai, to choose ; Principal Tenses, 
alpT](Ta), alpTjaopai,, iJprjKa, yjprjfiai, fjpedrjv, alpedrjaopaL. From stem eX- ; 
Second Aor. act., elXov ; Inf., fkfiv; mid., €'i\6pT]v ; Inf., fkeadai. 

(2) epxofxai, to go, covie ; Impf., rjpxoprjv. Other tenses from 
stem €\-u9-, lengtheued into eXcvG- (Fut.), contracted into eXO- (Second 
Aor.) ; Fut., eXevcropzt ; Perf, fXrjXvda ; Pkip., eXrjXvdeiv ; Second 
Aor., rfkQov ; in the several moods, eXde, Tk6u>, eXdoipi, iXdelv, fXdaiv. 
So many compounds. , 

(3) eadiai, to eat; Impf., rjadiov ; Second Aor. from <|>a-y-, i'(f)ayov, 
(payeiv', Fut., (f)dyopai, (f)dyeaai, (^ayerai, k.t.X. So KaTecrdla), to devour. 

(4) opdco, to see ; Impf, eaipcov ; Perf, iapaKa. Tenses from stem 
dir-, OTTT-: Fut. o-^opai, o\\rei, oy\reTai; First Aor. subj., (once, 

Luke xiii. 28) ; First Aor. pass., clxpdrjv, ocpdrjvai ; First Fut. pass., 
6cf)drj(ToiJiai. Tenses from fi8- : 2nd Aor., el8ov, tBa, Idetv, ISojv (l8ov, 
an old Imperfect middle used as an interjection, behold !) ; Second 
Perf, / know (= have seen) olda, ol8as, olde(v), o'ibapev, o'lbarf, oXba(Ti[v) 
(in Imp., 'L(t6i, 'laze ; Subj., eiSoJ ; Inf., elbevai \ Part , eiScoy j Plup. 
ind., I knew, TJdeiv) ; Fut., el8rjcra>, shall know (Heb. viii. 11). 

(5) rpexc^, to '"'un ; Second Aor. from 8p€|A-, ebpapov ; Fut., Bpa- 

jiovfiai (LXX.) 

(6) (f)€pa), to bear ; Fut. from stem oU, ota-co. Tenses from evcyK- 
or €V£K- : First Aor. act., rjveyKa; Second Aor., fjveyKov, eveyKtlv ; 
First Aor. pass., rjvexdrjv ; Perf., ivrjvoxa, with double reduplication. 
Compare TTpocrcpepai, ela-cpepco, k.t.X. 

(7) eiTTov; Second Aor., / sfacZ (supplies Present and Imperfect 
from (prjfii, second conjugation); stem, iv-; First Aor., elna. Tenses 
from ep- : Fut., epeo), epco ; Perf, elprjKa; Perf. pass., ( Tenses 
from p<- : First Aor. pass., ippidrfv or epprjdrjv ; Part., prjdeis. 





":< S. § • ::i • • • g c= • -a. 

e • =n • • • (S • ;2 


^ : fS^ : : : 2 

3 • 2 ... a. 

X ^ a 

-o '■\u *o "3 "11/ "^1/ w o *?:i vj "O ^2 \u rM "^o O 2; *S '~o 



Q. CJ.X ^ ■< -< 



U/ ^ 


X 2. 

^ a 

Q- Q- 

t- «o 





a ,Si 


*'0 *N^ 



\ii \ij 


^ ^ 




b c3 


«/ <*i 



■SVi; >~m 

§ § §;,=^.^ . . ? a -g § : : : : ^ b 


a i, -. ^ id "d 

=» a. : : : o • : • ^ c3 • c3 • • l3 

V. 2 I • • • ^ : : :.:!i ii : „, : : S 

b b :i_ -©. 














!3 a 

■53 .0 a 

1 — I * • . a , "*. 

•S • • cS =. - cp- § b 

3 • vfe. • S • S "S • • cS ^=. - eg- ^ b s."^ ^ 


V< . r"^ m .• r! ^ 

114 DEFECTIVE VERBS. [§ 103. 

These forms are not all actually found in the New Testament, 
though most of them are. Other forms occur in Greek authors, 
and, if required, may easily be formed by the usual analogies. 

Exercise 13.— On the Defective Verbs. 

[The following forms, which should be carefully analyzed, are 
all from the " Sermon on the Mount," and illustrate the frequency 
with which this class of verbs occurs. 

In addition to the meanings of the verbs given in their para- 
digms, and unnecessary, therefore, to repeat, it must be noted that 
the prefix els denotes into ; i^, out of; irapa, hy or asid^ {jtapipxoyLai, 
to pass away) ; and Trpos, in addition to. For further details, see 
§ 147, a, 1, and the Vocabulary.] 

Forms. — o-^ovrai, 'Ibcoa-iv, otSe, o'lbare, flTrcocri, eppidrj, eiTrrj, eptis, 
ipovcri, rjXdov, irapekdrj, €l(Te\6i]re, iXdrnv, e|eX^r;s, eiaeXde, eXderco, 
flaeXderf, flaepxapevoi, (la-fXda-fTai, Trpocrcliepjjs, irpoacfxpe, elijeveyKrjs, 
e^fXe, (payTjTe, (pdycopep. 

104. The Second Conjugation, or Yerbs in -|xi. 

The cliief peculiarity of the Second Conjugation is that the 
Present and Imperfect tenses, and in many verbs the Second 
Aorist active and middle, affix the ancient terminations (see 
§ 70)* to the stem, without a connecting vowel. The mood- 
vowels, however, of the Subjunctive and Optative are retained. 
The old Infinitive ending, -vai, reappears. 

The other tenses conform to the paradigm of the First 
Conjugation, with occashmal exceptions, that will be noted 
in their place. 

* These terminations are, in the Active, for the Present (as a principal 
tense), singular, -fit, -crt, -n ; plural, -fifv, -re, -vat ; for the Imperfect and 
Second Aorist (as historical), singular, -v, -s, -v (generally dropped) ; plural, 
-fifv, -re, -crau. The ancient Imperative ending, -6i, also appears. In several 
cases the terminations are slightly modified, as the paradigms wiU show. 
The analogy to the AoriMs passive of the First Conjugation will be observed 
throughout, in form and accentuation. 

§ 105.] VERBS IN -HI. 115 

105, Modifications of the Stem. 

Verbs in -|xu modify the verbal stem in one or more of 
three ways. 

a. A pure stem lengthens the vowel in the active indicative 
singular. Thvis from <j>o-, say, we have first person, ^??-/ii ; third 
person, (pTj-crL 

b. Most stems prefix a reduplication in the Present and Imper- 
fect tenses. Thus, So-, give, first becomes 8w-, as above ; then, 
8i So)-/xt. So riOriyn, from Oe-, put. The vowel preferred in this 
reduplication is I. The root o-ra-, place, accordingly makes larr^fxi, 
and €-, send, Irjfii. Sometimes the stem is reduplicated within 
itself (the Attic reduplication, see § 99, a), as, from 6vo-, profit, 
ovlvrjiii. In other cases, a nasal -v- is inserted, modified before 
labials into -\i.-; thus irpo-, burn, gives nifnrprjfii. 

c. Several verbs add the syllable -w- to the stem before the per- 
sonal endings in the Present and Imperfect tenses. Pure stems 
take -VW-. Thus, Scik-, show, gives SfiKw/xi ; and o-rpo-, strew or 
spread (with lengthened vowel, as above), a-Tpcovvv/jLt. 

d. It is convenient, then, to mark two chief classes of verbs 
in -[ii. 

The Jirsf exhibits the simple lengthened stem, generally with 
reduplication preceding. 

The second inserts -w- or -vw- between the stem and the per- 
sonal endings. 

106. Paradigms of the First Class. 

These also fall into two divisions. The former exhibits the 
normal forms ; the latter contains a few verbs, with short mono- 
syllabic stems, somewhat irregular in their conjugation, and, from 
their importance, requiring separate treatment. To the latter 
class belongs the substantive verb : dpi, I am ; elvai, to be. 




107. Regular Forms, Stems A-, E-, 0-. 

The tenses conjugated like those of verbs in -w will be given at the 
end of the paradigms. The accent throughout is generally thrown back 
as far as possible. Exceptions will be noted. 

IOT77JUI, to place ; Ti6r)ixi, to put ; StScojut, to give. 
Stem, ara- 6e- 8o- 













(7 « 4k 


















irtdr] or €Ti6€if 

eStSco or ibibov* 










2nd Aorist, 













* Rom. iii. 31, has IcrTZ/xev, 
Conjugation contracted. 

t 2 Cor. iii. 13 ; Acts iii. 
Conjugation contracted. 

X Matt. xxvi. 26, Sec. As 

a doubtful "reading, as from a form of the First 
2, have hidovv, as from a form of the First 
from a form of the First Conj. contracted. 


Stem, (TTa- 6e- do- 




lorrj for XfrraQi 

tlO^l for TiOen 

bibov for OLboOi 










2nd Aorlst, 

a-riiOt or a-Ta* 

Oes for 6eTi 

bos for bodt 































2nd Aorist, 

(TTU), K.r.A. 

65), K.T.X. 

b(0, K.T.k. 

like Pres 

like Pres. 

like Pres. 





















2nd Aorist, 



botr]P or 8cJ?;y 



6o^r;s or b(orj<i 



boCr] or 8df7 

* Only in compound verbs, as ordtrTa (Actg xii. 7 ; Eph. v. 14), and 
similar words. 


Stem, ara- 6e- 80- 

OPTATIVE — C07ltinued. 

2nd Aoristj 















2nd Aorist, 






l(TTas, -acra 

, -dv 

TiOeCs, -elcra 


bcbovs, -ovcra, 


2nd Aorist, 

(TTas, -Sera, 


d^LS, -€L(ra, - 


bovs, -ovcra, -6i> 

Middle and Passive. 







TidecraL or tlOij 



















eTiO^cro or €Tidov 

ibtboao or ibibov 















taTaao or lo-tco 

TLOecro or tlOov 

bCboao or bCbov 










§ 107.] 




, ara- 




Present, ' 













































Middle only. 


• f 


2nd Aorist, 



(.dov [-^(To) 

ibov (-ocro) 










2nd Aorist, 

6ov (-ecro) 

bov {-0(To) 









[§ 107. 


(TTa- 0€- 



2nd Aorist, 














2nd Aorist, 














2nd Aorist; 



2nd Aorist, 



Tenses after the Model of the First Conjugation. 



6-^(r(a b(a(rQ) 

eQr]Ka ebcoKa 

riOeiKa bibooKa 

1st Aorist, 

e art] a a 

or ^arajxev* 

* This syncopated or shortened form is very usual So in Perf., Inf. and 


Stem, ara- 6e- 8o' 


INDICATIVE — contintied. 


or ^cTTare 

or €aTa<n(v) 



elaTi]KeiP or 




1st Aorist, 

y 7 Tja-ov 






1st Aorist, 




1st Aorist, 






1st Aorist, 

or k(TTavai 



1st Aorist, 


€(TTr]KS>^, -via 
or ecrrws, 
-axra, -oisf 

,-OS T€diLKm 


* See John xvii. 2; Rev. viii. 3, xiii. 16, in which passages the form 6<i<rp 
occurs. The best editors, however, read Swaei, fuL indie, 
t See § 38. 


Stem, (TTa- Be- So- 

Middle and Passive. 









2» TeOeLiJiivos u> 


8e5o/xeVos ai 



dr]i) T(.9^i.\xivo<i €Lr]V 


bebojjiivos drjp 








Middle only. 



1st Aorist, 




1st Aorist, 



1st Aorist, 



1st Aorist, 





1st Aorist, 





1st Aorist, 

OTT/cro'/xeros 6t](t6[J.€VOS 


§ 107.1 VEKBS IN -|ii — FIKST CLASS— PARAniGMS. 


Stem, (TTa- 



Passive only. 


1st Aorist, 

<TTad-^( TeO-qaoiJiai. 



1st Aorist, 




1st Aorist, 





1st Aorist, 

aTaOriaoLixrjv TeO-qa-oifxriv 



1st Aorist, 

aTad-qcreadaL TeOrjcreaOai. 
(TTa6i]vai Tidfjvat 



1st Aorist, 

(TTa9r](T6jxevos redricrofxevos 
aradeCs, -eicra, reset's, -eto-a. 

bodets, -eto-a, 









Note. — It will be observed that several Aorist forms are omitted: the 
alternative tense being in use. For example : in the Active indicative of 
rie-niii and Uduifii, the First Aorist is employed for the singular, the Second 
for the plural, while in the Middle throughout 'laTt^jxi has the First, rlOrifii 
and 5i'5u)^ti the Second. The Active First Aorist of 'iffTrjui is transitive, the 
Second Aorist intransitive, as will be shown hereafter. 


108. Remarks on the Paradigms. 

1. The First Aorist Active of ridrifii and 8i8a(ii, and, as will be 
seen hereafter, of irjui also, takes -k- instead of -cr- for tense- 
characteristic. This peculiarity is confined to these three verbs ; 
and their First Aorist is found only in the Indicative mood.* 

2. The Perfect tenses of loTrjiii, from the stem o-ra-, take the 
hard breathing, with «- as an " improper reduplication ;" ea-rrjKa. 
The augmented tenses have I-, as ea-rrfv ; but the Imperfect retains i. 

3. The First Aorist of Io-tt^^i is transitive, the Second intran- 
sitive, in meaning : earrjo-a, I placed; earrju, I stood. 

4. A verb, a-TrjKw (intransitive), to stand, of the First Conjuga- 
tion, derived from the Perfect of (rra-, is found in a few forms in 
the New Testament. It must be distinguished from the Perfect 
forms of lar-qiii. 

109. Verbs belonging to this Class. 

The number of verbs which conform to the above paradigms 
is very small. The principal are subjoined. 

A-STEMS. — Like la-TTjixi, are conjugated the following : — 

a. 1. 6vivr]iii, to benefit (stem ova-, with Attic reduplication), only 
once in the New Testament ; Second Aorist, Optative, middle, 
oi/m'/Lijji' (Phile. 20), may I have joy! 

2. ■n-lfj.nprjfii, to bum (stem irpa-, reduplicated, with nasal), only 
once in the New Testament, Present Infinitive, passive, ir'nnvpaa-dai 
(Acts xxviii. 6), to be burned, or inflamed. 

3. 4>w'h ^0 ^oy (stem <}>a-). The Present Indicative is usually 
enclitic, except second person singular, otherwise oxytone ; third 
person singular, 0?yo-t(«'); plural, (^ao-i(i'); Imperfect, e^iji/; third 
person singular, e(/)7;. (See ^ 103, 7). 

* To this remark there is one exception if the reading Stio-jj (on which 
see note, p. 121) be genuine. 

§ 109.] VERBS IN -|i.i FIRST CLASS REMARKS. 125 

4. xP^j *^ is fitting (stem xP*-)> impersonal. (See §§101, 171.) 
Once in the New Testament (James iii. 10). 

b. Deponent Verbs. — 1. Siivaixai, to be able (stem Swa-). Present 
Indicative, -fiac, -a-ai (or in MSS., Bvvjj), -rat, ^ r.X. ; Imperfect, 
ibvvdjxrjv, or (with double augment) qhwafir^v ; Present Subjunctive, 
8vv(oixai ; Optative, bwainrjv ; Infinitive, bvvacrdai ; Participle, bwd- 
ixevos; Verbal, 8war6s, possible, capable; Future, Swrja-ofiai ; First 
Aorist, {8vvr]6r]v, or T]8vvrjdr]v (occasioually in MSS. Tjbwdadrjv). 

2. fTTia-rafiat, to knoio, or to feel sure, i.e., " to take one's stand 
upon" (stem ini, preposition, and -o-to-, but without aspiration), 
only in Present in New Testament ; Indicative, -/xat, -o-ai, -rat, 
-fifda, -<r6e, -vrai ; Participle, fTnardiievoi . 

3. Kpefxa/Mi, to hang, neuter (stem Kp€|Aa-); Present Indicative, 
third person, KpefMarai ; plural, Kpefiavrai ; Participle, Kpefidfievos ; 
First Aorist, eKpenda-drjv ; Subjunctive, Kpenaado) ; Participle, Kpf- 


E-STEMS. Deponent Verbs. — 1. r^nm, to be seated (stem i-), 
properly a Perfect middle or Passive, as from eto, / set, or seat ; 
foiMoi, I seat myself (like i^ ; see also KaQl^a) ; r], I have seated 
myself, and so am now sitting. Only found in the New Testament 
compounded with the preposition Kard, dovjn., I am 
sitting down, second person, KaOrj, for Kadija-ai ; Imperative, Kudov, 
for Kddrjaro ; Infinitive, Kadrjo-dai ; Participle, Kadrjfifvos ; Imperfect 
Indicative, fKaQrmrjv, properly a Pluperfect. 

2. Kiip-ai, to lie down (stem k«-), properly also a Perfect, "I have 
laid myself," or " have been laid down;" Infinitive, /ceto-^at ; Par- 
ticiple, Ketfievos ; Imperfect Indicative, eKeiprjv, -cro, -to. 

110, The three stems, to--, 1-, and «-, being marked by- 
special peculiarities, must be placed alone. The first of the 
three is by far the most important, as the stem of the sub- 
stantive verb, esse, to be. "With the personal termination, -h-s 
the stem (ea-ixi) becomes dfii, I am ; and with the Infinitive 
ending, -vai, elvai, to be. 



Several tenses are wanting in the conjugation of this verb, which 
is as follows : — 

Stem, i<T- 


Present, am. 


ei for eo-cri 

1 I 




Imperfect or Aorist, 


Tjy or rjixrjv 

■^fi€v or r]fi€6a 





Future, shall he. 





eorai (for eaerat) 



Be thou. 



^0T&> or J/TO) 



Present, may be. 









Present, might be. 










Present, fo he, etvai. 


Future, fo be about to be, eaeaOai. 


Present, being, wy, ovcra, ov; gen. ovtos, ovcrrii, ovros, k-t.\, 
Future, about fo be, icroiJievos, -r\, -ov, -ov, -r]?, -ov, k.t.X. 

Note on Accentuation. — In the Present Indicative, with the exception 
of the second person singular, this verb is an encUtic, excepting (1) 
where it follows a paroxytone, when it retains its accent as above ; and 
(2) in the third person, where it is a, predicate, when it becomes paroxy- 
tone, as fo-Ti 06 (is, there is a God. It is also paroxytone after ws, ovk, 
el Kcu, tout', aAA'. Thus, uiiK tffTi, it is not ; tovt eaTi, that is to say, 

111. I^ot unlike the svibstantive verb in conjugation, and 
therefore to be carefully distinguished from it, are the verbs 
clfiL (stem 1-), go, and trjjut (stem I-), send. Neither of them is 
found in the New Testament,* except in composition. It 
will suffice to give a few forms of eifxt, to show the differences 
between it and the substantive verb ; while the most impor- 
tant compound of u?jui is subjoined in full. 

Forms of eT//t, fo go (stem 1-) : — 

Ind. — Pres. 
















tre ' 


SuBj. — Pres. 







Opt. — Pres. 







Inf. — Pres. 


Part. — Pres. 




* Some MSS. read in John vii. 34, .S6, for el/xi, I am, tlfit, I {wiH) go. 
This present tense has in classic Greek a Future significance, equivalent to 
the English idiom, / am going. 



[§ 112. 

112. Conjugation of I'tj/xi, to send, in its Compound, acpCrjui. 

The stem is I-, which, reduplicated, gives Irjfu. Prefixed is the 
preposition dno, from, awmj from ; the o being lost before i by 
elision, and the ir changed by the aspirate into <(>. 

Hence a0ij?jut, to send away, let go (permit), forgive. 

The tenses which follow the analogy of the First Conjugation are 
included, so far as necessary, in the following paradigm, and will 
readily be traced. 



Pres., sing., a(^ir]ixi, -Crj^ or -ets,* -ir](n[v) 

„ plur., -i€fJL€v -Ut€ -tao-t(y) or a(j)Lov(n{v) 

Impf., sinp^.jf 7J(f)Lov ?/(|)tes '/^te 

Fut., d(^?/(T(d 1st Aor., a(j)r]Ka. (See § 108, 1.) 

Perf., d(j)etKa Pluperf., dc^eiKeti; 

2Aor,, sing, wanting. Plural, a^dixev cKpeHre acpetaav 


Pres., a(pUi d^terw 

2 Aor., dcjbes dcjberco 


Pres., d(f)tcS, -tf/s, -ifj 
2 Aor., d<^w, -fis, -fj 


Pres., a(^ieir]v, -rjs, -rj 
2 Aor., a(f)eLr}V, -r]S, -?7 


Pres., a(})Uvai 


Pres., a^uis, -daa, -iv 

Plural, a(f)UT€ acjyieTMo-av 

„ a(p€T€ acpiroia-av 

a(PuifJ.ev, -elre, -euv 

2 Aor., a(f)€ivai. 

2 Aor., a(f)eLS, -etcra, -ey 

• Rev. ii.-20, critical edd. f Preposition augmented. Plural wanting. 

§ 112.] VERBS IN -H-i — FIRST CLASS. 129 

Middle and Passive. 


Pres., a(piefJLai, -crai, -rat Plural, a(f)uiJ.€6a, -ade, -vrat 
Imf., a(f)UiJ.r]v, -(TO, -TO „ a(\)Uiie6a, -ade, -vto 

Perf., sing., a(/)etju,at dc^etcrat d^etrat 

,, plur., d^et/xe^a aipeXa-Oe acfyetvTai, or a(f)^u)VTat* 

Plup., cKpeijJLTjv d^et(ro achelTO, k.t.X. 


Pres., a(f)Ucro or ac^iov a(f)U(r9(a, k.t.X. 


Pres., a(f)iu)ixai., -ifj, -ifJTaL, k.t.X. -uojieOa, -Crjade, -loovTai 


Pres., dc^toijUTji' or d</)tet/x7jy, -oto or -eto, -otro or -eiro, k.t.A. 


Pres., d^teo-^at 


Pres., a(j)L€iJ.€vos 

Middle only. 


Fut., a(f)T}(Toiiat 2 Aor., a(p€tix7]v, as Plup. 


2 Aor., d0o5, a<p€(Td(i) acjyecrde, a(pi<r9(t)(Tav 


2 Aor., d<^(Sjixat, -fj, -tjtul, k.t.X. 


Fut., a(^7](Toiii7]V 2 Aor., a^oifirjv, ~oio, -oito 


Fut., cKJtrja-edOai. 2 Aor., dc^tV^at 


Fut., acfyrjcroixevos 2 Aor., a(f)4iJi€Vos 

Passive only. 


Fut., a(^e6r\(ToyLai 1 Aor., a(f)edriv 

• This is the more common form, and is taken from the Doric dialect. 

130 VKRBS IN -[11 — FIRST CLASS. [§ 112. 


1 Aor., acf)€OriTi. 


1 Aor., a<p(du> 


Fut., a(pe9r]<T0LixT]v 1 Aor., a(p(6iu]v 


Fut., a(Pe9-q(r€(TdaL 1 Aor., dcpeOijvai 


Fut., d(j)(dri(r6iJL€i'os 1 Aor., d(f)ed€LS 


113. Second Class. Verbs in -vvixl or -vvvixi. 

1. These verbs have no Second Aorist.* 

2. Most of them liave a kindred form of the First Conjugation, 
in -vvo) or -vvvw. From this form are taken — often, the Indicative 
Present and Imperfect, with the Present Infinitive ; generally, 
the Present Participle; and always, the Subjunctive and Optative 
moods. Thus, from 8eiK-, show, we sometimes find the forms btiKvixo, 
-eis, -ft, SeiKiwnv, heiKvvoiv ] while the Only Present Subjunctive recog- 
nised is hei.Kvvoi, -T]s, -J] ; and the only Present Optative, bfinvvoifii. 

In the paradigms, these forms of the First Conjugation are marked 
by a dagger (f). 

3. All the tenses but the Present and Imperfect are formed from 
the stem (without -w-). These are placed separately for comparison. 

114. Paradigms of beUvvixi, to show, and Cwvvvfu., to gird. 
Stem (consonant), SeiK- (vowel), ^o- 


Pres., beUi'VjJLi, or fheiKvuca C^ovvvjxi. or f^'^vvvoi 

beUvvs bt^cKvveLS, ^cavvvs C^vvveis, 

b€LKvv(TL(v) K.r.A. (a>vvv(n(v) k.t.X. 

* With one exception, in classic Greek, ff^evvvfii, to quench; 2nd Aor., faBrtv. 


§ 114.] 

Stem (consonant), SeiK- (vowel), ^o* 




Impf., edeUvvv or fibeUvvov 
ibeiKi^vi ebeLKPves, 
ebeiKvv k.t.A. 





Pres., beUvv or buKvvOi. 





t^wwiii' or feCo)vvvov 

((avvv or Qsivvvdi 


Pres., ■\buKvvoi 


Pres.jf buKvvoLixL 


Pres., buKvvvai or f SetKywety 


Pres.j biiKvis, -vaa, or fbeLKvvwv Qavvvs, -vaa, or f(^(iivvv(iiv 

^(livvvvaL or fCcuvvveu' 

Middle and Passive. 


Pres., beLKVvixuL betKvvixeOa 

beUvvauL b^LKwaOf. 

beLKPVTat, biUvvvraL 

Impf., ebeLKVvfJLrji; ibeLKvvix^da 

ib^LKvvao ibeLKVvaOe 





Pres., b^KvvcTo 


Pres., fSetwvco/xat 

beLKVvcrd^ C^vvvao 

b€i.Kvvad(>)(rav CcuvvvaOoo 

132 VERBS IN -Jiv— SECOND CLASS. [§ 114. 

Stem (consonant), Sclk' (vowel), ^- 


Pres.jf h€iKvvoi.}xr]v f^ctivvvoCjxrjv 


Pres., beiKwadaL or fb^LKVvecrOat. C^opiwcrOaL or fCcopvyeadai. 




Fut., beC^co (uxTca 1 Aor., ebei^a eCwda 

Perf., 8e8etxa iC<^Ka Plup., (e)8e8e(^ety e(6)^&)Keiv 


1 Aor., bel^ov ^&aov 


1 Aor., 8et£a) C^^ao} Perf., deSetxco e(,a)Ka) 


Fut., beL^oijxi ^(iiaonn 1 A.OY.,b^C^ai}xi ((aaaijxt, 

Perf., SeSei'xot/xi e^&)Kot/.ii 


Fut., bei^ecv ((aaeiv 1 Aor.,8er^at ^ooaai 

Perf., 8e8etx.fWi e^oj/ceWi 

Middle and Passive. 


Perf., 8e8ety/xat tC'^a^xai Plup., ibibeCyfJLrjv i[t)Cu>afj.r]v 


Perf., bibeL^o SeSet'x^co, x.r.A. ^Cooao i((aa6(o, k.t.A. 


Perf., bebetyixivos S e^a)cr/.ieyos w 


Perf., SeSety^ueVos etJjv f^coo-ymeVos etjji; 

§ 114.] VERBS IN -(11 — SECOND CLASS. 133 

Stem (consonant), SeLK- (vowel), ^o- 



Perf., bebeixdaL 

Middle only. 


Fut., hd^oixai ^(uo-ojuat 1 Aor., kh^i^aii-qv eC^^crdiMrjv 


1 Aor., bel^at 


1 Aor., 8et^co/viat 



Fut., hei^oiiJ.r]v Qa(Totiir]v 1 Aor., Set^at/x^y C(.o(Taiixr]v 


Fut., beC^ea-dai. ((aaeaOaL 1 Aor,, hd^aaOai ((oaaaOai 


Fut., h€i^6[xevos ^oxro'/Aeyos 1 Aor., Set^ajuei^os (ojcrdixevos 

Passive only. 


Fut., heixdwoixat ((acrOrjcroixai. 1 Aor., ibsixOrjv iC(aa6r}V 


1 Aor., beixOrjTi. 


1 Aor., 8eix^c3 


Fut., h(ixQwoC}iriv 
1 Aor., hii.yOiir]v 


Fut., Setx^rjo-eo-^ai 
1 Aor., beLxOjjvat, 






131 VERBS IN -|ii — SECOND CLASS. [§ 115. 

115. Remarks on the Paradigms. 

a. The quantity of the v is marked in a sufficient number of 
cases to indicate the rest. Where in the first class of verbs in -f.\., 
the stem-vowel a, «, or o, is made long, the v of tlie second class is 
also lengthened. Thus tIOtjih, hiUvvfxi, but TiSefxev, SfUuvfiev. 

b. Verbs of this class seldom occur in the New Testament, with 
the exception of BfUvvm and dnoXXvui. (See below.) 

116. Verbs with Consonant-stems, like beUvvixL. 

1. jilyvvfxi, to mix (stem, 1117-), only found in the New Testament 
in forms like the First Conjugation; First Aorist, e^t^a; Perfect 

Participle, /ne/xiy/xat. 

2. oWvixi, to destroy/, to lose (stem, 6X-, or -oXe) ; hence oX-pvfii, 
and with the v assimilated, oXXv/xi), only found in the New Testa- 
ment with the prefixed preposition, aTro. Present Indicative, 
dnoXXvfit ; Middle and Passive, d/roXXv/xat. Cliiefly found in teuses 
derived from collateral stem diroXe-, Active Future, dndkeau, once 
czTToXw ; * First Aorist, dnuXeaa ; Perfect, with neuter meaning, 
/ perish ! inokmXa ; Middle Future, dnokoviiai ; Second Aorist, 
aiTuiko^iriv ; Present Participle, 01 dTroXkCfiepoi often, the perishing. 

3. o^i/v/ui, to swear (stem, -ojj,- or -6|ao-). The forms used in the 
New Testament are Present, as of First Conjugation, o/nwco, ofxvveih 
(but in Mark xiv. 71, the best MSS. read ofxvivai) ; First Aorist, 
oifioa-a ; Infinitive, ojioa-ai, from 6(Ji6-. 

4. prjyvvfxi, to tear (stem, P07-). Present Passive Indicative, third 
person plural, pfiyvvurai (Matt. ix. 17); but generally with forms as 

from prjaaco, pij^o). 

117. Verbs with Vowel-stems, like (uiuvviml. 

1. A-STEMS. — Kepdvi/vixi, to mix (stem, Kepd-). Only twice, First 
Aorist, fKtpaaa ( Rev. xviii. 6) j Perfect Participle Passive, ««- 
paa-fievos (Rev. xiv. 10). 

• 1 Cor. i. 19, from LXX. 

§ 117.] VERBS IN -\t.i — SECOND CLASS. 135 

2. E-STEMS. — evvvfxi, to clothe (stem, fe-), only found with the 
prefixed preposition, a.ii(\>i, about. Present Active Indicative, third 
person singuhir, dfj.(puwv(Ti{v) (Matt. vi. 30 ; Luke xii. 28), and 
Perfect Passive Participle, with augment prefixed to the prepo- 
sition, T]fi.<j>u(Tfj.evov (Matt. xi. 8 ; Luke vii. 25). ' 

Kopevvvfj-i, to satisfy (stem, Kope-), First Aorist Passive Participle, 
Kopeadeis (Acts xxvii. 38) ; Perfect Passive Participle, Kficopea-fj.evos 
(1 Cor. iv. 8). 

cr^ivvvpi, to extinguish (stem, o-p€-), Future Active, a^eaw ; Future 

Passive, a-^eaOrjo-opai. 

3. 0-STEMS. — pa)vvvp.i, to Strengthen (stem, po-), found only in the 
Perfect Middle Imperative, eppcoao ; plural, i'ppcoa-de, be strong ! 
i.e., Farewell. 

(TTpcovvvpi, to strew, or spread (stem, orpo-). Present forms as 
from (TTpavuvoi ; First Aorist Active, ecrrpcocra ; Perfect Participle 
Passive, ((TTpcopfvos. 

If the above verbs, with their significations, are now committed *X) 
memory, some trouble may be saved at subsequent stages. 

Exercise 14.— On. the Second Conjugation, or Verbs 

in -f*"-. 

[The following examples of verbs in -jxi occur in the " Sermon 
on the Mount," and are here presented for analysis. In addition 
to explanations already given (see Exercise 13, on the Defective 
Verbs), it must be noted that the prefix otto- (/rom, away frorn), 
with the verb 8i8copi, has the sense of return; dTj-oSi'Sw/xt, to ^ive 
back; and ent-, with the same verb, may be rendei'ed over; (iv-ri- 
signifies against. 1^ 

Forms. — ia-nv, eVr?, i'arai, ladi, ei, i'aTco, ecrfcrde, rj, ovra, ovres, 
TiOeacriv, TTpocrdeivai, npoa-Tedrjo-eTai, dvTKrrrjvai, 86s, dorco, diSov, djioSaJs, 
TrapaSw, 8u>Tf, eVtScocret, dodrjcreTai, 8id6i/ai, a(f)es, d(f)!.ep.fv, u^^re, a^ijfet, 
bivacrai, biivarai, diivacrde, K€ip.evr], dwoKriTai,, opocrai, 6p6(Tr]s, prj^omip, 


136 VERBS — EXERCISES. [§ 117. 

Exercise 15.— Genei'al, upon the Verbs. 

\* The learner should now be expert in tracing any verbal 
form to its stem. As a test of proficiency, the following list 
of verbs is subjoined, taken in order from the Second Epistle 
to the Thessalonians. Let the stem, conjugation, class, voice, 
tnood, tense, and, when necessary, the number wadi person, of 
every one be written down ; if possible, without reference to 
any paradigm. Prefixes not belonging to the root are printed 
in thick type. The Vocabulary or Lexicon must be consulted 
for the meaning of the words. 


3. "Eiv^apLcrTeiu, ocjieikoiJLeu, vtnpav^dvfi., TrXfovd^ei. 4. Kavxp-crBai (how 

do you distiugiii.sli iu such a word between the First and Secoud 

Conjugations 1), dvf;^60-5e. 5. KaTaliu^ijwn, 7rdo-;^ere. 6. avranobovvai, 

ffKl^ovaiv (Participle). 7. QXi^ofievois. 8. bihovros, elboai, viraKovova-i. 

(Participle). 9. Ticrovaiv. 10. eXdji, tvho^aaBrfvai, davfiaarBrjvai, nidTev- 

AOiv (Participle), fmaTevdrj. 11. irpo<rfu;^d^e^a, d^iwa-rj, TrXijpua-j]. 

12. iv8o^aa6f]. 


1. 'EpcoTcofiev. 2. a-akevdrjvai, BpoeiaBai, kvea-TrjKev. 3. e^a7raTr](Tj], 

eXdj], a.TroKaXv<pdrj . 4. avriKeifxeuos, vvepaipopfvos, Xeyopevov, KaG/o-at, 

o.Tzo^f.iKvvvTa. 5. pvrjpovevfTe, "eXeyov. 6. KaTe;^oi', ol'Sare, a,TroKa\v!pdi]vai. 

7. evepyeirat, KaTe)(a)p, yi'vrjrai. 8. a.V0Ka.\v(pdi]a(Tai, dvaXoxrei, Karap- 

yxjcrei. 10. a.TroXKvpevoi.s, ide^avro, cra)dr]vai. 11. nepy^ei, Tnarrevaai 

(aistinguish this from Optative forms, as in ver. 17). 12. Kpidaxri, 

TTicrTe{)(7avTfs,iiboKr](ravTes. 13. ucPeiXopev, €i;(aptcrT€ti', rjyanrjpevoi,, elXero 

{^etXaro is read by Lachmann and Tischendorf ; see § 97, note). 

it. eKaXeaev. 15. (TTrjKeTe (see § 108, 4), Kpareire, ibibax&rjre. 16. 

ayaiTr](Tas, 8ovs. 17. ■napanaXiaai (Optative), aTrjpi^ai (Optative). 

1 . IIpoo"6Ll;(ecr^e, rpexUi bo^d^rjTai. 2. pvcrOaipev. 3. cTTrjpi^ei, (pvXd^ei. 
4. Trenoidapei', vapayyeXXopfv, Troteire, TroiTjcrere. 5. KaTevdvvat (Opta- 
tive). 6. aTeXXecrdai., "mpiTraTovvTos, irapeXajSf. 7. pipeladai, TjTaKTTj- 
crauev (from draKreo)). 8. e(pdyop€v, epya^opevoi, iTVi^aprjcrat. 9. e)(op,€v, 
bu>p.€v. 10. rjpev,'fapr]yyeXXopev,deXei,€pyd^ea-6ai,€(r6ieT(t). 11. dKoiiop.eVf 

§ 117.] EXERCISES. 137 

epya^ofievovs, vepifpya^ofifvovs. 12. irapaKaXovfiev, idBlaxnv, 13. €KKa- 
KTjarjTe, KoKonoiovvrfs. 14. viraKouei, (Trjixeiovade, o', ivrpanfit 
15. Tjytiadf, vov^emre. 16. dc^rj. 17. ypd(})a). 

Exercise 16.— Short Sentences. 

I. The Beatitudes (Matt. v. 3-10). 

These and tlie following Sentences are given chiefly as practice 
in applying the rules of conjugation and declension. As the 
clauses are complete in sense, they necessarily involve the princi- 
ples of Syntax } but no difficulties in construction will be found. 
For the use of the Cases, see 11. The references in the Notes to 
succeeding parts of the work will also be useful. 

Observe that throughout the Beatitudes the substantive verb are 
must be supphed with the predicate, fiaKoipioi, blessed. (See § 166.) '6ti 
is because (§ 136, 6). 

1. MaKiipLoi oi iTTa)\o\ tc3 Trvevp.aTi, ''■ on avrHov" isTiv rj ^acriXela twv 

2. paKapioi 01 nevdovvres '^ on avrol TvapaKKrjdr](JOVTai, 

3. paKapioi ol TTpaels '* on aiiTo\ KKijpovoprjcrovcn tt^v yrjv, 

4. fxaKapLoi ol nei.vcovTes Koi 8i\lra>iiTes rrjv 8iKatoavvr]v ' on avrol X°P' 

5. fiaKaptoi ol eXf-qpoves' on avTo\ eKerfdr](T0VTai. 

6. paKapioi ol Kadapol rfj Kap^ia ' on avrol rov Qeou o-^ovrai.^ 

7 . puKapioL ol elprjvoTTOioi ' on avrol viol' Qeov KkrjQrjaovrai. 

8. paKapioi ol Bebicoypevot epeKev° hmaiocrvvrjs ' on avrcov ianv f) 
i8acrtXfta ruv ovpavaiv. 

1 Dative : in [the) spirit, as hereafter explained, § 280, /. Compare rri 
KopSla, 6. 

2 Of them = theirs. 

3 The mourning ones = those who mourn, § 200. Compare the Parti- 
ciples in sentences 4, 8. 

* See § 39. 

^ Hungering and thirsting /or righteousness (ace), § 281, a. 

« See § 103 (4). 

^ Nominative after a copulative verb. See § 165, note. 

^ For tli£ sake o/(gen.), § 133. 

138 EXERCISES. [§ 117. 

II. From John i. 

ano, witli Gen., from, of(du place). 
Sia, ,, hy means of. 

€K, „ out of. 

cv, with Dat., in, witli plural, 

Trapd, with Gen., from (of persons). 
vpos, with Ace, unto, with (§ 307, 

Further details, Ch. VI., and Syntax. 

Adverb used as Preposition. 
X<Bpts, with Gen., without. 

Negative Adverbs. 

oxj, not. 

Qvhe, not even. 


Kal, and (§ 136, 1). 
a>j, as (§ 136, 2). 

Verses 1-5. 

'Ej/ ap)QJ rjv 6 Xoyos ', Koi 6 \6yos rjv npos Tov Qfov, Koi Qeos 7}v 6 
\6yos. ovTos ^v iv ap)(rj -npos tov Qtov. YlavTa hC avTov iyivtro, 
Koi x^pls aiiTov tyfvero oiide ev, 6 yiyovev. iv avra ^corj rjv, Koi rj ^utj 
^v TO (f>a)s Toyv avOpunrav, Kai. to ({)oi>s fv Trj arnoTia (paiuei, Kal rj aKOTia 
avTo ov KaTfXajSev. 

Verse 14. 

Kal 6 \6yos crap^ iyevfTO, koi iaKrjvaxrfv iv rjpiv, {nal i6eacrdp.eda ttjv 
bo^av avTov, 86^av cos fiovoyevovs Tvapa narpos ') TrXrjprjs xapiros Koi 

Verses 46, 47. 

EvpiCTKet ^iXimros tov 'NaOavarjX, Kal X/yei avTa,^ 'Oi''^ 'iypai^e Mcoir^s 
(V TOO vopco Kal 01 irpoc^rjTai, fiprjKapev, 'irjaoiv" tov vlov tov 'laxrrjcf) 
tov' dno Na^apeV. Kal einev avr^^ NadavaijX, 'Ek Na^uper bvvaTal Ti 
ayaOov elvai;^ Xeyei avrm^ ^IXlttttos, "Ep^ov Kal 'i8f. 

1 6 x6yos is the subject, § 206. 

" Singular verb, with plural neuter nominative, § 173. 

3 To him, dative after the verb of saying, § 278, b. 

* Understand him as antecedent : "him whom," § 347. 

^ Understand typa^av. 

^ (Namely) Jesus, in apposition (§ 177) with the antecedent (2) above. 

7 Simply refers to m6u (§ 230, a), not to be translated. 

8 The infinitive dependent on hvvinai (§ 389, a) : can anything good he. 

§ 117.] EXERCISES. 139 

III. Selected Sentences. 


be, hut. 
oTt, ihcit. 

Prejyositions (additional). 
€j?, with Ace, into. 
eVi, „ to. 

fierd, with Gen., together with. 

1. 'Eroi/xacrare r^v 686v Kvpiov. 

J. irjaUV, fA€T](TOV fJ.€. 

3. Gfipp-et^, eyeipai , (^oji/et ere. 

4. H TTiOTty (Tou (recrwKe (re. 

5. 'A^eojirai <rou ai ajxapriau 

6. '2vvi8pafie" npos avToiii was 6 Xaos. 

7. Mere/caXecraTO rovj TrpecrfivTepovs r^r €KK\j](TLas. 

8. MaKaptoi/ eoTt SiSoi'at paWoi/ rj Xap^dvfLV. 

9. KntVapa* eTTLKeKKrjaai, em. Kai<rapa nopevtrrj. 

10. ^AvdcrTi]6i , Kat (TTTJdi eVi roiy TrdSav (rou. 

11. 'H tt'kttis vpav KarayyeKXeTai iv oka rw Koapa. 

12. ^'Ev(f)pdv0rjTe , e^i");, /xera roC XaoO airoC. 

13. 'Qs crocpos dp)(iTeKTcov depeXiov rtdeiKa, SXkos be eKOiKobopet. 

1 4, ^deipovcriv T]6rj ^(prjcrS'* opiXiai KOKat. 

15. 'H dydnrj tov Xpia-rov (Tvve-)(ei fjpas. 

16. Xapfja-are hf-ds, ovbeva rjdiKrj crape if, ovbeva e(pdeipapev, ovbeva 

\l. ndi^Ta boKipd^ere'^ to icaXov KaTe^^ere' dwo navros eXhovs novrjpov 

18. TIiCTTos 6 Xoyos Ka\ Tracri;? cittoSo;^^?" a^ios, on Xpitrros ^Irjcrovi 
fjXdev els TOV Kocrpov dpapTcoXovs <Ta>aai.° 

19. 'Hvo'iytj 6 vabs ttjs iTKriurjs Toii papTvplov iv rw ovpavco. 

' For the sense of the Aorist Imperative, and its distinction from the 
Present, § 373 may be consulted. 

2 See § 103 (5). 

^ To Csesar: prep, implied in verb (§ 281, a). See (') on the Beatitudes. 

* See § 3, h. 

^ From every form of evil, 1 Thess. v. 22. 

^ Understand ean. Compare on the Beatitudes, prefixed note. 

' Genitive, by &^ios, worthy of {^ 272). 

8 Infinitive, expressing ^Mr^ose, as in English. (See 389, b, I.) 

140 PREPOSITIONS. [§ 118. 


118. It was stated in § 11 that three forms of inflection, or 
"cases," in Nouns are used to denote three several relations 
of place : the Genitive implying motion from ; the Dative, 
rest in, or connexion with ; and the Accusative, motion towards. 
The cases thus severally answer the questions, Whence? 
Where? Whither? 

With this general distinction are connected very many 
other relations, which are expressed by the same three cases, 
with the aid of Prepositions. 

To Syntax it belongs to exhibit the various meanings of the 
prepositions, and their place in sentences. For the present, it 
will suffice to give a list of the chief of them, with their general 
significations. This is necessary, partly because several adverbs 
(see § 132) are derived from prepositions ; but chiefly because of 
the important place which prepositions hold in the composition of 
verbs. (See Chapter X.) 

Prepositions may govern — 

1. The Genitive only : Whence? 

2. The Dative only : Where ? 

3. The Accusative only : Whither ? 

4. The Genitive and Accusative : Whence ? Whither ? 

5. The Genitive, Dative, and Accusative : Whence ? 

Where i Whither? 

119. Prepositions governing the Genitive only. 

avTi (opposition, equivalent), over against, opposed to, instead of. 
airo (motion from the exterior), yrow, away from. 

§119.] PREPOSITIONS. 141 

fK, i^ (motion from the interior), yVom, out of. 
TTpo, before, whether of time or place. 

To these may be added most of the "improper" prepositions, as 
they are often called ; being really adverbs with a prepositional 
government. (For a list of these, see § 133.) 

120. Prepositions governing the Dative only. 

iv, in, of time, place, or element; among, 
a-vv (union of co-operation), with. 

121. Prepositions governing the Accusative only. 

dvd (up in), used in the phrases dvd fiea-ov, in the midst of; dva 
pc'pos, in turns (1 Cor. xiv. 27). 

els (motion to the interior), into, to, unto, with a view to. 

122. Prepositions governing the Genitive and 


bid, through. Gen (through, as proceeding fronfi), through, by 
means of. Ace, (through, as tending towards), on account of, or 
owing to. 

Kara, down. Gen. fdown from : so, literally, 1 Cor. xi. 4), 
against. Ace. (down towards), according to, throughout, during, 

IxfTa (union of locality; compare avv). Gen., together with, 
among. Ace, after. 

irep'i, around. Gen., about, concerning, on behalf of ; once, above 
(3 John 2). Ace, about, round about. 

vTTep, over. Gen., above, on behalf of, for. Ace, beyond. 

vno, under. Gen., by (of the agent or efficient cause). Ace, 
under, in the power of, close upon (as Acts v. 21, close upon 
morning, i.e., " very early"). 

142 prepositions. [^ 123. 

 123. Prepositions goa^erning the Genitive^ Dative, 

AND Accusative. 

eni (superposition). Gen., upon {as springing from), over, in the 
presence of, in the time of. Dat., upon (as resting on), in 
addition to, on account of. Ace, up to (used of place, number, 
aim), over (of time, 2>lace, extent). 

irapa (juxtaposition). Gen. (from beside), yVowi, used of persons, 
as aiTo of places. Dat. (at the side of), iiear, vnth, of persons 
only, except John xix. 25. Ace. (to, or along the side of), beside, 
comp>ared with, i.e., so as to be shown beyond, or contrary to, 
instead of 

TTpos (in the direction of). Gen., in favour of only in Acts 
xxvii. 34. Dat., at, close by. Ace, towards, in reference to. 

V2,4:. Synoptical Table or the Prepositions. 

The Prepositions are here exhibited in groups, both because their 
meaning may thas be more easily remembered, and because the com- 
parison, both in meaning and form, suggests some interesting points of 
relationship. For further details the student may consult Dr. Donald- 
son's "New Cratylus," Book ii., chapter 2. Only the general meaning 
of every preposition is given in the following table ; and the initial 
capitals denote the cases governed. Cases found in classic Greek, but 
not in the New Testament, with certain prepositions, are bracketed. 

G. 'Atto, in reference to the exterior, ^om. 

*E*:, in reference to the interior, ^rom, proclitic. 
El-, „ „ m, ,5 

'Eis, „ „ to, 

'Ai/a, tip ; opposite of Kara. 
Kara, down ; opposite of dvd. 

'Etti, superposition, upon. 

Uapd, juxtaposition, beside. 

Upos, propinquity, towards. 
G. (d.) a. Ufpi, circumvention, entire ; around. 
(g. d. a.) 'A/i0i, circumvention, partial; about. 







g. a. 











§ 124.] PREPOSITIONS. ' 143 

j G. A. 'VTTep, over; (super). 
\ G. A. 'Ytto, under ; [sub). 

( G. A. Mera, association, with, after. 
\ D. "Ivv, co-operation, with. 

( G. 'Aiti, opposition, specific, over against. 

\ G. IIpo, opposition, general, in front of, before. 

G. A. 6.1a, through, kindred with hvo, and regarding the 
object as divided into two parts. 

'A/i0t is not used in tlie New Testament, except in composition. 
In classic Greek, its use is comparatively rare. Witb all three 
cases it means about, or around. 

Accentuation. — The Prepositions are all oxytone except the proclitics, 
f(s, e/o, iv. 

125. For further details as to the meaning and use of the 
prepositions, see Chapter X., especially the Table, § 147, a ; 
also Syntax. 

In explanation of the very various significance which may 
belong to the same preposition, two points should be noted : (I) 
that its meaning will be necessarily modified by the signification 
of the verb that it may follow, and by that of the noun which it 
governs, as also by the case of the latter ; and (2) that as all lan- 
truasfes have a far smaller number of words than there are shades of 
thought to express, one word must often have many applications. 
Then, as no language is exactly parallel, word lor word, with any 
other, the variations of meaning included imder one Greek term, 
for instance, will not be the same as those embraced by the nearest 
English equivalent. Thus, {in-ep may often be translated _/br / but 
the applications of the two words, though perhaps equally various, 
are very far fi-om being identical. 

IM ' ADVERBS. [§ 126. 

Chapter YII.— ADYERBS. 

126. The simplest, and perhaps the original form of an 
Adverb, is some case of a substantive, a pronoun, or an adjec- 
tive agreeing with a noun understood ; fixed absolutely in 
that shape to express some quality, manner, place, or time. 

a. The Accusative is very often thus employed, as eiKfifiv (Matt. 
XV. 16), yet, lit., " up to (this) point;" Trepdv, on the other side. In 
like manner is used the accusative neuter of many adjectives, both 
singiilar and plural ; often with the article : as, to Xoinov, further- 
more (once, Tov 'KoiTTov, Gal, vi. 17) ; to. ttoAXo, /or the most part. 
So, possibly from obsolete adjectives, o-r/fxepov, to-day; avpiov, 
to-morrow ; x^^^y yesterday. 

b. The Dative (sometimes in an obsolete form) is also frequently 
found: as IBla, privately; irfirj, hy land. Here the iota subscript 
is often omitted : rravT-q, always (Acts xxiv, 3, in some copies, 
iravTrj) ; flKY], witlwut a cause. 

c. The Genitive occurs in alrov, there, as well as in other forms, 
which will be noticed immediately. 

d. In some instances, a preposition with its case written as 
one word, is used adverbially, as irapaxp^p-a, immediately, lit, 
"along with the business ;" t^aicpvrjs, suddenly, lit., "from a steep 
descent;" Ka6(^^s, in order, lit., "according to a special course." 

e. The older form of the language employed the terminations 
-0€v, -01, and -Se as case-endings of nouns (Gen., Dat., Ace), and 
when they became obsolete in ordinary declension, they were 
retained as adverbial terminations to denote whence, where, and 
vjhither. Thus : oipavoSev, from heaven ; naidiSdfv, from childhood 
(Mark ix. 21); Trepva-i (the -trt standing for the older -Oi), last year 
(2 Cor. viii. 10; ix. 2). These terminations are also found in 
adverbs derived from prepositions and other adverbs, on which 
see § 132. 

§ 127.] ADVERBS. 145 

127. Advekbs in -«s. 

The most common form of adverbs is, however, that in -«s. 
This termination, which answers exactly in meaning to our 
final syllable -ly* is affixed to adjective-stems of all forms, 
the stem-ending, where needful, being modified. 

For example : 

First form (§ 34), BUmos, just, SiKaio- ; tiKolas, justly. 

Second form (§ 37), Trds, all, iravr- ; TravTcas, wholly. 

Third form (§ 41), akrjdr^s, true, 6.\r\Qtir- ; dXrjdws, truly. 

Participles may also yield this adverbial form, as oVrtas (from aiv, 
stem 6vT-) really. 

Sometimes an adverb formed from an adjective appears in two 
forms ; as raxv and raxeaii, quickly ; evdvs (probably a corrupt form 
of eiiOv) and evdeas, immediately. 

128. Comparison of Adverbs. 

The comparative of adverbs is generally the neuter singular 
accusative of the corresponding adjective ; the superlative, the 
neuter plui*al. Thus: Taxe<>)s (or Taxi) quickly; rdxtov, more 
quickly (John xx, 4); rdxta-ra, most quickly (Acts xvii. 15); €v, 
well (probably from e'ur, an old equivalent of dyados) ; jBeXrlov, better 
(2 Tim. i. 18). Adverbs of other than adjective derivation con- 
form to this model. So from ava (see § 132) is found dvarepov. 

Some comparatives take the termination -ws, as nepia-arorepa^, 
more abundantly. 

An irregidar comparative and superlative are fidXXov, more ; 
fidXia-ra, most. So, aacrov, nearer (Acts xxvii. 13), attributed to the 
adverb (in classic Greek); ayxh near ; superlative, ayxta-ra. 

* It is possibly an old dative plural : -us = -ois. The accentuation 
generally follows that of the genitive plural of the adjective ; as diKaluv, 
Sttaices, dA7)0aJ»', a\T}dws. 



[§ 129. 

129. Pronominal Adverbs, used also as Conjunctions. 

Several adverbs are formed indirectly or directly from pro- 
nouns ; and, like pronouns, are demonstrative, relative, inter- 
rogative, dependent interrogative, and indefinite (enclitic). 

The following Table gives the chief pronominal adverbs 
found in the New Testament : — 







t6t€, then 

Sn, when 

nSre ; tohen ? 

i-irdre, wheji 

T0T6, some- 

vvv, vvvi, now 

TifUa, when, 
in j>arti- 



avrov, here 
w5e, here 
tKet, (Keiae, 
there, thither 
ivBdSf, lather 

oil, where 

irov; where? 

6iTov, where 

irov, some- 

ivTevdev, hence, 

Sdev, whence 

irddev; whence? 


ovTa>(i), thus, 

ais, as 

jTftJs; how? 

Sttchs, how 

ira){i), some- 


■ndTepov, whe- 


The correlatives in the above Table will be immediately per- 
ceived. For further details compare under Pronouns, especially 
§ 62, and Syntax. OiJrcj, so, becomes oZtws before a vowel, and the 
indefinite ttw is always ttw?, except in comjiosition. 

It will be observed that the scheme of adverbs is incomplete in 
the relative and interrogative divisions, by the omission of the 
(accusative) form whither. Classic Greek supplies the omission by 
the words ol, woi; onoi, but these are not found in the New 
Testament, the genitive forms ov, ttoC; Sttov being used. Compare 
in English the tendency to say ^' Where are you going?" for 
" Whither are you going i" 

§ 130.] ADVERBS. 147 

130. Numeral Adverbs. 

Niimeral adverbs eud in -is, -kis, or -aKis, as 8U, twice; rpls, thrice; 
fiTTaKis, seven times; fjBdoixrjKovraKis, seventy times (Matt, xviii. 22); 
TToXXaKLs, Tnany times, aira^, once for all, is exceptionally formed ; 
oaraKis, as often as (1 Cor. xi. 25, 26), is from the relative. 

131. Adverbs from Verbs. 

Ancient verbal forms, used as adverbs, are Sevpo, hither, with 
its plural, SeCre. These are generally employed as imperatives, 
" Come thou (or ye) hither!" The imperative aye is also employed 
as a kind of adverb, Go to! (James iv. 13 j v. 1.) 

Some verbs in -it«, expressing national peculiarity, form an 
adverb in -la-rC. Thus, from iWr/viCio, we find eXXrjvttTTi, in the 
Greek language ; similarly, i^paiari, in tJie Hebrew language. 

132. Adverbs from Prepositions. 

Many prepositions have a coiTesponding adverb in -w (par- 
ox5rtone). Thus, from dm is formed iivw, upwards; and from 
Kara, Karui, downwards. So, eVw, within ; e^co, witlwut. The 
termination -Oev is added to these adverbs also, with a genitive 
force ; as iivcodev, from above ; e^codfu, from, witlwut. 

Once a preposition without change is employed as an adverb 
(2 Cor. xi. 23), vnip iyu>, I [am) more.* 

133. Prepositive Adverbs, or Improper Prepositions, 

Several adverbs may be used like prepositions to govern nouns, 
and are then termed "improper" or "spurious" prepositions. The 
following is an alphabetical list of the principal found in the New 
Testament : — 

apa, together witli. 

avsv, without. 

axpi{s}, or pexp(.{s), until. 

* So, irp6s, too, often in classical Greek. 

148 ADVERBiS. [§ 133. 

eyyvs, near^ in time or space. 

efj-irpoadev, bpfore. 

ivavTLov, in front of, against. 

eveKa {-ev), for the sake of. 

fvaniov, before, in the presence of. 

6^0), without. 

indva, above, 

eaa, within. 

ecos, as far as. 

fieaov, in the midst of (Phil. ii. 15, MSS.). 

fiera^v, between. 

oTTicrco, oTnadev, behind, after. 

6-^i, at the end of (Matt, xxviii. 1). 

ttXtjv, except. 

TvXrja-iov, near ; TTapairhrja-Lov, Very nea/r. 

vnepeKeiva, beyond (2 Cor. X. 16). 

Xaptv, by favour of, for the sake of. 

X<^P^s, separated from, without. 

Some of the above, it is evident, are originally adverbial forms 
of adjectives and substantives. All govern the Genitive, except 
apa (Matt. xiii. 29), and irapaTTK-qcrlou (Phil. ii. 27), which take the 
Dative ; as does iyyvs sometimes. 

134. Negative Adverbs. 

a. The negative adverbs are ov (before a vowel, qvk. ; before 
an aspirated vowel, ovx), not, and ix-q, not. 

Accentuation. — ov is proclitic, excepting where emphatic; as oi), No.' 
(John i. 21). 

b. For an explanation of the ditFerence between these two words, 
see Syntax. It must suffice now to say that ov denies absolutely, 
prj, on some expressed or implied condition. The former is called 
the "categorical," or " objective" negative; the latter, the "con- 
ditional," or " subjective." Both words are used in composition 

§ 134.] ADVERBS. 149 

with Tis, ri (see § 60); also with the indefinite adverbs in the 
Table, § 129, as ovtj-o3, not yet; iJ.T]noTe, never in omy case. 

c. M.f] is also used as an interrogative advei'b, expecting the 
answer, no ; and, in composition with the interrogative ris, adds 
a kind of appeal to the hearers, as though enlisting their assent to 
the negative : thus, ixr]Ti. eyw; (Mark xiv. 19), Is it It i. e., " It ia 
not I, is it?" 

150 CONJUNCTIONS. [§ 135. 



135. Besides the Conjunctions properly so called, used, as in 
other languages, to unite words and sentences, there are in Greek 
several indeclinable words, employed sometimes separately, often 
in combination with other woixls, for the purpose of emphasis. 
These cannot always be translated, the degree of emphasis being 
too slight for the words of other languages to convey. 

These indeclinable words, together with the conjunctions 
themselves (and sometimes the primitive adverbs), are gene- 
rally called Particles. 

It belongs to Syntax to discuss the place and power of the 
particles in a sentence. All, therefore, that is now necessary is, to 
classify the chief of them, and to indicate their general meaning. 


The Conjunctions denote (1) annexation, (2) comparison, (3) dis- 
junction, (4) antithesis, (.5) condition, (6) reason, (7) inference, or 
(8) result. The relative forms of the adverbs (see § 129) are also 
really conjunctions, 

1. Annexation. — The copulative conjunctions are Kal, cmd, also, 
even; re, and, also. The latter is generally suboi'dinate : re ... Kai, 
both . . . and, not only . . . but ; sometimes koi ... re, or re ... re. Very 
generally, however, both... and is expressed by Kai...Kal, as in 
1 Thess. ii. 14, 15, &c. 

2. Comparison. — As conjunctions of comparison, the particles 
(OS, as ; (oa-TTfp, just as ; Kadas, like as, are used ; generally in cor- 
relation with the adverb ovras, so. (Compare § 129, Table). 

§ 136.] CONJUNCTIONS. 151 

3. Disjunction. — The disjunctive particles are ^', or; ^ ... rj, 
either ... or, (iu general); rJToi...rj, either ... or, (as an exclusive 
alternative) ; ciVe ... e'tVe, whether ... whether. 

4. Antithesis. — The antithetic conjunctions are aWa (originally 
neuter plural of uXXoy) and Se, both signifying hut. The adversative 
sense is much stronger in the former than in the latter. With he 
the particle ^iv often stands in the preceding sentence, and may 
be rendered indeed or on the one hand (Se, on the othei'}, or, more 
frequently, may be left untranslated, marking simply that the two 
clauses stand in real or formal antithesis. Etymologically, fiev is 
(probably) "the first thing;" 8e, "the second thing:" the anti- 
thesis is, therefore, often very slight, a distinction rather than 

5. Condition. — The conditional pai'ticles are et, ij"; etye, i/ at 
least ; emep, if at all ; edv (ft aV), if (possibly). For the important 
rules as to their use with verbs, see Syntax. 

6. Cause. — Particles expressive of a reason (causal) are, ort, that, 
because; yap, for ; Stdrt, because ; eVei (see § 129), since. 

7. Inference. — The chief inferential particles are, ovv, there- 
fore ; Toivvv, then ; lipa, consequently ; bi6, wherefore ; roiyapovv, 

8. Result. — The " final " conjunctions are Iva, in order that ; 
a>s and oTTws, so that ; prj, that not, lest. 

137. Particles of Emphasis and Interrogation. 

a. The chief emphatic particles are ye, at least, indeed (enclitic); 
and 8)j, certainly, now. To these may be added the enclitics nep, 
very, verily, and rot, certainly, found in combination with other 
words, as e'neidrjnep (Luke i. 1), since verily ; p,evToi, however. 

b. As inteiTogative particles the following ai"e employed : el, if, 
used elliptically, "Tell us if — ;" rj, simply denoting that a question 
is asked, and requiring no English equivalent save in the form of 
the sentence ; and apa (not to be confounded with upa, § 136, 7), 
which makes the question emphatic (only in Luke xviii. 8; 


152 PARTICLES. [§ 137. 

Acts viii. 30; Gal. ii. 17). For the interrogative adverb.s, see 
§129; and for the structure of interi'ogative sentences, consult 
the Syntax. 

138. Interjections. 

a. An Interjection is generally but the transcript of a natural 
instinctive sound, and therefore scarcely ranks among the " parts 
of organized speech." Words of this kind in the New Testament 
are u, ! oh ! ea, ah I expressive of pain and terror (Mark i. 24 ; 
Luke iv. 34); ova, ah! expressing scorn and hatred (Mark xv. 29); 
ovai, woe ! alas ! often governing a dative ; oval vfiiv, woe unto you ! 
alas for you! 

b. Tlie imperative foma, t'Se, see, is often treated interjectionally, 
but still more frequently the old imperative middle of the same 
verb is emjjloyed, accented as a particle : Idov, lo ! behold 1 



139. 1. Roots. — Words of all kinds are derived from some 
Root. For the distinction between root and stem, see § 10. The 
root is that part which remains after taking away from a whole 
family of kindred words all the parts which are different in each. 
Thus, AK- is the root of aK-fxrj, aK-p6s, aK-avda. 

The root expresses the leading idea, or general meaning, which 
runs through all the kindred words, though differently modified in 
each ; thus, AK- expresses the general meaning of " sharpness" 
or "pointedness." 

In the formation of words, some are derived directly fi-om the 
root; as a^/x^j, from AK-. Others take as a ("secondary") root 
the stem of words already formed ; as aKfiaia, from aKy.r) (aK|xtt-). 

Hence we find primary, secondary, tertiary, (fee, formations.* 
Thus :— 

Primary. Secondary. Tertiary, 

'AK-;njj, 2)oint 'KK^-a^co, to flourish 

*AK-poy, pointed 'AKpi-^rjs, accurate 'AKpi'Pe-ia, accuracy/. 

'AKpiP-iff, accurately/. 

2. Classes of Words. — Without attempting hei-e any extended 
statement of the methods and laws of derivation, it will be 
useful to specify some of the leading terminations which occur in 
the formation of Greek words. Each of these terminations has 
a particular force and meaning of its own, whatever be the root 
or stem to which it is joined : thus, Kpi-TTjs, (riXco-r^s, Kken-Trjs, 
■n-o\i-TT]s, have all the same termination, -ttjs, and with the same 

Classes of words may thus be formed, by arranging together 

• See, for greater detail, the " Bromsgrove Greek Grammar," by Dr. 
G. A. Jacob, § 78. 


those which have the same terminations, and marking their signi- 
fication; and this may be done with words of all kinds — sub- 
stantives, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, and particles. 

3. Modification of Stem-endings. — The final vowel or consonant 
of the root or stem will be afiected bv the termination according; 
to the general usages of the language, as illustrated especially in 
the inflections of the vei'bs. Thus, ttoitj-t^s, from iron- (compare 
§ 96, a, &c.), and KokvTv-TO), KuXyfi-na (see § 4, d, 4), from KoX-uir- 
or KoXvP". 

140. Classes of Substantives. 

a. First Declension. — 1. Masculine nouns in -n]? express a 
7nale agent, or person belonging to something. Thus, KpiTrjs, a judge; 
irotTjTTjs, a maker, doer, poet. Some nouns of this termination are 
formed from the root of simpler nouns : as ttoXiVj/s (woXis), citizen ; 
oiKeTTjs (oiKOi), domestic. 

Accentuation. — Dissyllables of this class, and polysyllables with short 
penultima, throw back the accent as far as possible, except Kpirris. So 
if/eu(7T7)s, SeffirSrris, ^pivarai, Siarrora (voc.) The rest are oxytone, except 

2. Feminine Nouns. — L The termination -la (paroxytone) ex- 
presses quality. Adjective stems in €s- or oo- give the forms (pro- 
paroxytone) -eia, -oid. So, o-o0ta, wisdom (o-o^o's-) ; aki]6fia, truth 
{a\Tj0rjs) ; evvoia, good-will (ei/Vovy). A iew nouns in -€id (paroxy- 
tone) are from verbal stems in -€v, and denote the result of action ; 
as ^auikda, kingdom (/Sao-tXevo)) ; naidela, instruction (ivaibcua). 

ii. Substantives in -oo-vvti connected with adjective stems in ov-, 
rarely in o-, also denote quality ; as acocjipoa-iivr], prudence, from 
(TO)(ppa)P, stem ov- ; iXerjfioavvr], COmpaSsion (eXe^^cof) j biKaioavvrj, 
righteousness (St/cator) ; ayiwavvr], holiness (ayios), the o- becoming -to, 
because of the short preceding syllable. (Compare § 42.) 

b. Second Declension. — 1. Masculine Nouns. — The termination 
-(IDS (oxytone) appended to verbal stems denotes action; as from 
dvo) (8v-), to rage, dvpos, passion. Sometimes o- intervenes, as iu 


Sfcr/i/os', bond, from 8€-, Sew, to hind ; or 0, as KkavOfxoi, lamentation, 
from kXoF-, Khalco, to weep. (See § 96, c.) 

2. Neuter Nouns. — i. The ending -rpov, from verbal roots, denote-s 
instrumetit. Thus, Xv-, Xvco, to release ; Xvrpov, ransom. 

ii. The termination -lov, from substantive stems, is diminutive: 
as from ttois (iraiS-), a child; ttmBlov, a little child. To -lov is 
sometimes pi-efixed the syllable op- or i8- : as rraiMpiov, a little boy; 
Kkividtov, a little bed, from kXIvt}, a couch ; daa-dpLov, a farthing, from 
Latin as. (See § 154, a.) 

Diminutives in -lov must be distinguished from neuters of adjectives 
in -los, used as substantives : e. g., iKaaTTipiov, propitkitory. 

The masculine and feminine terminations -ktkos, -Co-ktj, are also 
occasionally used as diminutives. Thus, veavlas (stem, a-), a youth; 
veavicTKOi, a lad. So iraiBla-KT], a damsel. 

Accentuation of Neuters. — Neuter nouns generally retract the accent. 
Diminutives in lov are, however, paroxytone, except when a short 
syllable precedes this termination. 

c. Third Declension. — 1. Masculine Nouns. — i. The suffix -cis 
(oxytone), stem eF-, denotes an agent : as ypapfiarevs, a scribe, from 
■Ypa|A|iaT-, ypdppa, a letter. (For the declension of these substantives, 
see § 30, iii) 

ii. The terminations -TTJp (oxytone) and -T«p (paroxytone, stem 
Top-) also signify an agent: as cf)oa-Trjp, luminary, from (f)cbs, light; 
p^rap, an orator, from pe- (in the obsolete verb, pea, to speak). 

2. Feminine Nouns. — i. The ending -o-is (gen. -o-€»s, root o-i-), 
from verbal stems, expresses action. Thu.s, 8ikoio- (fij/catow, to 
justify) gives hiKaiaxTts, justification; and irpa-y- {npaacTO), to do), 
Trpalis, action. These nouns, a very numerous class, retract the 
accent. (For their declension, see § 30, L b.) 

ii. The termination -ttis (gen. -ttitos, root ttit-) denotes quality, 
and is attached to adjective stems. Thus, icros, equal, gives laorrfs, 
equality; ayios, holy, dyioTTjs, holiness. These also retract the 



[§ 140. 

3. Neuter Nouns. — i. Tlie termination -[xa (stem nar-) denotes 
the result of an action, and is affixed to verbal stems. Thus, 
npaa-aa), irpaY-, gives npayna, a thing done, an action; and the 
obsolete pea, pe-, forms prj^a, a thing spoken, a word. 

ii. The ending -os (from stem «s-, see § 30, iv.) denotes, from 
verbal stems, result ; from adjective stems, quality. Thus, from 
fi8-, Second A or. Abov, I saw (see § 103 (4), we have eiSos, an 
appearance ; and from ^aQv-, in j3a6vs, deep, ^ddos, depth. 

141. The following scheme exhibits at one view the principal 
terminations of derivative nouns. The nominative and genitive 
endings ai-e given, as in Lexicons and Vocabularies ; but the stem 
and declension will easily be traced. 


Nom. and Gen. 







































































Occasionally with prefix -6 or -<r. 


142. Classes of Adjectives. 

1. The most common derivative Adjectives are of the First 
Form, and the usual terminations are the following : — 

a. From substantive roots, the ending -los (-fa*), -wv, is posses- 
sive, i.e., has the sense "of, or belonging to." Thus, from ovpavo-, 
ovpavos, heaven, is derived ovpdvios, heavenly ; from Tip,a-, rt/xij, 
honour, Tifxios, honourable, precious. The t of this termination 
sometimes forms a diphthong with a final stem vowel ; so from 
diKrj (SiKa-), justice, comes BUaios, just; from ayopd, market-place, 
dyopaios, public. To this class also belong the adjectives formed 
from the names of cities or countries, and denoting their inha- 
bitants. Thus, 'Ecpeaios, Ephesian ('E(f)e(Tos) ; 'lovSaios, Jew ('lovSat'a). 

Accentuation. — The diphthongal forms are (7ewera% properispomenon ; 
the others are proparoxytone, i. e. , retract the accent. 

b. The termination -tKo's, -r\, -6v (oxytone), from verbal or sub- 
stantive roots, marks ability or fitness: as KpiriKos, capable of 
judging (kplvco) ; jSao-tXtKor, royal (^aaiXevs). 

c. The ending -tvos, -t], -ov (proparoxytone), from substantive 
roots, expresses the material of which anything is made : as ^CXivos, 
wooden (^v\ov). 

Note. — The same substantive stem may have a derivative of each of 
the two last-mentioned forms. Thus, from aapK- (uap^-), flesh, are 
formed fl-apKii'os, made of flesh, "fleshy;" and topkikSs, of the nature ofl 
flesh, "fleshly." The former is only found in the received text of the 
New Testament in 2 Cor. iii. 3 ; but on the authority of MkSS. , many 
critics substitute it for the latter in Romans vii. 14 ; 1 Cor. iii. 1. The 
internal evidence in these passages seems, however, against the alter- 

Sometimes the termination -eos (contr. -ovs) denotes material ; 
as dpyvptos, dpyvpovs, of silver (apyvpos). 

d. The termination -pos, -pa, -p6v (oxytone), denotes the complete 
* Some of these adjectives are "of two terminations." (See § 34, 6.) 



[§ 142. 

possession of a quality, like the English -/ul or -able : as, from 
i<r\v-, laxvs, strength, laxvpos, powerful. 

e. Adjectives ending in -i|ios, -ov, -o-tfxos, -ov (proparoxytone), are 
occasionally formed from verbal stems, and express ability or 
fitness: as Sokijuos, receivable, current (of coin), so approved, from 
SeX", BexofJ-ai, to receive ; xPW'-F'O^^ useful, from xpa-, xpdopai, to use. 
Some proper names are of this class, as Ovrja-tfios (lit. jjrqfitable, see 
Philem. ii.) 

f The verbals in -tos and -re'os have already been noticed (§73. 
p. 69). 

2. Second and Third Forms. — Here the derivative stem-endings 
-ts and -ixov need only be noticed. 

a. Adjectives in -r\s (see § 41) are generally correlative to nouns 
in -OS, the stem of which, it will be remembered, is also in ts- 
(§ 30, iv.) ^o ■^eii^os falsehood ; y^evbrjs, false. 

b. Adjectives in -(j.wv, derived from verbal stems, attribute the 
action of the verb to the person : as tka-, eXe/co, to pity ; iXfrjfiav, 

143. Scheme of Derivative Adjectives. 


Terminations of Nom. Sing. 


-lis, -€S 

Do. complete 

-po's, -pa, -pov 

Attribute, locality 

-los (-aios, -€tos, -oios) -la , lov 






(-€0s) -oCs, [-e'a], (-€ov) -ovv 


-(o-)lftOS, -(0-)l|A0V 


-|1«V, -fJlOV 

Possibility (verbal) 

-TOS, -TT|, -TOV 

Obligation (do.) 

-T€os, -Tea, -Te'ov 

§ 144.] word-formation — verbs. 159 

144. Classes of Verbs. 

a. Verbs from substantive or adjective roots (" denominative 
verbs") may signify the being, doing, or causing that which the 
noun imports. Verbs in -d«, -e'«, -€vw, generally denote simply 
state or action ; verbs in -ow, -aCvw, -ww, causation. Thus, 8ov\evco, 
I am a slave ; 8ov\6co, I make a slave of another, I enslave. The 
distinction is not always observed ; for instance, Tikrjdvvo) may be 
either / multiply, transitive, or / abound, intransitive. Verbs in 
-Ct« often have the sense of becoming or acting that which the 
noun denotes. Thus, 'louSaZos, a Jew; lovBaiCco, I act the Jew 
(Gal. ii. 14). 

The principal denominative verbal terminations are as follow : —  

-dw, as Tifj.(i(o, to honour (tihtj). 

-io), „ TToXe/xeo, tO make war (TroXe'iJLOs). 
-dw, ,, fiouXo'co, to enslave (8ovXos). 

-d?(o, ,, (pydCofjLac, tO IVOrk (epyov). 

-i^w, „ eX7rl((o, to hope (eXnis). 

-aivco, „ XevKaivoo, to whiten (XevKos). 

-«vw, ,, ^acnXevco, to reign (paa-ikevs). 

-WW, „ Tr\r]6vi'(o, to abound, multiply (tj-X^^o?/. 

b, Verbs from simpler verbal stems are "inceptives" in -o-kw, 
as yrjpdaKco, to grow old ; " frequentatives" or " emphatic verbs," 
as /SaTTTifo), to baptize {^dnrui) ; and " causatives," as (ledvaKco, to 
intoxicate (pfdva) ; yapi((o or yapia-Ko), to give in marriage (ya/ieta). 
To these, as anomalous derivatives from Perfects, may be added 
a-TTiKoo, to stand, from the Perfect ea-TijKa ; and yprjyopia, to watch, 
from iyp^yopa, the reduplicated Second Perfect of eyeipa. 

145. General Remark on Derivation. 

It often happens that the original of a derivative does not 
appear in the language in its simpler form ; and still more fre- 
quently, that it is not found in the New Testament. On the other 
hand, the actual derived forms are far fewer than the possible. 

160 WORD-FORMATION — VERBS. [§ 145. 

The copiousness and fertility of the Greek as a living language 
depended especially on the power which it possessed of expressing 
new thoughts and shades of thought by words framed according 
to strict analogy, and therefore competent to take their place at 
once without question in the vocabulary. The langixage of science 
among ourselves — which, in fact, is borrowed from the Greek — fur- 
nishes an illustration of the same power to accompany, with ec[ual 
step, the progress of knowledge and of thought. 




146. Compound words are either parathetic or synthetic 
in their formation. 

In parathetic* compounds, both words retain their form 
and meaning, subject only to the laws of euphony. They 
are, therefore, merely jjlaced side hy side, as it were, though 
they are written as one word. This is the case with all 
verbs compounded with prepositions, as iKJSdXXo}, from e/c and 
/3aA.Aco ; anipxpixai, from a-ao and 'ipyoixai ; KaOidTrjixi, from Kara 
and laTri\xi ; crvyyaipi)>, from avv and \aip(ti. (The changes in 
the terminations of some of the above prepositions need no 

In synthetic f compounds, the former word, a noun or a 
verb, loses all inflection ; while the latter often takes a form 
which it could not have had out of composition. The words 
are therefore placed in close union, and really make one word : 
as (f)ik6(TO(f)os, from <pCkos and ao(f)[a. 

147. Parathetic Compounds. 

The former word of a parathetic compound is almost always in 
the New Testament a particle, i.e., a preposition or an adverb ; 
never a verb. 

The siguification of many compounds can be satisfactorily ascertained 
only from the Lexicon, as the meaning of the prefix is often modified 
by that of the principal word. | It will, however, be helpful to the 

* From irapi and de- (Ti07)/ii)> " set side by side." 

t From aiv and Oe-, ' ' set together or corn-posed " 

:J: So in English : e.g., the particle over varies its meaning in the words 
overthrow, overtake, overrun, overtime, overbearing ; the fundamental sig- 
nification being, however, discernible iu all. 


learner to have at one view the chief significations of the particles used 
in composition. The following table (a) should be comjjared with that 
in § 124; and a little thought will trace the connexion in each case 
between the primitive significations (printed in italics) and the 
secondary meanings that follow. 

a. The Prepositions, as used in Composition. 

dn<}>u, rou7id about. 
dva-, wp, back again. 
dvTi-, instead of, against, in return for. 
diro-, away from, dismission, completeness. 
8ia-, through, thorough, between. 
€ls-, i7ito. 

£K- (€|- before a vowel, I7- before a guttural), out of, forth, utterly. 
ev- (l(x- before a labial mute, or jj,), in, upon, intrinsically, 
tiri-, upon, to, in addition. 
Kara-, down, downright, against. 
p.€Ta-, witJi, participation, change. 
•n-apa-, beside, beyond, along. 
•n-epi-, around, over and above, excess. 
irpo-, before, forward. 
■irpos-, towards, in addition to. 

o-vv- (o-vfx- before a labial, mute, or ja; 0-^7- before a guttural), 
with, association, compression. 
{iirep-, above, excess, 
iiiro-, under, concealment, repression. 

b. Separable Particles (Adverbs) in Composition. 

a- (from aiia), together, as airas (-vt-), all together. 
dpri-, lately, only in apTiyevvr]Tos, new-born (1 Pet. ii. 2). 
€v-, well, prosperously. 

■jraXiv-, again, only in iroKiyyeveala, regeneration (Matt. xix. 28 ; 
Titus iii 6). 

irav-, all (from neuter of iravr-). 

TTjXc-, afar off, only in rrjXavyms, distinctly (Mark viii, 25). 


c Inseparable Particles in Composition, 

o- (from ava]^ intensive : perhaps only in aTevi^oo, to gaze steadfastly. 
d- or dv-, not, the usual negative prefix, answering to our un-. 
8vs-, hardly or ill, like our dis., mis-, or un-. 
Tjiii-, half (L&tiu, semi-), only in TjuLdavTjs, half-dead, and rjfuapiov, 
half an hour. 

The Prepositions (Table a), when used in the composition of 
nouns and adjectives, generally mark a secondary formation, i.e., a 
derivation from a compound verb. Thus, aTroarTokos, apostle, is not 
from aTTo and utoKo^, but from aTroo-TeAAo), to send forth. So 
anofTTokr], apostleship. Again, from eKkeyonai, to choose out, come 
fKXeKTos, cJiosen, elect ; and e'lcXoy/;, election. Some such nouns and 
adjectives, however, are found, without any corresponding com- 
pound verb. 

The Adverbs and Inseparable Particles (Tables b, c) (excej^t 
d- negative) are generally used with substantives and adjectives, 
not with verbs. 

Two Prepositions may be combined in the formation of a word, 
the characteristic formative force of each being retained. Thus, 
Ka6i(TTr]^L, to establish, dTroKadia-Trjfxi, to restore;, passive, 
to be comforted,* a-vfinapaKaXeofiai, to be comforted together ; elcrayco, 
to introduce, Trapeia-dyo), to introduce by the bye (2 Pet. ii. ] ) . So 
napeiarfKdfv (Romans v. 20), entered by the way. Again, dvTiXap,- 
^avopai is to help, generally (lit., "to take hold of, over against"), 
but (TvvavTiXapjSdvopai is to help by coming into association with (as 
Luke X. 40 ; Romans viii. 26). 

148. Synthetic Compounds. 

In synthetic compounds the former word is a noun or a verb, 
never a particle. 

When the former word is a noun, if its stem does not already 

* Literally, to be called to one's side: i.e., for purposes of consolation, 
or, it might be, of exhortation, or advocacy. Hence the word napaKXtjTos 
has the threefold meaning of Comforter, Exhorter, Advocate. (See John 
xiv. 16, 26 ; 1 John iL 1. ) 


end in -o, the vowel -o- is commonly added as a connective, when 
the latter woi'd begins with a consonant, as, from Kapdia, Kap8i-o- 

When the former word is a verb, the connecting vowel is 
usually -1-. as from apxfn^ apx-i-a-wdyayos \ but sometimes -o-, as 
fde\-o-dpr](TKfia. The form of a verbal noun is often used, as from 
Set'Sco (Seicrts), beicn-daipcov. 

Compound verbs of this class usually take their form from a 
compound noun ; the verb thus appearing in a shape which it 
cannot have out of composition : as, evxapta-Teco, to give thanks, 
from fvxdpLcrros, not from ev and ■^'^picTTeai ', (piKoripeopai, to be 
ambitious, from (piXonpos, not from (piXos and rifxeonai. 

In synthetic compounds the latter word generally has the 
leading significance, and is defined w modified by the former. 

The following compounds illustrate the foregoing remarks : — 

olKo-deanoTTjs, householder. 

KaK-ovpyos, evildoer [kukos epyov). 

alpaT-eKxvcTLa, bloodshedding (^alpa, fKxvais from eK and ;^e'(F)a)). 

Kapbi-o-yvacTT-qs, one vjho knoios the heart. 

dpx-i-(Tvvaycoyos, ruler of the synagogue. 

paKpo-dvpos (adjective), paKpodvpla (substantive), long-suffering. 

8ai8eKd-(j)v\ov (neuter substantive), ten tribes (Acts xxvi. 7). 

bevTfpo-TrpaiTos, second-first (Luke vi. 1), probably, *' the first 
Sabbath in the second year of the Sabbatical cycle of seven years." 
See Wieseler's " Chronological Synopsis of the Four Gospels," 
II. ii. 4. Wieseler fixes the year as 782, A.U.C. 

149. Illustration of the Varieties of Deriv^ation and 


The root Kpi-, verbal stem Kpiv-, primary meaning to separate, 
may be taken as illustrating the variations and combinations of a 
Greek word. 

First, we have simple derivatives, formed as in Chapter IX. ; — 

K.piv(o, to separate, or judge. 

Kpia-is, the process of separation, or judgment. 


Kpifia, the act or result of judgment, sentence. 

KpiTTjpiov, a standard of judgment, or tribunal. 

Kpirfjs, a judge. 

KpiTiKos (adjective), able to judge, a discoverer (Heb. iv. 13). 

Next, we note tbe composition of the verb with different 
prepositions : — 

avaKpivm, to inquire, estimate. 

SiaKpivco, to distinguish, separate, decide ; middle, to hesitate. 

eyKpiuoo, to judge, or 7'eckon, among (2 Cor. x. 12). 

fUiKpivco, to adjudge (Luke xxiii. 24). 

Ka-raKpivco, to give judgment against, condemn. 

avyKplvco, to judge together, compare. 

aTTOKpluopai, to answer. 

avTairoKpivopai, to awswer against (Luke xiv. 6 ; Rom. ix. 20). 

{jTTOKp'ivopai, to dissemble (Luke xx. 20). 

avvvTTOKpivopai, to dissemble with any one (Gal. ii. 13). 

We may then note the various compound substantives, which 
may be compared with the corresponding verbs : — 

avcLKpicTii, an examination (Acts xxv. 26). 

aiTOKpi.di.s, an answer. 

hiuKpicTis, the act of distinguishing, discernment. 

KaraKpiais, condemnation. 

inroKpca-is, dissimzdation, hypocrisy. 

dnoKpipa, a sentence, as of death, or, response (2 Cor. L 9). 

KaraKpipa, a sentence of condemnation . 

irpoKpipa, a. prepossession, prejudice (1 Tim. v. 21). 

vnoKpiTTjs, lit. a stage-player, a hypocrite. 

"We now take a group of negative compounds :— 

dbiaKpiTos, not subject to distinction, impartial or sincere 
(James iii. 17). 

aKaraKpiTos, tcncondemned, 
dwnoKpiros, unfeigned 


JFinally, tlie New Testament contains three instances of the 
composition of this root with nouns and pronouns : — 

avTOKaraKpiTos, self-condevmed (Titus iii. 11). 
eiXiKpivr]s (from eiXr], sunsMne, cognate with rfKios), judged of in 
the sunlight, pure, sincere (Phil. i. 10 ; 2 Pet. iii. 1). 
elXiKpivfia (from the above), sincerity. 

Many other compounds of this root exist, but these are all 
which the New Testament containa. 



150. Languages of Palestine. — Hebrew. 

Two languages were spoken and understood in Palestine. The 
one, called in the New Testament " the Hebrew tongue " (Acts 
xxii. 2; xxvi. 14), was in reality a very considerable modification 
of the Old Testament Hebrew, and is generally now tej-med "the 
Syro-Chaldaic," or " the Aramaic " (from Aram, the Hebrew 
word for Syria). This was the language of the people, and, 
to some uncei'tain extent,* remained in colloquial use until the 
destruction of Jerusalem. 

Some critics believe that St. Matthew's Gospel was originally 
written in Aramaic, and that the book as it appears in the New 
Testament is a more or less literal translation. In this opinion 
we do not concur ; but there can be no doubt that in the days of 
our Lord the ancient language was still most fondly cherished by 
the people. Expressions that fell from the Saviour's lips in 
moments of deep emotion, in the performance of signal miracles, 
in Gethsemane, and on the Cross, are carefully recorded; and other 
words of technical character, or religious association, or homely 
use, are also found in the native tongue of Israel. 

151. Introduction of Greek. 

But as a direct result of the conquests of Alexander the Great 
and his successors, the Greek tongue had been carried into almost 
all the countries of the civilized world, and had become the 
medium of commercial intercourse, the language of the courts, 
and, in fact, the universal literary tongue of the provinces after- 

* See on tlie whole subject, Dr. Roberts' "Discussions on the Gospels." 



wards absorbed in the Roman Empire. The natives of Alex- 
andria and of Jerusalem, of Ephesus, and even of Rome, alike 
adopted it ; everywhere with characteristic modifications, but 
substantially the same. Hence it had become a necessity to trans- 
late the Old Testament Scrijjtures into Greek ; and as this great 
work was executed by Alexandrian Jews, its language not only 
shows the influence of the Hebrew original, but contains special 
forms and peculiarities of expression indigenous to Egypt. This 
translation, or "the Septuagint," * naturally became the basis- of 
all subsequent Jewish Greek literature, and in particular of the 
New Testament, which, however, to the Egyptian superadds 
Palestinian influences. It was in the Greek of the Septuagiut 
thus modifled that, in all probability, our Lord and His apostles 
generally spoke. The dialect of Galilee (Matt. xxvi. 73) was not 
a corrupt Hebrew, but a provincial Greek. 

The New Testament writers, it should be noted, difi'er consi- 
derably from one another in style. The Book of Revelation, for 
instance, is very unlike the writings of the Apostle Paul. All, 
again, vary greatly from classical models, both in vocabulary and 
syntax, exchanging the elaborate harmonies of Attic Greek for 
simpler constructions and homelier speech. 

152. Infusion of Latin. 

The Roman conquest and tenure of Palestine may be thought 
likely to have stamped some lasting traces on the language. 
Such traces undoubtedly appear in the New Testament ; but, 
considering the might of the dominant people, these are mar- 
vellously few. The Romans could impose their laws, their 
polity, their military power, upon vanquished nations, but not 
their s])eech. Certainly, there are some Latin words in the New 
Testament ; but these are almost wholly nouns denoting military 
rank or civil authority, coins, or articles of dress ; a valuable 

* That is -'the Seventy" (often quoted as LXX.), from the traditional 
Bumber of translators. 


historic testimony, were there none beside, how " the sceptre had. 
departed from Judah, and a lawgiver from between his feet." 

By way of illustration to the foregoing remarks, lists are here 
appended of the chief Aramaic (or Syro-Chaldaic) and Koman terms 
contained in the New Testament. 

153. Hebkew and Aramaic Words and Phrases. 

The Hebrew root is in a few cases assimilated to the forms of 
the Greek language ; but is oftener simply transcribed, and used 
without declension or conjugation, 

a. Assimilated words are the following : — 

Meo-o-m?, MESSIAH, " the Anointed." This word occurs only in 
John i. 41, iv. 25 ; the Greek equivalent, Xpiaros, from xp^(o, to 
anoint, being everywhere else employed. 

^afjia-aios, Fharisee, from a Hebrew word, meaning to separate, 
and 2a88ovKaios, Sadducee, from another, meaning to be righteous, 
are of constant occurrence — "Separatists" and "Moralists." 

^aufxwvas (gen. -a, dat. -5), Mammon, riches (Matt. vi. 24 ; Luke 
xvi. 9, 11, 13). Its derivation is uncertain; but there is no reason 
for supposing that it was anywhere the name of a false deity. 

a.ppa[ii>v, -covos, a pledge, or earnest (2 Cor. i. 22, v. 5). 

On (xd^^arov, sabbath, see § 32, b. 

yievvuf -rjs, from two words signifying valley of Hinnom ; hence, 
metaphorically, for the place of future punishment (see 2 Kings, 
xxiii. 10 ; Isa. xxx. 33 ; Jex-. vii. 31). 

b. Indeclinable words are more numerous, i. The following 
may rank among proper names, on which class of words see fur- 
ther, § 157 :— 

^ AKiKbapa, field ofblood (Acts i. 19). 

BeeXCfj3o{iX, lord of dung (Matt. xii. 24, &c.), a contemptuous 
Jewish turn to the name of the Ekronite god Beelzebub, " lord of 
flies" (see 2 Kings i. 2, 3). Hence "prince of the demons." 

Boai/fpyts, Sons of thunder (Mark iii. 17). 

ra^PaOd, the Favement, or Tribunal (John xix. 13). 


Tokyodd, tJie Place of a skull, or of skulls (Matt, xxvii. 33 ; 
Mark XV. 22; John xix. 17), called in Greek Kpaviop (Luke 
xxiii. 33), where our word Calvary is taken from the Vulgate. 

'Pen(pdv, probably the planet Saturn (Acts vii. 43, from Amos 
V. 26, LXX.) 

ii. Other Syro-Chaldaic nouns are as follow : — 

'A/3/3a, Father, in confidence, endearment, or entreaty (Mark 
xiv. 36 ; Rom. viii. 15 ; Gal. iv. 6). 

Kop^dv, gift (Mark vii, 11), Kop^avds (decl. Matt, xxvii. 6), 

pdvva, lit. "what is this 1" manna (Exod. xvi. 15 ; John vi. 31, 
49, 58; Heb. ix. 4; Eev. ii. 17). 

/ticope, fool ! (Matt. V. 22) may be a Greek vocative (/iwpos), but 
is more probably an Aramaic word of similar sound, denoting 
utter mental and moral worthlessness. 

■ndaxa, Passover. 

paQ^l, my master! lit. "my great one!" (Matt, xxiii. 7, »fec.) 
So pa^lBovi (Mark X. 51), and paj3l3owl (John xx. 16). 

paKa, a term of contempt, from a Hebrew root signifying 
emptiness, or vanity (Matt v. 22). 

(Taj3aQ)d, hosts, i e., the hosts of heaven (Rom. ix. 29 ; Jas. v. 4). 

a-Uepn, strong drink (Luke i. 15). 

Xfpov^ip, cherubim, Hebrew plural of cherub (Heb, ix. 5). 

c. Akamaic Phrases. — dXXrjXovia, praise ye Jehovah ! (Rev. 
xix. 1, 3, 4, 6.) 

dpriv, after ascriptions of praise, so let it be; before assertions, 

^(f)(f)add, be opened ! (Mark vii. 34.) 

'HXi, *HX1, \apd (Ta^axBavi; My God, my God, why hast Thou 
forsaken me 1 (Matt, xxvii. 46,) from Ps. xxii. 1 ; the last word 
being the Aramaic equivalent of tlie original Hebrew verb. 'HXt 
is my God, from the Hebrew El. Mark xv. 34, reads 'EXwt. 

papavaOd, The Lord cometh 1 (1 Cor. xvi. 22.) (The word pre- 
ceding, dvd6(pa., accursed, is pure Greek, and should be followed by 
a colon or period.) 


Ta\i6a Kovfii, Maiden, arise! (Mark v. 41.) 

aa-avva, Save now ! (Matt xxi. 9; Mark xi. 9, 10; John xii. 13,^ 
taken from Ps. cxviii. '25. 

154. Latin "Words. 

a. Names of Coins. — KoSpairi;?, " quadrans," fartlmig " (Matt. 
V. 26 ; Mark xii. 42), the fourth part of the 

da-a-dpiov, "as," (diminutive term), also rendered y^r^/wTip' in E.V. 
(Matt. X. 29 ; Luke xii. 6), the sixteenth part of the 

8r]vapiov, " denarius," rendered fenny (as in Matt, xviii. 28, &c.), 
silver coin, worth about *l\d. 

h. Judicial. — a-iKapioi, "sicarius," assassin (Acts xxi. 38). 
(ppayeWiov, (ppayeWoco, "flagellum, flagello," scouTge (noun and 
verb) (John ii. 15; Matt, xxvii. 26 ; Mark xv. 15). 

c. Military. — Kevrvplav, "centurio," centurion (Mark xv. 39', 
44, 45). Elsewhere the Greek (KaTovrapxa^ (or xn^^ i'^ employed. 

Kova-Tcobia, '• custodia," guard (Matt, xxvii. 65, (i6 ; xxviii. 11). 

'keyeav, " legio," legion (Matt. xxvi. 53; Mark v. 9, 15 ; Luke 
viii. 30). 

Tj-paiToipLov, " prjetorium," officer's or governor'' s quarters, palace 
(Matt, xxvii. 27 ; Phil. i. 13, &c.). 

(TTTeKovKaTmp, " speculator," member of the royal gu/xrd (Mark 
V). 27). 

d. Political. — nc^i/o-o?, " census," tribute (Matt. xvii. ^o ; 
xxii. 17). 

KcoXavta, " colonia," colony (Acts xvi. 12). 
Xi^epTivoi, "libertini,"yreec^7nen (Acts vi. 9). 

e. Articles of Dress. — Xevnov, "lenteum," towel (John xiii. 

aipiKivdcov, " semicinetium," apron (Acts xix. 12). 
(Tovbapiov, " sudarium," handkerchief (Luke xix. 20, &c.). 

/ General, — C^Caviov, "zizanium," wild darnel, "lolium" (Matt. 
xiii. 25-40). 

Kpaj3l3aTos, "grabbatus," mattrass or small cov^h (Mark ii. 4, &c.) 


frnKeWov, " macelluni," shambles, meat-market (1 Cor. x. 25). 

fien^pavrj, " membrana,^' parchment (2 Tim. iv. 13). 

fiiXiov, " milliare," mile (Matt. v. 41). 

fi68ios, "modius," a measure (about an English peck, Matt. 
V. 15, &c.). 

.^eo-Ti/s, "sextus, sextarius," a small measure (about an Englisli 
pint), pitcher (Mark vii. 4). 

P(8t}, "rheda," chariot (Rev. xviii. 13). 

Ta^epvrj, " taberna," tavern (Acts xxviii. 15). 

titXos, " titulus," title, superscription (John xix. 19, 20). 

00/301/, "forum," part of the name Appii Forum (Acts xxviii. 15). 

xafyrrjs, " char ta," paper (2 John 12). 

(For Latin Proper Names, see Chapter XII.) 

^ 155.1 PROPER NAMES. 1T3 


155. The personal names of the New Testament are in 
general derivative or composite words, originally with a 
specific meaning. They belong to three languages — Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin (compare Chap. XI.) — a circumstance 
which occasions some little difficulty and confusion, especially 
since the Hebrew names sometimes appear in the forms of 
the Greek declension, sometimes, as in their original shape, 
indeclinable. Our translators, too, have occasionally adopted 
different renderings of the same Greek name, and in many 
cases have made the New Testament English form different 
from that in the Old. 

156. Hebrevs^ Names. 

a. The original indeclinable Hebrew forms may end in almost 
any letter ; as, e. g , ^A^iov8, 'AjSpaifi, 'icrpaijX, 'EXio-a/3er, 'if^^ae, Nwe, 
'Ho-av, ^lepixoiy- Sucli forms are generally oxytone. So '^fxpavovrfK, 
God with us. 

h. The following names are found both in indeclinable and 
declinable forms : — 

'lepovaakrip. and 'lepoaoXvixa, -av,* Jerusalem. 

2aov\ and 2avXos, Saul.-\' 

'IaKcb/3, Jacob (Old Testament), and ^laKco^os, James (New Testa- 

* Once 'Upo(T6\i'ixa appears as a feminine singular (Matt. ii. 3; so, 
perhaps, iii. 51). 

+ The Hebrew form occurs only in the accounts of Saul's conversion 
(Actsix., xxii., xxvi., except xiii. 21, in reference to the Old Testament 

174 PROPER NAMES. [§ 156. 

^vjjLetav, Simeon (Old Testament), and 'lijiav, -wi/oy, Simon* (New 
Testament) , 

Kevt. Levi (Old Testament), and Aei;t's, Levi (Matthew, New 
Testament). Compare § 32. 

c. Hebrew names in ah appear in the form -as (see § 20, a). 
Those in ialo, or jah, a form of the name of the Supreme Being, 
Jehovah, are rendered into Greek by -las : as 'HX/as, Elijah ; 
'Ho-aiay, Isaiah. These, however, take a genitive in -ow. (Meo-o-i'ar, 
Anointed, is of a different derivation.) 

d. The circumflexed termination -as (gen. -d) marks some names 
belonging to the later Hebrew (or Aramaic) : as Krj^j^as, Bapa/S^as. 
To these must be added, 'lavas, Jonah, Jonas, or Jona. 

More frequently, however, -ds indicates the contraction of a 
Greek or Latin name, as shown §§ 158, b, 159, d. 

157. Double Names. 

a. "When two names are applied to the same person, one is 
sometimes the Hebrew (or Aramaic) appellation, the other its 
translation into Greek. Thus, Tabitha (Hebrew) and Dorcas 
(Greek) both signify " gazelle ; " Thomas (Hebrew) and Didymus 
(Greek) both stand for "twin." So also Cephas (Hebrew) is 
translated by Peter, " stone." 

b. Some Greek names are mere vocal imitations of the Hebrew, 
the sound being imperfectly transferred. Thus, Judah, or Judas, 
becomes Theudas (Acts v. 36) ; while Levi may have given rise to 
the form Lebbceus. Some, again, have thought Alphceus (Matt. 
X. 3, &c.), and Clopas (John xix. 25), to be only two forms of the 
same Hebrew word. Cleopas (Luke xxiv. 1 8) is a different name 
from the latter. It is possible that Faid, Ilai'Xo?, may in like 
manner have sprung from the Hebrew Saul; or it had a Latin 
origin ; see § 159, c. 

c. In many cases, again, where two names are borne, one is 

* Twice, however, the Apostle bears the Old Testament name (Acta 
a-v, i4 ; 2 Pet. i. 1). 


a surname, either (1) from some cliaracteristic circumstance, as 
Cephas or Peter of Simon, and Barnabas of Joses ; or (2) a 
patronymic formed by the Aramaic Bar, " son," as Bar-jesus (son 
of Joshua, 'lrf(Tovs) of Elymas, and possibly Bar-tolniai, BapBoXonaios, 
of Nathanael ; or (3) a local a])pellation, as Iscariot (Hebrew, 
*' a man of Kerioth," see Josh. xv. 25), and Magdalene (Greek, 
"a woman of Magdala"). Observe that Canaanite, properly 
"Kananite," Kavavirris (Matt. x. 4; Mark iii. 18), is not a local 
name, but probably the Greek form of the Hebrew word for zealot, 
rendered (Luke vi. 15 ; Acts i. 13), ZrfKwTrj^. 

d. When the name of the same person appears in a Grsecised 
and a Hebrew style, the former would naturally be employed 
among the Gentiles and Hellenists ; the latter among the Pales- 
tinian Jews. So Saul becomes Paul, when he starts on his first 
missionary tour (Acts xiii. 9), and ever afterwards retains the 

158. Greek Names. 

a. Pure Greek names are common, whether of Hellenists 
{i. e., Greek-speaking, or foreign Jews) or of Gentile converts. It 
has often been noticed that the names of all "the seven" (Acts vi.) 
are Greek. So throughout most of the Epistles. " Euodias," 
EvoSta (Phil. iv. 2), is a feminine form, and should have been 
rendered Euodia. 

h. Many Greek composite names are contracted into forms 
in -a? : as Epaphroditus into Epaphras (Col. i. 7 ; iv. 12) ; Artemi- 
dorus into Artemas (Titus iiL 12) ; Nymphodorus into Nymphas 
(Col. iv. 15); Zenodorus into Zenas (Titus iii. 13); Olympiodorus 
into Olympas (Rom. xvi. 15); Hervwdorus into Hermas (Rom. 
xvi. 14). The termination dorus is from Ba>pov, gift; and the 
former parts of these compounds are from the Greek mythology. 

Other contractions are, Parmenas for Parmenides (Acts vi. 5) ; 
Demas, probably for Demetrius ; Antipas, for Antipater ; Apollos, 
for Apollonius. ^wTrarpos (Acts XX. 4) and Scoo-iVarpoj (Rom. 
xvi. 21) seem to be the same name in different forms. 

176 PROPER NAMES— LATIN. [§ 159. 

159. Latin ]N"ames. 

a. The Latin names occur chiefly where we might expect them, 
in letters written to or from Rome. The chief are Cornelius, 
Aquila, Priscilla or Prisca, Caius, ie., Gains, Urban, Rufus,-^- Julia, 
Tertius, Quartus, Fortunatus, Marcus or Mark, Clement (Kkfjfirjs, 
-evTos), Pudens, Claudia, and perhaps Linus (2 Tim. iv. 21). 
Some have thought that the last-mentioned was a Briton, Lin, of 
the household of Caractacus. 

h. Three names of Roman Emperors are also found in the New 
Testament in a Latin form, Augustus, ^Kvyova-ros (Luke ii. 1 ; but 
the Greek equivalent, "Ee^aaros, is found, referring to Nero, Acts 
XXV. 21, 25); Tiberius, TijSepios (Luke iii. 1); and Claudius, 
KXai^Stos (as Acts xi. 28). The surname Ccesar, Kala-ap, is applied 
to Augustus (Luke ii. 1), to Tiberius (Luke iii. 1, &c.), to 
Claudius (Acts xi. 28), to Nero (Acts xxv. 8 ; Phil. iv. 22, &c.), 
Caligula is not mentioned. 

c. If the word UavXos be not, as is most likely, an imperfect 
Greek transcript of the Hebrew name Saul, it must also be 
referred to the class of Latin words, as in Rome it was the name 
of a noble house. Some have thought that the Apostle's family, 
on receiving the rights of Roman citizenship, had been adopted 
into this house ; others, with even less likelihood, connect his 
assumption of the name with the conversion of Sergius Paulus 
(Acts xiii. 7—12). 

d. Latin names, like Greek, may be contracted. Thus Luke, 
AovKas (rendered Lucas in E.V. ; Philem. 24), is an abbreviated 
form of the Latin name Lucomws. Similarly, Silvanus {'S.Ckovavos) 
and Silas denote one person. Amplias (Rom. xvi, 8) is probably 
a contraction of the Roman name Ampliatus. 

For the significance of these various names, the Lexicon may be 

* Rom. xvi. 9. This name is written in E.v. "Urbane," but it must be 
pronounced as a dissyllable. 






Subject — Copula — Predicate. 

The laws of Universal Grrammar, with regard to the con- 
strjiction and arrangement of Sentences, should be clearly 
borne in mind, that their special exemplifications in the 
Greek language may be understood. For the most part, it 
will be convenient to show the application of these laws 
under the heading of the parts of speech or forms of inflexion 
severally affected by them. A brief summary may, however, 
first of all be given, with the essential rules of construction. 

161. A Sentence, or "thought expressed in words," consists 
of one or more Propositions. 

162. The essentials of a Proposition are, the Subject and the 

163. The Subject expresses the person or thing of which 

something is affirmed, desired, or asked, and must, therefore, be 

a noun substantive, or the equivalent of one. 

Equivalents to nouns substantive are (1) personal 2)ronouns, or (2) 
substantivized expressions, for which see § 202. 

164. The Predicate expresses that which is affii-med, denied, 
or asked respecting the subject ; and in its simplest form it is (1) 
a noun substantive or its equivalent, or (2) an adjective or its 

The equivalent of an adjective is a participle. 


165. The simplest form of Proposition is that which connects 
Subject and Predicate by a tense of the substantive verb, to he, 
called the Copula. 

Acts xxiii. 6 : iyco ^apia-alos €l|Ai, / am en Pharisee. 

Matt. xvi. 18 : crv d TlfTpos, thou art Peter. 

Matt. xiii. 38 : 6 aypos to-nv 6 Koa-fios, the field is the world. 

Phil. iii. 3 : i]fj.eU l<r(j,£v 1] TrepiTOfj-fj, we are the circumcision. 

Acts xix. 1 5 : vpels rives i<rri ; who are ye ? 

Eph. V. 16 : al fjixepai irovqpai €lo-i, the days are evil. 

Luke V. 1 : avrhs ^v earas, he was standing. 

Luke xxi. 24 : 'upova-akrjp Kcrrau TraTovpevij, Jerusalem shall be 
trodden down. 

The verb eiV, to be, is the true copula ; but some pther verbs admit 
a similar construction, such as vndpx<^, to be essential! i/ ; ylyfonat, to 
become; (paivofxai, to appear; KaXoufiai, to be called; KaOicn-afjai, to be 
set down as, or constituted. These are called Copulative Verbs, as they 
agree with elfxi in their construction, although in reality embodying 
part of the predicate. See § 181. 

166. The Copula is often omitted, where ambiguity is not likely 
to arise from its absence. 

Matt. V. 5 : paKapioi ol TrpqeU, blessed (are) the meeh. 

2 Tim. ii. 11 : Tna-rbs 6 \6yos, faithful (is) the word. 

Heb. xiii. 8 : 'l7;o-oiis Xpiaros ... 6 airoi, Jesus Christ (is) the 

For tbe way to distinguish between an attributive adjective and 
a predicate in such cases, see § 206. 

167. The Copula and Predicate are most generally blended in 
a verb, which is then called the Predicate. Thus, «ycb "ypd*})**, 
/ write, is very nearly equivalent to e'-yw €ljj.i ■ypd<J)«v, / am 


The careful student will observe that the term predicate is applied to 
the adjective and the verb in different senses. In the latter case, it 
really means copula and predicate combined. An adjective or sub- 
stantive predicate is sometimes called the "complement" of the verb 
with which it stands connected. 

168. The substantive vei"b may become itself a Predicate, 
involving the notion of existence. 

John viii. 58 : ... ey<i) elfti, Before Abraham was, / am. 
Rev. xxi. 1 : r; Bakaaaa ovk ^(ttiv eVt, the sea is no more. 

But the phrase, eyd ei'jui, it is I, occurring in the Gospels (as Matt. 
xiv. 27 ; Mark vi. 50 ; John vi. 20, xviii. 5, 6, 8), may mean one of 
three things ; iyia being (1) subject or (2) predicate, or (3) the verb 
being predicate. 

169. The Subject, when a personal pronotin, is generally 
omitted, if no special emphasis or distinction is intended ; the 
number and person of the verb sufficiently showing its reference. 

Thus, Xf'yo) vfj.iv (Matt. v. 18, 20; viii. 10, 11, &c.), / say VMto 
you, is unemphatic ; but in e-yu Xeyw vyuv, I say unto you (v. 23, 
28, 32, 39, 44), our Lord pointedly contrasts his own teaching 
with that of the Rabbis. So (v. 21) ov (poifevaeis, thou shalt not 
murder. Had the reading been o-u ov (p..., the meaning would 
have been, " thou, in particular," shalt not. In Luke x. 23, 24, 
we read, " Blessed are the eyes which see the things that ye see 
{^Xenere, iinemphatic) : for I tell you that many prophets and 
kings have desired to see those things which ye see " (vjAeis ^Xeirere, 
emphatic, by way of antithesis to " prophets and kings." Again, 
acDo-ec is he shall save ; avrbs crwo-et, he (emphatically, and none 
other) shall save (Matt. i. 21). See also Mark vi. 45, "until he 
(avTos) should send away the people," for no one else could do it. 
Observe also the repetition of ovroi, they, in the Beatitudes 
(Matt, V. 4-8). 

The emphasis conveyed by the insertion of the pronominal subject is 
often too subtle to be expressed by translation ; but it is always worth 
noting. (See Acts iv. 20 ; 1 Cor. xv. 30, &c.) The emphatic iyi 
(1 Cor, ii, 1, 3, iii. 1), is very noticeable. So in many other passages. 


170. The omitted Subject of the third person plural is often to 
be understood generally. Compare the English expressions, They 
say, &c. 

Matt. V. 1 1 : orav 6v€i8i<rwo-iv v/Lias nai 8iw|wo-u, whe7i they reiJroach 
and persecute you, i.e., men in general. 

John XX. 2 : ■^pav tov Kvpiov, they have taken away the Lord, 
i.e., some persons or other have. 

See also Matt. viii. 16, Mark x. 13, they were bringing, i.e., from 
time to time ; Luke xvii. 23, John xv. 6, where E.V. reads "men;" 
Acts iii. 2, &c. 

171. Verbs in the third person singular, without a subject 
expressed, frequently imply some necessary or conventionally- 
understood Subject of their own. 

1 Cor. XV. 52 : o-oXTrto-ei, lit., he shall sound the trumpet, a clas- 
sical expression, implying 6 cra\m.yKTt]s, the trumpeter, equivalent, 
as E.V., to the trumpet shall sound. 

To this head are to be referred many so-called impersonals : as 
Pp€x«i, it rains (in First Aorist, James v. 17). The Greeks 
originally understood and sometimes expressed Zevs, or Qeos, with 
all such words. " He rains, thunders," (fee. ; hence passing into 
the impersonal usage. Again, <j)'>io-i, Xe'^ei, he or it says ; once 
€i;pTiK€, he or it hath said (Heb. iv. 4) ; once elire, he or it said 
(1 Cor. XV. 27), are used as formulas of quotation ; ly ypacj^r), the 
Scripture, to be supplied (compare Rom. iv. 3, &c.) ; or 6 Geo's, God 
(see Matt. xix. 5). 

See, for Xiyn, 2 Cor. vi. 2; Gal. iii. 16; Eph. iv. 8, &c. ; for 
<|>Tlo-i, 1 Cor. vi. 16 ; Heb. viii. 5. 

Once, 4>Tio-i seems to be used in the general sense, as plural ; they 
say (2 Cor. x. 10); but many MSS. (and Lachmann) there read 

172. The Nominative is the case of the Subject, and the Sub- 
ject and Predicate must correspond in number and person ; whence 
the grammatical rule called the 


First Concord. A Verb agrees with its nominative case 
in number and person. 

For other uses of the Nominative, see §§ 242-244. All these are 
connected with its true use as Subject. It canuot be too strongly im- 
pressed upon the learner that the key to every proijosition, however 
complicated, is in the nominative case and verb ; that is, in the Subject 
and Predicate. To these all the other words are only adjuncts. 

173. The great apparent exception to the First Concord is that 
a Neuter Plural nominative often takes a singular verb. 

John ix. 3 : Iva <}>avepw9irj to, ^p^a rod Qeov, that the works of God 
may he manifested. 

Acts i. 18 : egeX'^^T tvuvtu to. o-rrXd-yxva avTov, all his bowels gushed 

2 Pet. ii. 20 : yiyovtv to. go-xara x^^pova, the last things have 
become worse. 

So in many other passages. 

The reason for this idiom is undoubtedly that, as neuters generally 
express things without life, the plural is regarded as one collective mass. 

174. Yariations in this idiom are as follow : — 

a. When the neuter nominative plural denotes animated beings, 
the verb is commonly in the plural numbei*. 

Matt. X. 21 : eiravaoTTio-ovTai TtKva ... kuI flavaTwcroua-iv, Children 
shall rise up against . . . and kill. 

James ii. 19 : to. 8ai.|Jidvia irio-Tcvovo-iv Kal <j>pi(ro-ov<riv, the demons 
believe and tremble. 

h. The usage, however, is by no means fixed. Thus, things 
without life are occasionally associated with a plural verb. 

Luke xxiv. 1 1 : €<{>dvTio-av pi^iiara, tlue words appeared. 

John xix. 31 : "wa Karea-ywo-iv to. o-Kt'Xt], that the legs might be 

c. Living Subjects are also found with a singular verb. 



1 John iii. 10 : (f)avfpd eo-riv TO. T€Kva, k.t.X., the children of God 
and those of the Devil, are manifest. 

Luke viii. 30 : SaijAovta noXXa A<rT\kQiv, many demons went out. 

d. In some passages the singular and plural seem used indis- 
criminately with the same Subjects. 

John X. 4 : ra irpoPoTO avrm aKoXovGet ort oilSacriv, k.t.X., the sheep 
follow him hecause they know his voice. 

Ver. 27 : ra TrpdjSaTa . . . aKovei xat aKoXovflovo-i y^oi, the sheep hear 
my voice and follow me. 

1 Cor. X. 11: TaiJTa iravra o-vve'Paivov . . . eYpd<j>T] Se^ all these things 

happened, . . . and were written. 

The uncertainty of the usage in this matter has been a fruitful 
source of various readings. It is often difRcult, if not impossible, to 
decide whether the singular or the plural is in the original text. 

175. a. When the Subject is a collective noun in the singular, 
denoting animate objects, the verb may be put in the plural 
number. This construction is known as Rational Concord.* 

Matt. xxi. 8 : 6 8e TrXelaros 6\Kos ?o-Tp«o-av, k.t.X , the greater 
part of the multitude strewed their (plural) garments in the way. 

Luke xix. 37 : ■ijp^avTo anav to irXiiGos, k.t.X., all the multitude 
of the disciples began to praise God, rejoicing (also plural). 

Rev. xviii. 4 : e^e'Xeexe, 6 Xaos ixov, Come forth, my people 1 

b. The Singular and Plural are combined in some passages. 

John vi. 2 : fiKoXoviGei . . . SxXos noXvs oti iapav, a great multitude 
was following ... because they were seeing. 

Acts XV. 12 : 6<ri"yT)o-€ nuv to irXijGos Kal ■iJKODov, the whole number 
became silent, and were listening. 

The singular, however, is the more usual construction. 

176. a. When two or more nominatives, united by a copxi- 
* Coustructio ad sensum, or Ex animo loquentis, or Synesis. 


lative coujunctiou, form the Subject, the verb is generally in the 

If the nominatives ai'e of different persons, the first is preferred 
to the second and third, the second to the third ; that is, / (or 
we) and you and he are resolved into we ; you and he into you. 

Acts iii. 1 : IleTpos koI Iwdwiis dvepatvov, Peter and John were 
going up. 

John X. 30 : l^u) K.a\ 6 iraxTip ev eo-[iev, / and my Father are one. 

1 Cor. ix. 6 : b{u> koI Bapvdpas ovk 'ixo\i.iv, k.t.X., have not I and 
Barnabas authority 1 &c. 

1 Cor. XV. 50 : o-dp| koI alpa ... ov Svvavra.i, flesh and blood cannot 
inherit the kinficdom of God. 

b. The verb, however, often agrees with the nearest Subject. 

In this case the Predicate is to be understood as repeated with 
the other Subjects, or that with which the verb agrees is thrown 
into prominence, the others being subordinate. 

It should be observed that in this coustruction the Greek verb 
usually precedes the nominatives. 

Acts xvi. 31 : a-ia^iyyr^ o-v KOI 6 oIkos (tov, thou shalt be saved and 
thy house. 

1 Tim. vi. 4 : «| mv ^iverai <}>9dvos, ^pts, pXao-<j)T]|Aiai, h.tX. from 
which comes envy., strife., railings., &c. 

In these two cases the verb is repeated in thought. 

John ii. 12 : KarepT] ... airbs kcli oi p.a0iiTal avrov, He went doum, 
to Capernaum, himself and his disciples. 

Here the one Subject is thrown into prominence; and the construction 
is the common one when the principal Subject is placed nearest the 
^^rb. Compare Matt. xii. 3; Luke xxii. 14; John ii. 2, iv. 53, 
viii. 52, xviii. 15, xx. 3; Acts xxvi. 30; Philemon 23, 24, where the 
approved reading is do-TrofeTot. 

177. When the Predicate of a simple sentence is a noim or 



pronoun, united to the Subject by the copula, it corresponds with 
the Subject by the law of apposition, viz. : — 

A substantive employed to explain or describe another, 
under the same grammatical regimen, is put in the same 

John XV, 1 : 6 IlaTirip ^lov 6 ^ewp^bs iari, my Father is the husband- 

It is unnecessary that the substantives should correspond in 
gender or number. 

2 Cor. i. 14 : Kauxinxa viiwv ia-jxev, we are your boast. 

2 Cor. iii. 3 : core cttiotoXt) Xpia-Tov, ye are the epistle of Christ. 

178, When the Predicate is an adjective, including adjective 
pronouns and participles, its agreement with the Subject comes 
under the Second Concord, viz. : — 

Adjectives, pronouns, and participles agree with their 
substantives in gender, number, and case. 

For further exempHfication of this concord, see Chapters IV., V. 

In simple sentences the case is of course the nominative. The 
agreement in gender and number may be illustrated by the 
following : — 

Matt. vii. 29 : ^f SiSdo-Kwv, he was teaching. 

Matt. xiii. 31, &c. : ojxoia ea-Au // Pao-iXs^a, k.t.X., tJie kingdom of 
heaven is like, &c, 

Mark v. 9 : iroXXoi ea-fiev, we are many. 

Luke xiv. 1 7 : ?Toi|Ji.d eVrt •n-dvTo, all things are ready. 

John iv. 11: to <})peap eVrl Pa9u, the well is deep. 

1 John V. 3 : al evroXal avroii papeiai ovk elcrh, his commandme7its 
are not grievous. 

Rev. vii. 14 : ovroi da-iv 01 kp\6^e^voi, k.t.X., these are they that are 
coming out of the great tribulation . 


179. When the Subject is a collective noun, the adjective Pre- 
dicate is sometimes plural. (Compare § 173.) 

John vii. 49 : 6 6xKo<s ovtos ... eirdparoC daiv, this multitude are 

180. An adjective Predicate is occasionally generalized by 
being put in the neuter gender, though the Subject is masculine 
or feminine. 

1 Cor. vi. 11 : ravra rivts rJTe, lit., some of you were this (these 

1 Cor. vii. 19:7; irepiToixTj ovSe'v eVrt, circumcision is nothing. 

181. The laws of apposition and concord, as above applied, 
may be restated in the form of the following rule : — 

Copulative verbs require the Wominative case after as 
well as before them. 

For the chief copulative verbs, see § 165, note. 

.John i. 14 : 6 A070S lyiviTo o-dpg, the Word became Jlesh. 
Acts xvi. 3 : "EWtiv {nrfipx,€v, he was a Greek. 

2 Cor. xiii. 7 : 'Iva ^|j.€ls Sokiixoi 4>av<S|j.6v, that we should appear 
approved, or " be manifestly approved." 

Matt. v. 9 : viol 0€oO KXiiOi'io-ovrai, thei/ shall be called sons of 

Acts X. 32 : ^ijiava, 8s tiriKaXeirai IIc'Tpos, Simon (accusative), 
who is surnamed Peter. 

Romans v. 9 : d(Ji,apTa)\ol KaTea-TdOrio-av ol •ttoXXoi, S^Kaioi KaTacrra- 
9T|<rovTai 01 ttoWoi, tlte many were made (lit., set down as) sinners, 
the many shall be made (lit., set down as) righteous. 

182. Hitherto the rules and examples given have been 
designed to show the main elements alone of the simple sentence. 
Other words, however are very generally added to the Subject, to 
the Predicate, or to both, for the purpose of further explanation, 


These words are called the complements of the simple sentence, 
and are variously said to complete, to extend, or to enlarge the 
Subject or the Predicate, as the case may be. 

183. The Subject, which is essentially a noun substantive, 
may be extended by apposition with another noun, by the 
qualifying force of adjectives, pronouns, or the article, by depen- 
dent nouns, or by prepositional phrases. 

For Apposition, see § 177. 
For Adjectives, see Chapter IV. 
For the Article, see Chapter II. 

For the dependence of nouns one upon another, and for pre- 
positional phrases, see Chapter III. 

184. The Predicate, when a noun, may be extended in the 
same manner as the Subject. 

185. When an adjective is Predicate, it may be extended by 
dependent nouns, by adverbs, or by prepositional phrases. 

186. Verbal Predicates may be variously extended. Any verb 
may be qualified by an adverb. Prepositional phrases may be 
employed in this connection also. Especially, the meaning of a 
verb transitive requires to be completed by the Object or Objects, 
direct or indirect. 

For the direct Object, see § 281. 

For indirect Objects, see on the Genitive and Dative cases, 
Chapter III. 

187. The complements of a simple sentence cannot include a 
verb, as this would introduce a distinct predication. Verbal 
clauses, therefore, forming part of a period are termed accessory 
clauses, and a sentence with one or more accessory clauses besides 
the principal one, is called a compound sentence. 

Accessory clauses, as related to the principal, are either co- 
ordinate or subordinate. 



188. Co-ordinate accessory clauses are similar in construction 
to the principal, and are often connected ■with it and with one 
another by conjunctions, (See § 402, seq.) 

189. Subordinate clauses are dependent upon the principal or 
upon the accessory clauses, or upon single word.s or phrases in 

It is plain that subordinate clauses may be co-ordinate with one 

190. The methods of introducing subordinate clauses are very 
various. The chief are, by the Relative Pronoun (§§ 343, 344), 
by the use of the Participials (participle or infinitive) (§§ 385 — 
396), and by the Particles (§§ 383,, 384). 

Otherwise : subordinate clauses are Substantival, Adjectival, or Ad- 
verbial A substantival clause expresses the subject or object of a verb, 
or stands in apposition, and usually employs the infinitive ; an adjec- 
tival clause, qualifying a word or sentence, is introduced by a relative 
pronoun or conjunction, or employs a participle ; and an advei-bial 
clause is introduced by a conjunction, or employs a participle, or the 
oblique case of a noun, 

191. It is often difficult to determine whether a certain phrase 
is a complement of the Subject, or of the Predicate. 

Many illustrations might be given from the Epistle to the 
Romans. For instance : ch. i. 17 (ii. 4), 6 diKaios (k TriaTems ^t](reTai, 
lit. the righteoios (man) from faitli sludl live. Are we to under- 
stand the prepositional phrase cV Trla-Teais as the complement of the 
Subject o SiVatos, or of the Predicate ^rjaerai ? In other words, are 
we to translate " The righteous man from faith (he that is 
righteous, or justified by faith) shall live f or, " The righteous 
man shall live from faith V 

Again, iv. 1 : are we to attach the prepositional phrase, Kara 
c-apKG, according to tliejlesh, with the word TrpoiraTopa, forefather, in 
apposition with Abraham^ the Subject of the accessory clause, or to 
the Pi-edicate hath found 1 — that is, does the Apostle ask, " What 
shall we say that Abraham, our father as pertaining to the flesh. 


hath found ?" or, " What shall we say that Abraham our father 
hath fouud as pertaiuiiig to the flesh 1" 

The true coimection of accessory clauses is also occasionally 

For instance, in Acts iii. 21, it may be fairly discussed whether 
the relative clause, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his 
holy prophets, belongs to the word times, or to all things. 

Such questions of interpretation are not pro^wsed for consideration 
here ; their settlement must often depend, not only on the laws of 
construction, but on the signification of individual words. Reference 
is made to them only to show the necessity, to a right interpretation of 
a passage, of distinctly analyzing the parts of every com],)ound sentence, 
and of assigning to each its right position. In our own language, this 
is comparatively easy, as the order of the sentence in general indicates 
the mutual relation of its parts ; in Greek, through the number and 
variety of the inflections, the order is of little importance to the structure 
of the sentence, though of much to its emphasis. 

192. As hints for disentangling a compound sentence, the 
following mav be valuable : — 

Search first for the predicate, or thing affirmed — usually, of 
course, a verb — then for the subject. These once fixed, every 
other verb will mark an accessory clause, which will have to 
be regarded apart. The remaining words, generally in close 
grouping with the Subject and Predicate, must be assigned to them 
respectively as their complements, according to the usages of the 
several parts of speech and forms of inflection. To these it is nuw 
necessaiy to turn, in order. 


Chapter II. -THE AETICLE. 

Latin, Articulus; Greek, apdpov (a joint). Hence, anarthrous, 

" without an article." 

Construction of the Article. 

193. The Article, 6, t|, to, the (see § 12), is usually em- 
ployed, as in other languages, with nouns substantive. The 
Second Concord applies to this relation ; the article agreeing 
with its noun in gender, number, and case. 

194. This general usage, however, admits of many varia- 
tions, attributable to the fact that the Article was originally 
a demonstrative pronoun.* 

Its demonstrative use is clearly seen in the Apostle Paul's quotation 
(Acts xvii. 28), rov yap kul yei/os iafxev, we are his offspring. 

195. A remnant of the old demonstrative use is, that the 
Article often stands without a noun expressed, like our this, that ; 
the sense of the phrase showing wlio or what is to be understood. 

For example, the phrase 6 yiv ... 6 8« signifies this ... that, or 
the one ... the other. 

Acts xiv. 4 : oi jasv rjo-av <jvv Toty 'louSai'ots, oi 8e crvv toIs dnoaToKois, 
some were with the Jews, others with the apostles. 

In Matt. xiii. 23, Se is repeated: 6 pJv eKarhv, 6 8e i^rjuovTa, oU 
TpiaKovra, some a hundred, some sixty, some thirty. 

See also Matt. xxii. 5; Mark xii. 5 ; Acts xvii. 32; Gal. iv. 22; 
Eph. iv. 11; Phil. i. 16, 17 ; Heb. vii. 20, 21. 

* The student may be reminded that the English article the, the German 
der, the French le, are also original demonstratives. So in other languages. 


WTaen 6 S4 is used in narration, even without a preceding yueV, it 
always implies some other person previously mentioned, as- 
Matt, ii. 5 : 01 5 e dirov, and they said. 
Mark xiv. 61 : t> 51 iaidnra, and lie was silent. 
Acts xii. 15 : ^ 5e Sii(rx"p'^^^''''>, and sJie steadfastly asserted. 
So in innumerable passages. 

196. The Article, disconnected from a noun, is often followed 
by a genitive. 

Matt. X. 2 : 'laKcojSos o tov Ze^fBaCov, James the (son) of Zehedee. 

Mark xii. 17 : aTTobore to, Kaio-apos, render the (things or rights) 
of Ccesar. 

Gal. V. 24 : oL TOV Xpio-Tov, the (servants or disciples) of the 
Christ, i.e., of the Anointed one. 

2 Pet. ii. 22 : to r^s- ak-q6oZs irapoi|jiCas, the (saying) of the truthful 

The plural neuter to, is very frequently used in this construction, 
as in the second of the above instances. So to, tov vo|iov, the things 
of the laio ; to, tov IIvevfiaTos, the things of the Spirit ; to, €avTwv, 
their own interests (lit. the things of themselves), and so on. 

197. Similarly, the Article precedes a preposition with its 

Matt. V. 15 : tois «v Tfj o'lKiq,, to those in the house. 

Mark i. 36 : Si'/xcoi- Kai ol [xeT avTov, Simon and those with him. 

Luke ii. 39 : tol Kara tov v6\iov, the (things) according to the law. 

Eph. i. 1 : TO, €v Tots ovpavois ... to, eirl t^s 7tjs, the [things^ in 

the Jicavens . . . the (things) on the earth. 

Acts xiii. 13 : 01 irepl tov IlavXov, those about Paid, including 
himself (by a classic idiom), i.e., Paul and his associates. (See 
John xi. 19, Martha and Mary with their friends.) 

Any of the prepositions may follow the Article ; for their several 
significance, see Chapter II. § 288, &c. 


198. A construction essentially similar is that of the Article 
•with adverbs, the noun being supplied in thought. 

Instances of this are : to vvv, the (thing) noio : the present 
(Matt. xxiv. 2\ ; Luke v. 10); rj a-{]\i.ipov, to-day; ^ aiSpiov, the 
morrow (feminine, as if from rjn^pa, day ; Matt. vi. 34; xxvii. ^T). 
So, in many passages, 6 irXiicriov, the (man who is) near, ones 
neighbour; to, avw, the (things) above; to, kcLtw, the (things) 
beneath ; oi 'i^at, those without ; to. ottiVw, the (things) behind ; to, 
?(jnrpoo-0€v, the (things) before, &c. 

In effect, the Article witli an adverb is equivalent to an Adjective. 

199. The Ai'ticle is frequently placed before adjectives, the 
substantive being implied. 

This construction belongs to all genders, and to both numbers. 
Instances of its occurrence are numberless. Thus : — 

Mark i. 24 : 6 dt-yios, the Holy (one). 

Matt. vii. 6 : to &.yiov, the holy (thing). 

Matt, xxiii. 15 : tt|v giipcLv, the dry (land). 

Luke xvi. 25 : to, aYaGa, the good (things). 

Eph. i. 3 : iv Tois lirovpaviois, in the heavenly (places). 

1 Thess. iv. 16 : ot veKpol iv Xpio-Tu, the dead in Christ. 

Titus ii. 4 : Iva a-axjipoviCcoa-i tois ve'as, that they may school the young 

Compare the ordinary English phrases, the good, the great, the wise, 
with the abstracts, tJte true, the right, the beautiful. In Greek, however, 
the usage is much more extended, and is exemplified also by anarthrous 

200. The Article is commonly also used before participles ; the 
sense again supplying the noun. 

Matt. i. 22 : to pT]0£v, the (thing) spoken. 

Matt. V. 4 : ol irtvOovvTes, the (persons) mourning. 

Matt. xi. 3 : 6 Ipxcjievos, the coming (One). 


Matt. xiii. 3 : 6 a-inCpuv, the (man) sowing, i.e., "a sower." 

Matt, xxiii. 37 : tovs d-n-eo-TaXixtvovs, the (persons) having been 

2 Cor. ii. 15 : eu rots crw?o|ilvois ... eV rots diroX\T)[x.€'vois, in the 
(persons) being saved the (persons) pei'ishing. 

It will appear from these and other instances that the most conve- 
nient way of translating the Article with the participle will often be by 
changing the phrase into a relative and finite verb. Thus, in the last 
two examples, we idiomatically and accurately render, those who have 
been sent, and those who are being saved ... those who are perishing. 

For further details on this frequent and important construction, see 
Chap. VI. § 396. 

201. The Infinitive Mood in all its tenses is treated as an inde- 
clinable neuter substantive, and is often thus qualified by the 
article, the phrase expressing the abstract notion of the verb 
(See Chapter VI. §§ 388—390.) 

Matt. XX. 23: to Ka9io-ai e/c Se^iav, the sitting (lit., "the to-sit") 
on my right hand. 

Matt. xiii. 3 : tov o-ireipciv, (for the purpose) of sowing. 

Matt. xiii. 4 : eV tw a-iriCpnv, in the sowing. 

Mark xiv. 28 : fxera to eYepOfjvai, after the rising. 

Phil. i. 21 : to ?tjv Xpiaros ... TO airoGaveiv Kepbos, Living (is) 
Christ ... dijing (is) gain. 

This construction will be more fully illustrated under the head of the 
Infinitive. One caution here may not be out of place. The English 
form in ing may be either an adjective or a substantive. Thus we may 
say, a living man, or Living is enjoyment. In the former case, the word 
is a participle ; in the latter, an infinitive ; and in rendering into or 
from Greek, the two must be carefully discriminated. 

202. Sometimes, again, whole phrases or sentences are qualified 
by a neuter Article ; especially quotations, before which some such 
word as saying, proverb, command, may be supplied, or expressions 
of a question, problem, or difficulty. 


Quotations are as in Matt. xix. 18 : to oi <|)ov€vo-€is, <xi iioixiia-ns, 
the (command) " thou shalt not steal, thou shalt not commit adul- 

See also Luke xxii. 37 ; Rom. xiii. 9; Gal. iv. 25, rh''hyap, the (name) 
Hagar; Eph. iv. 9; Heb. xii. 27. 

Expre.ssions of the latter class are as in Luke i. 62 : to ti Av OeXoi 
KaXeto-0ai, the (question) what he would like (him) to he called. 

Luke ix. 46 : to ti's dv dr\ [Jiei?wv, the (dispute) which should he 

Luke xxii. 4 : to -n-ws avTov irapaSw, the (scheme) how he viight 
betray him. 

Rom. viii. 26 : to ti irpoo-«vgi6}i.€6a, the (question) how we should 


See likewise Luke xix. 38; Acts xxii. 30; 1 Thess. iv. 1, and a few 
other passages. 

203. The employment of the Article with Pronouns is reserved 
for discussion in § 220. 

204. Generally, an Infinitive, Participle, Adjective, or other 
word or phrase, qualified by the Article, is said to be substantivized, 
i.e., made virtually a Noun, and treated similarly in the sentence. 

Significance of the Article : its Insertion or Omission. 

205. The Article is strictly definite ; and is used, as in other 
languages, to mark a specific object of thought. 

Matt. vi. 22 : 6 Xvx.vos rod a-oifiaros iariv 6 o4>0aXp.os, the light of 
the body is the eye. 

206. Hence arises the general rule, that in the simple sentence 
the Subject takes the article, the Predicate omits it. 

The subject is definitely before the mind, the predicate generally 
denotes the class to which the subject is referred, or from which it is 
excluded, but the notion of the class is itself indeterminate. 


Matt. xiii. 39 : oi Gepio-ral a'Y7eX.oi uaiv, the reaper's are angels. 

John iii. 6 : to yeyivvr\iiivov e'lc Trjs aapKos <rdp| eari, that lohich is 
horn of the flesh is flesh, i.e., "partakes of that character." 

John xvii. 17:6 \d70s 6 o-bs dX-q0£td ian, thy word is truth. 

John i. 1 : 0«bs ^v 6 Xd-yos, the Word was God. 

1 John iv. 8 : 6 Oebs dYdiri] ka-ri, God is love. 

The Copula being frequently omitted (§ 166), the presence or 
absence of the Article with a nominative adjective will often decide 
whether it is a Predicate or an attribute of the Subject. Thus, 
xio-rbs b X670S, 2 Tim. ii. 11, must be rendered faithful is the word; 
6 TTia-Tos Xoyos would have been the faithful word. 

Matt. v. 5 : [laKdpioi oi irpaeis, blessed (are) the meek. 
Kom. vii. 7 : b vd|jios dfiapria ; is the law sin ? 

From an examination of these examples, it will appear that the use 
of the Article with the Subject, and its omission with the Predicate, is 
no grammatical expedient, but arises from their respective definiteness. 
Had the article been employed with the predicate in the above case, the 
.sentences would have read thus : The reapers are the angels, the whole 
host; tliat which is born of the flesh is the flesh, i.e., is the ^/art of human 
nature so denominated ; Thij Word is the Truth, and nothing else can be 
so described ; the Word ivas the entire Godhead, and God and Love are 
identical, so that in fact Love is God ; the blessed are the meek, and none 
others; is the Law Sin? (see on the Article with abstracts, § 214) i.e., 
are Sin and Law the same thing ? The meaning of every proposition 
would thus have been materially altered. 

207. When the Article is found with the Predicate, an essen- 
tial identity with the Subject is asserted.* 

John i. 4 : T| 5«>^ ^v to <j>cos tcj>v dvdpancov, the life was dhe light of 
men, the only light. 

2 Cor. iii. 17 : b Kiupios rb irvevjAd ianv, the Lord is the spirit, to 
which the passage relates. 

* This form of sentence answers to the affirmative proposition (in Sir 
W. Hamilton's Logic), in which the Predicate is "distributed." 


1 John iii. 4 : t| aixaprCa eVrti/ t| avoixia, sin is transgression of 
law ; and conversely, all transgression of law is sin. 

Personal aud other pronouns are very frequently the Subject when 
the Predicate is thus defined. CMatt. v. 13, xvi. 16, xxvi. 26, 28; 
Acts xxi. 38, &c. ) 

208. When a word is defined by some other expression 
occurring with ifc, the Article may be omitted. So in English, we 
may say, "The house of my father," or " My father's house," the 
wovd fathers in the latter phrase rendering house definite. 

This most frequently occurs in Greek when the qualifying word, 
being a substantive, omits the Article. 

Matt. i. 1 : pcpXcs Y«v€o-etos, the book of the generation. 
1 Thess. iv. 15 : eV \6y(a Knpiou, in the word of the Lord. 
But 1 Thess. i. 8 : 6 Xd7os tov Kvpfov, the word of the Lord. 

In the four following cases, the Article, in conformity with 
the general rule, marks definiteness. 

209. Monadic Nouns. — Objects of which there is but one of 
the kind, or only one of which is present to thought, are usually 
defined by the Article. 

Thus, 6 ovpavds, heaven ; tj yi\, earth ; rj GdXao-o-o, the sea ; 6 p.e-yas 
Pao-iXeus, the great king. 

Exceptions to this usage, and their reason, wiU be noted further on. 

210. Individual Emphasis, — When some member of a class 
is singled out as bearing a distinctive character, the Article is 

Examples. — tj Kpio-is, the judgment, i.e., the final judgment, as 
Matt. xii. 41, 42 ; Luke x. 14. 

i\ 7pa(j)T), ai 7pacf>ai, the writing, writings, i.e., the Holy Scriptures, 
as Matt. xxii. 29 ; John x. 35 ; Rom. iv. 3, xv. 4. 


if| 2pT]|J.os, the desert, i.e., that of Judaea, Matt. xi. 7 ; or that of 
Sinai, John iii. 14, vi. 31 ; Acts vii. 30 j and perhaps Matt. iv. 1.* 

6 ir£i.pd?<ov, the tempter (participle, according to § 200), i.e., Satan. 

6 €pxo|Ji€vos, the coming one (participle, present), i.e., the Messiah. 
Matt. xi. 3, xxi. 9, xxiii. 39 ; Heb. x. 37. Compare Rev. i. 4, 8, 
iv. 8. 

211. Singular for Collective. — A noun in the singular 
number with the Article occasionally stands for the whole class. 
Compare such English expressions as " he looked the king," "the 
good man is a law to himself" 

Matt. xii. 35 : 6 a-yaGbs av9p«iros, the good man, denoting good 
men generally. 

Matt. xii. 29 : tov lorxvpofi, of the strong man, any one who pos- 
sesses that attribute. 

Matt. XV. 11 : TOV avGpwirov, the man, whoever he may be. 

Matt, xviii. 17 : o €0viKbs Ka\ 6 tcXuvtis, the heathen man and the 

Luke x. 7 : 6 epYdriis, the labourer, generally. 

2 Cor. xii. 12 : crrnie'ia tot) diroo-ToXov, signs of the apostle, i.e., of 
any rightful claimant of that character. 

Gal. iv. 1 : 6 kXt|povo(i,os, one who is heir. 

James v. 6 : tov SiKaiov, the righteous man, generally. 

To this head also, perhaps, belongs John iii. 10, ah el 6 StSdaKaKos ; 
art thov the teacher? i.e., is that the position thou hast taken? Or, as 
in the preceding instances, the word may mark a special emphasis, 
Nicodemus having in some eminent way the character of Rabbi. 

* Strong reasons have been assigned for the belief that "the wilderness" 
of our Lord's temptation was the same as that through which the Israelites 
journeyed to Canaan. See Mark i. 13, and compare our Lord's quotations 
with their original reference. Note also the parallels between our Lord's 
history and those of Moses and Elijah. Webster and Wilkinson on Matt. 
iv. 1 may be usefully consulted on these points. 


212. Renewed Mention. — A person or tiling is often made 
definite by mention (without the Article) in a paragraph, the 
Article being employed in subsequent reference. 

Matt. ii. 1 : there came toise men, [1.0.701. Ver. 7, Herod having 
called the wise men, tovs (10,70115. 

Matt. xiii. 25 : the enemy came and sowed tares, StSavto. Yer. 26, 
then appeared the tares, to. ^itavia. 

In like manner compare Luke ix. 16 with ver. 13 ; John iv. 43 with 
ver. 40 ; xx. 1 with xix. 41 ; Acts xi. 13 with x. 3, 22 ; James ii. 3 with 
ver. 2; 2 Thess. ii. 11, tlie falsehood, referring to ver. 9 (lit.), wonders oj 
(in support of) a falsehood. 

Sometimes the reference is implicit, the second expression, 
bearing the article, being equivalent to the former, though not 

Acts XX. 13 : fVi to irXoiov, on board the ship, implied in ver. 6, 
"we sailed away." 

Heb. V. 4r : ttjv ti|atjv, the honour, referring to the first verse, 
" that he may offer gifts and sacrifices." 

1 Pet. ii. 7 : tj ti(x^ k.t.X., the preciousness is for you who 
believe, i.e., that spoken of in the previous verse, "a corner-stone, 
elect, precious." 

213. It is a remark of great importance (Winer) that " it is 
utterly impossible that the Article should be omitted where it is 
decidedly necessary, or employed where it is quite superfluous or 
preposterous." " It would be a revolution of the laws of thought 
to express as definite that which is conceived indefinitely." Atten- 
tion to this will add vividness and suggestiveness to many a 
passage in which our Authorized Version has failed to reproduce 
the force of the original. From a great number of texts to which 
this remark applies, the following may be selected : — 

Matt. i. 23 (Isa. vii. 14) : f| irapGtvos, the virgin, i.e., the per- 
sonage so denominated. 


!Matt. V. 1 : t6 opos, the mountain; tlie high ground over- 
looking the spot. (See also Luke vi. 12.) 

Matt. V. 15 : tov |xd8iov, T'fiv Xvxvi'av, the mod'ius, the lamp-stand^ 
recognised articles of furniture in every house. 

Matt. ix. 1, xiii. 2 : to uXoiov, the ship, belonging to the 
disciples, or hired for their use. (So John xxi. 3, &c.) 

Matt. XV. 2Q : rots Kwaptois, to the little dogs, i.e., belonging to 
the household. (So Mark vii. 27.) 

Matt. xvii. 24 : rd 8i8pax|Aa, the half-shekels, the well-known, 
customary payment. 

Matt. xxi. 1 2 : rds irepio-Ttpa.s, the doves, the accustomed offerings 
of the poor. 

Matt, xxiii. 24 : rbv Kuvwira, T-f|v Ka[iTi\ov, the gnat, the camel, of 
some popular fable or proverb. 

Luke xii. 54 : r^v vi.^i\r\v, the cloud, " rising out of the west," 
of that peculiar character which foretells much rain. (1 Kings 
xviii. 44, 45.) 

John iv. 22 : rj <r«TT]pia, the salvation, expected by Israel. 

John xiii. 5 : tov viitttjpo, the basin, used on such occasions. 

John xvi. 13 : natrav t^v dXtjOeiav, all the truth, in I'eference to 
this particular subject. (Compare Mark v. 33.) 

John xviii. 3 : t^v o-iretpav, the hand, on duty at the time. 

Acts xvii. 1 : t) o-wa^w-y^ tu>v 'lovSaicov, the synagogiie of the 
Jews, i.e., the chief or only synagogue of that particular district. 

Acts XX. 9 : eVl Tfjs GvpiSos, at the window, or open lattice of the 

Acts xxi. 38 : tovs TtTpaKio^iXions, the four thousand, the noto- 
rious band of desperadoes. 

Acts xxiv. 23 : tw iKaTovTapxu, tlie centurion, i.e., the captain of 
the cavalry who had sole charge of the Apostle when the infantry 
(xxiii. 32) had returned to Jerusalem. 

1 Cor. i. 21 : Std ttjs iiaplas tov KT]pu7[iaTos, hy means oj t/te 


foolishness of th^e proclamation^ i.e., by the (so-called) foUy of the 
preached GospeL 

1 Cor. iv. : 6 e-n-aivos, the praise, which is due, respectively, to 

1 Cor. T. 9 : Iv TT] em-oToX^, 171 the letter, referred to thus as 
■well known by the Corinthians. Whether the Apostle speaks of 
the letter he is thus writing, or of some previous on^ is a question 
of inteipretation. (Compare 2 Cor. viL 8.) 

1 Cor. X. 13 : tt|v eK^cwnv, the escape, the appropriate means of 

1 Cor. xiv. IG : TO Ajii^v, the Amen, the appointed and usxial 
response in Christian worship. 

1 Cor. XV. 8 : aa-uepii tw lKTpw(i,aTi, as to the one " born out of 
due time" the one Apostle specially bearing that character. 

2 Thess. ii. 3 : T] d-n-oo-rao-Ca, thefaUing away, or apostasy, which 
the Thessalonians had been taught to expect. 

1 Tim. vi. 1 2 : rbv koKov ayava Tqs -B-ioTtws, tJie good fight of the 
faith., the Christian Mth. 

Heb. xL I'J : Ti\v tovs Sep-eXCot^s e-)^ov(Tav t-oXiv, tJie city which hath 
thefoujidaUons, i.e., the Jfew Jerusalenu 

Heb. xi. 35 : ov TTfyoa-^e^afievoi rr\v dToXvTptdcrvF, not accepting the 
deliv-erance, proffered as the reward of apostacy. 

Jame.s i. 11 : ox-v tS icavo-wvi, with the burning wind from the 
east, fatal to vegetation. ^Compare Matt. xx. 12 ; Jonah iv, 8 ; 
Luke xii. oo.) 

Rev. iL 10 : t6v crreejjavov •rr\<5 ?ci»ffs, the croicn of the life, the 
promised crown of the life immortal 

Rev. vii. 14 : sk Tf|s 6Xiv|f«i>s ttis h^y^S! ^'^ <f ihe great tribula- 
tion, (lit., the tribulation, the great one), the reference being to a 
special tiiaL 

In ascriptions of praise, also, the Article is generally found. 



[§ 21:3. 

Thus, Rev. iv. 11, t^v Sd^av koi ttiv Tin-rjv, the glory and the hcT'oirr, 
V. 12, 13; vii. 12. 

214. Before abstract nouns the Article denotes that the con- 
ception- is individualised, as an object of thought. It is often 
difficult to trace the distinction, and it may even be impossible to 
say in some instances whether the insertion or the omission of the 
Article before abstracts "vvould give the better sense ;* but there 
are many cases in which the difference is clearly marked. For 
example^ the Article is employed : — 

a. When the abstraction is personified. 

1 Cor. xiii. 4 : t| d-yairT) fxaKpoOvfiei, k.t.X., Love suffereth long, «tc. 

Acts xxviii, 4 : 61/ t| Sikii ^r^v ovk daaev, whom Justice permitted 
not to live. 

1 Cor. xi. 14 : ovSe aiirf] t| 4>vparis bibaaKei; doth not Nature itself 
teach ? 

So when the abstract term is used for the whole mass of 

Hom. xi. 7 : t] Se k\o7T|, the election, i.e., the mass of the elect. 

Phil. iii. 3 : t| irtpiToiATJ, the circumcision, i.e., the community of 
the circumcised. 

h. "When the abstraction is made a separate object of thought. 

1 John iv. 10 : iv rovra idTLv t| d-yain], in this is love, i.e., not 
merely "this is an act of love," but, herein Love in its very 
essence stands revealed. 

1 Cor. XV. 21 : St' avdpoiirov 6 Odvaros, hy man ^came) death, the 
universal fact, apart from the consideration of special instances. 

Matt. V. 6 : neivcovTes Koi bi^frCiVTes t}\v 8uKato(riivT]v, hungering and 
thirsting after righteousness, as in itself a good to be obtained. 

* Tn fact, the subtlety of this distinction has given rise to a large number 
oi various readings. 

§ 214.] significa:sce of the article. 201 

c. But where the abstract word expresses merely a quality of 
some further object of thought, the article is omitted. 

Matt. V. 10 : oi SeStojy/ieVo* eveKeu SiKaio(rvvr]s, the persecuted for 
righteousness' sake, such being an element in their character. 

Romans v. 13 : dji-apTta rjv iv Koa-p-M, sin was in the world, i.e., as 
an attribute of human conduct ; illustrating the more general 
assertion of verse 12, that Sin, in the abstract, t| d|JiapTia, entered 
into the world. 

1 Cor. xiii. 1 : a,'^6.'jn\v /jlt) e'^a, (If) I have not love^ as a feature in 
my character. 

In determining the reason of the omission or the insertion of the 
Article before abstract nouns in any given case, it should be considered 
whether there is any grammatical rule reqiuring it, apart from the 
meaning of the term. (See especially § 212.) 

215. A definite attribute or property of an object is marked in 
Greek by the Article. 

Thus, instead of saying, He has large eyes, the Greeks would say, He 
has the eyes large. But when the connexion was only accidental, the 
Article would be omitted ; thus, He Jiad a deep wound would be ex- 
pressed without the Article, unless the woxmd had been previously 
mentioned, when the case would come under § 212. The Article may, 
therefore, iu such sentences as the following, be rendered by the pos- 
sessive pronoun. 

Acts xxvi. 24 : 6 ^^cttos li-eyiikr] rfj ({)wvf| 'ic^rj, Festus said loith his 
voice upraised, or '"with a loud voice," as E. V. So ch. xiv. 10. 

1 Peter iv. 8 : ri\v els iavrovs aya.iu\v iKrevfj e^ovres, lit., having your 
love to one another fervent. 

Heb. vii. 24 : anapd^arou e^fi t^v Up<aiTivy\v, he has his priesthood 

The Article, in effect, must often be rendered as an unemphatic 
possessive j the Greeks saying the, where we say his, her, its, their. 

216. With proper names, the Article may or may not be em- 
ployed. The only rule, probably, that can be safely laid down ou 
the subject is that a name does not take the Article on its iii-st 


mention, unless in the case of personages well known or specially 
distinguished. For the rest, the habit or taste of the writer 
seems to have decided his usage.* 

It may, however, be noted that indeclinable names in the oblique 
cases most frequently employ the Article. Thus we find tov, t«, 
Tov, 'lo-pa'^X. So also in the genealogies. 

When a name is followed by some title or descriptive word, the 
Ai-ticle is generally inserted. So Mapla r\ Ma^SaXiivTi, Mary the Mag- 
dalene ; \ovhas o Io-KapnoTT]s, Judas the Iscariot ; ^coadevrjs 6 0,86X4)09 
(1 Cor. i. 1), Sosthenes the brother. 

Of geographical names, those of countries, generally feminine 
in a, almost always take the Article. The probable reason is that 
they were originally adjectives, agi-eeing with 711, la7id. Thus, 
r\ lovSaia, Judcea, properly " the Judsean land," or " land of the 
Jews." Al'^viTTos, Egypt, is always used without the Article, 

Names of cities greatly vary in their use, most generally omit- 
ting the Article after prepositions. 'lepova-aX-rjjj. (indecl.), 'lepotrdXvjjia 
(neut. plur.), Jerusalem, is almost always anarthrous, 

217. The Divine Najvies appear to be somewhat irregular in 
their use or rejection of the Article. 

a. We find Ows, God, almost interchangeably with 6 ©eos. It is 
certain, however, that an explanation may very generally be found 
in the rules already given. 

Apart from these, the general distinction seems to be that the 
name without the Article throws the stress rather upon the general 
conception of the Divine character — " One who is Omnipotent, 
All-holy, Infinite, &c."t — whereas the word with the Article (the 
ordinary use) specifies the revealed Deity, the God of the New 
Testament, Parts of the second and third chapters of the First 
Epistle to the Corinthians may be taken by way of illustration : — 

* Thus, in the Acts, the name of Paul almost always has the Article ; 
tiat of Pettr much more seldom, but still frequently. Both in the Gospels 
and the Acts, the names of the other Apostles usually omit the article. 

f Compare a line of Dr. Watts's — 

" This was compassion like a God.'''' 


Chap. ii. 1 : The testimony of God, tov ©eov. 

Yer. 7 : We, speak the wisdom of God, 0€ov (without the Article), 
i.e., the wisdom of an Infinite and Perfect being, as contrasted 
with the world's wisdom, which God, 6 0eos (the God revealed in 
the Gospel), foreordained. 

Chap. iii. 7-9 : o 0€os rjv^avev (our) God caused the seed to 
grow .../or we are God's fellow-workers, ye are GodJs husbandry, 
God's building. In these three clauses the word is used without the 
Article, as though the Apostle reasoned, *' It is a God for whom * 
we are labouring, a God who is moulding you, training you for 
himself;" resuming, then, in verse 10 with the Article, " according 
to the grace of God, tov 0eoC, which is given me." 

Thus, again, 2 Cor. v. 18, "All things are of God, rav 06ov, our 
God... y^ho hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation, that 
God, 0€ds — all we can understand by that Name — was in Christ... 
"We are ambassadors, then, as though this God, tov 0«ov, were 
beseeching ... Be ye reconciled to this God, tu 0ea> . . . Him who 
knew not sin. He made sin on our behalf, that we might become 
diicaiocrvvT) 0€ov, God's righteousness," partakers of a Divine righteous- 
ness, "in Him." 

b. The name Kvpios, Lord, generally prefixes the Article. The 
contrary usage, when not accounted for by ordinary rules, arises 
from this word having been adopted in the Septuagint as the 
Greek equivalent for the Hebrew name Jehovah. In the Gospels 
it usually signifies God; in the Epistles it commonly refers to 
Christ, f Instances of its occurrence without the article are (1) in 
direct renderings from the Old Testament, as 1 Cor. iii. 20, Kvpios 
yivo>aK€i Tovs 8i.a\oyiafiovs, k.t.X., Jehovah knotos the thoughts, &c. 
So 2 Tim. ii. 19 ; Heb. vii. 21, xiii. 6. In 1 Pet. i. 25, it is 
substituted for the other Hebrew Divine name (LXX., ©eov) ; 
(2) after prepositions, as in the ordinary phrase, €v Kvpiu; or in the 
genitive case (very often) (3) preceding the appellation, 'Iijo-ovs 

* Or, with whom, a less probable interpretation. 

+ The name above every name, Phil. ii. 9, is Kvpios, Jehovah. 


Xpio-Tos, Jesus Christ, as in tbe superscriptions (Rom. i. 7 ; 1 Cor. 
i. 3 ; Gal. i. 3). So in Eph. vi. 23, and strikingly Phil. iii. 20. 

c. The title vlbs 0€gv, a or the Son of God (more emphatically 
0€ov -uios, God's Son), is found both with and without the Article. 
Tlie usual form is 6 vlbs tov Geov, the Son of the (revealed) God 
(comp. under 0e6s). Yibs tov Qeov occurs, as in the Tempter's 
interrogatory (Matt. iv. 3), where the supremacy of tlie revealed 
Deity is recognised, but the exclusive relationship of our Lord 
to the Father is at least left an open question ; while ulbs 0«ov 
expresses a view altogether less definite of our Lord's dignity. 
Tlais, in their frst confession, the disciples said, " Truly thou 
art Son of God," ©eoO vtos. But afterwards Peter acknowledges, 
"Thou art the Son of the living God," 6 vlbs tov 0€oi3, k.t.X. 
(xvi. 16). The centurion amid the miracles of Calvary expresses 
a certain measure of faith : " Truly this man is Son of God," 
0€ov vids, without an Article to either (Matt, xxvii. 54 ; Mark 
XV. 39 ; compai-e Luke xxiii. 47). But we read of Saul, the 
convert, how he preached at once in the synagogues of Damascus 
that '■'■this man is the Son of God," 6 vlbs tov 0€ov (Acts xi. 20).* 

d. The name 'Irio-ovs, Jesus, when used alone, in the Gospels and 
Acts, almost always has the Article. The reason undoubtedly is 
that the word is strictly an ap})ellative, being but the Greek form 
pf the Hebrew for "Savioui\" To the disciples, therefore, and 
the evangelists, the significance of the word was ever present : the 
^Saviour. When others employed the name, or it Avas used in 
converse with them, tlie Article might be omitted. See John 
vi. 24 (where for the moment the point of view taken is that of 
the spectatoi's). So viii. 59 (and, in critical edd., xi. 51, xviii. 8); 
Acts V. 30, xiii. 23, 33, and a few other passages. When the 
Jiame stands in apposition with others, as Kvpios or Xpio-rds, the 
article is generally omitted. In the Epistles, this combination is 
most usual. The Apostle Paul, for instance, only has 6 'Ii^o-ovs 
alone four times, and *Ii](rovs nine ; his pi-eference being for the 

* Apparent exceptions to this com-se of remark occur, liuke i. Sr ; Horn, 
i. 4, which may be left to the thoughtful reader. 


appellative Xpio-ros, while Lis fervour adopts many variously-com- 
bined titles for the Lord his Saviour.* 

e. The employment of the Article with Xpiorro's, " the Anointed 
One," Christ, shows a i-emarkable difference between the Gospels and 
the Epistles. Strictly speaking, the name is a verbal appellative, 
the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word Messiah, " Anointed." 
Hence in our Lord's time it was customary and natural to speak 
of tlie Christ. This, accordingly, is the almost invariable form of 
speech in the Gospels and the Acts. Thus, Matt. ii. 4, we shoiild 
read, " where the Christ is born ; " Matt. xi. 2, " the works of the 
('hrist," i.e., such works as attested his possession of that cha- 
racter; Matt. xxii. 42, " what think ye of the Christ ?" John xii. 34, 
"</ie Christ abideth for ever ;" Acts xvii. 3, "that it behoved the 
Christ to suifer." 

Already, however, the tendency was at work which in later 
days changed this appellative into a recognised proper name. 
Traces of this may be seen in Matt. i. 1 ; Mark i. 1, ix. 41 ; Acts 
ii. 38 ; and in the Epistle.s of Paul the usage appears entirely 
reversed, the omission of the Article being the rule (in the forms 
Xpicrrds alone, 'Iijcrovs Xpio-ros, and Xpio-rbs 'IiicroiJs), and its reten- 
tion the exception. The descriptive title, " the Anointed," has 
not been wholly lost, but the personal name of Christ has laid 
a yet deeper bold on the mind and heart of the Church. Some- 
times, again, the Apostle employs one form in close repeated recur- 

* Mr. Rose, in his edition of " Middleton on the Greek Article," gives 
a list of the appellations nsed by St. Paul, with the number of times they 
respectively occur. They are — 

6'lr)!Tovs 4 times. 

'Irjcovs ... ... ... 9 ,, 

6 Xpi(TT6s 95 ,, 

Xpt<TT6s 122 ,, 

*l7)(ToCs 6 Xpiffrrfs ... 1 ,, 
6 Xptarhs 'ItjtoCs (read- 
ings doubtful) ... 4 ,, 
'iTjfroSs XpicTo's ... ... 39 ,, 

Xpicrrhs 'Irjaovs ... ... 58 ,, 

6 Kvpios 'Ivrrovs 10 times. 

'l7](T0VS 6 KvpiOi... ... 1 ,, 

o K. 'I. Xpia-rSs 5 ,, 

Kvptos 'I. X. ... ... 17 ,, 

6 X. 'J. 6 KvpLos ... 1 ,, 

XpiffThs 'I. K ] ,, 

'I. X. 6 K. iip.aiv ... 3 ,, 

o K. TjfiSiv^l. X. ... 35 ,, 

X 'I. K. ijtifiv ... 9 „ 


rence, as in Col. iii. 1-4 : " If ye be risen with the Christ, seek the 
things that are above, where the Christ sitteth . . your life is hid 
with the Christ ... when the Christ shall appear." Without the 
Article, we have the name thus recurrent in^hil. i. 18-23. After 
speaking of those who preach the Christ out of envy and strife, 
the Apostle adds, as with a more personal love, " nevertheless 
Christ is preached" ... uttering then his earnest hope "that Christ 
shall be magnified ... for me to live is Christ ... yet to depart and 
to be with Christ is far better." 

It is not asserted that the thoughtful reader will always discern the 
reason of the employment or the omission of the Article in connexion 
with these sacred names. Often, however, unquestionably, most inte- 
resting and valuable suggestions will arise ; and the whole subject is 
worth the most painstaking investigation.* 

f. The name of the Holy Spirit, TLvtv^a, ayiov, requires the Article 
when he is spoken of in himself; but when the reference is to his 
operation, gifts, or manifestation in men, the Article is almost inva- 
riably omitted. In other words, " the Spirit " regarded objectively 
takes the Article, regarded subjectively is frequently anarthrous. 

Apparent exceptions to this rule are but instances of more general 
grammatical laws, as, for instance, when the term, although definite, 
follows a preposition or precedes a genitive. 

Accordingly, when disciples of Christ are said to be filled with 
the Spirit, to receive the Spirit, to walk in the Spirit, the Article is 
omitted. See, e. g., Luke i. 15, 41, 67, ii. '25, xi. 13 ; John iii. 5, 
XX. 22 ; Acts i. 5, ii. 4, iv. 8, vi. 3, viii. 15, 17 (the Article in 18 is 
a case of renewed mention), xi. 16 ; Romans viii. 9, ix. 1, xv. 13, 16 ; 

1 Cor. ii. 4, 13, vii. 40 ; 2 Cor. iii. 3 ; Eph. v. 18, vi. 18; Col. i. 8; 

2 Thess. ii. 13 ; 1 Pet. i. 2 ; 2 Pet. i. 21 ; Jude 19 ; Rev. i. 10, &c. 
An instance of the force of the Article may be seen in Johu xiv. 

17, 26, XV, 26, xvi. 13, in all of which passages we read th ILvtv^a.. 
But when the Spirit is imparted, the Article disajjpears (xx. '2'!), 
\d^{T€ IIvexiiAa ILyiov, " Receive ye [the) Holy Ghost." 

t See a striking Essay on "the Greek Testament," in the Quarterly 
Review for January, 1863. 


218. Some monadic nouns, (see § 209) being regarded as proper 
names, may be used with, or without the Article. Such are ■fjXios, 
sun; Koo-jAos, world; ovpavo's, ovpavoi, heaven, or heavens ; ^fj, earth 
or land; 0d\ao-cra, sea; Tip.«pa, dosy ; vvg, night; iKKX-qo-ia, church, and 
some others. The Article, however, is most generally in.serted. 

219, Some prepositional phrases omit the Article ; in most 
instances denoting time, place, or state. Compare the English 
expressions, at home, on land, by day, in church. 

Examples. — dir' dvpov, from the country (Mark xv. 21 ; Luke 
xxiii. ^^^ ; els dYpdv, into the country (Mark xvi. 12) ; Iv d-ypu, in 
the country (Luke xv. 25). 

«v apx^, in the beginning (John i. 1, 2; Acts xi. 15) ; dw dpxfjs 
(Matt. xix. 4, 8; Luke i. 2; John viii. 44; 1 John i. 1, &c.) j 
e^ o.p\r^%, from the beginning (John xvi. 4). 

€K 8€|iujv...e| dpwTTepwv, on (lit., off) the right ...the left (Mark 
X. 37 ; Luke xxiii. 33, &c.) 

CIS oiKi'av, into the house (2 John 10). 

ev «KKXT)cria, in (the) church (1 Cor. xiv. 19, 28, 35). 

€irl -n-po'o-ctfirov, on the face (1 Cor. xiv. 25). 

dirb dvttToXwv, from the East (Matt. ii. 1, xxiv. 27j ; dirb 8v(r|xwv, 
from the West (Luke xii. 54; E.ev! xxi. 13; both phrases com- 
bined. Matt. viii. 11; Luke xiii. 29); '^ws 8va-|xwv, unto the West 
(Matt. xxiv. 27). 

£K viKpS>v,from the dead. This phrase is of constant occurrence, 
as Matt. xvii. 9, &c. Occasionally, aivo is employed ; very rarely 
the Article is found. Perhaps the omission is intended empha- 
tically to mai'k the condition, " from dead persons " — those, inde-, 
finitely speaking, who are in that state. 

Other instances of this idiom might be added. The student, however, 
must be cautioned against supposing that the preposition is itself a 
reason, to be applied promiscuously, for the omission of the Ai'ticle 
before a term intended to be taken as definite.* 

* See, for instance, AKord on Matt. i. 18, ^k Trveitxaros aylov. The Article 
is omitted, not account of the preposition, but according to the distinction 
illustrated, § 217,/. 


220. ISTouns defined by the demonstrative pronouns, ovros, this, 
€Ke'ivos, that, directly agreeing witli them, take the Article, which 
ahvays immediately precedes the noun ; the pronoun being placed 
indifferently, first or last. Tlius we may have 6 ivGpuTros ovtos 
(Luke ii. 25), or ovtos 6 fivSpcoiros (xiv. 30), this man, but never 6 ovtos 
nvOpconos or OVTOS avdpcoTTos, and scarcely ever avdpconos ovtos.* 

When the Article is omitted with the noun and demonstrative 
pronoun, the latter implies a predicate. Thus (Rom. ix. 8), ov ... 
ravra Tc-Kva tov Qeov, these are not the children of God. 

These rules apply for the most part to proper names, as Acts 
xix. 26, 6 JlavXos OVTOS, this Paul; Heb. vii. 1, outos 6 MeXxio-eStK, 
this Melchisedeh ; John vi. 42, ovx ovtos evTiv 'Itjo-ovs, Is this not 
Jesus ?t Ovtos after a name often implies contempt. 

The pronoun toiovtos, ToiavTi], toiovto, such, is found with the 
Article when tlie person or thing which is the subject of com- 
parison is definitely before the writer's mind ; the omission of the 
Article shows that the reference is more general, to quality or 

Matt. xix. 14: rajv toiovtwv, k r.X., of such (as these children) 
is the kingdom of heaven. 

2 Cor. li. 6 : Uavov tu toiovtm, sufficient to such a man (as the 
offender of whom I write). 

Matt. ix. 6 : l^ovo-iav ToittvTT)v, such (hind of) power. 

John ix. 1 G : ToiavTa o-rjjjieta, such {kind of) miracles. 

It is observable, however, that the two forms of exi)ression, being 
separated by so slight a shade of digereiice, may often be iised indif- 
ferently. The Article is generally omitted in the Gospels, generally 
inserted in the Epistles, except that to the Hebrews. 

221. The distributive pronominal adjective ^Kao-ros, each, never 
takes the Article in the New Testament. 

* The demonstrative o5e only once occurs in the adjective construction, 
and follows the same rule : James iv. 13, ei's T^i/Se tV ■w6kiv, into this city. 

t The learner should be cautioned against rendering, " Is this Jesus not 
the son of Joseph ?" which would have required 6 'Irjaods. The comma at 
Jesus in the E. V, conveys the proper stress. 


Before too-ovtos, so much (plur. so many), tlie Article is not found 
in the New Testament, with the exception of Rev. xviii. 17, 
6 too-oBtos irXoiiTos, the wealth, which was so great. 

22>2i. The Article prefixed to the pronoun airos gives it the 
meaning of the same. (See § 57, d.) 

2 Cor. iv. 13 : TO avrb irv€V[j.a, the same Spirit. 

But Bom. viii. 2G : avirb to irveii|ia, the very Spirit, the Spirit 

The 'Sew Testament MSS. often vary between the contracted plural 
ravrd and ravra (plur. neut. of ovtos). See Luke vi. 2.3, vi. 26, xvii. 30 ; 
1 Thess. ii. 14. 

223. a. A possessive pronoun agreeing with a nonn not a Pre- 
dicate, invariably takes the Article. 

John xvii, 10 : to. ep-a Travra crd eariv koi to. <ra ffj.d, all (things) 
mine are thine, and thine are miyie. 

Acts xxiv. 6 : Kara Tov Ti[jie'Tepov vo|j.ov, according to our law 

John vii. 6 : 6 Kaipos 6 {i(impos, your opportunity. 

h. The possessive sense is, however, genei'ally given by the geni- 
tive of the personal pronoim ; the article preceding the noun, as 
6 iTttT'qp jjLov, my father ; ol iraTepcs {ip-wv, your fathers. 

Qi!2A. a. The adjective iras, all, in the singular number, without 
the Article, signifies every ; with the Article, it means the wliole of 
the ol)ject which it qualifies. Thus, irdo-a iroXis is every city ; irao-a 
T) irdXis, or Ti -rrdo-a iroXis,* tlie whole of the city, t] iroXis irdo-a would 
have a meaning felightly different — the city, all of it — "the city in 
every part." So with abstracts. 

Luke iv. 13: (rvvTekicras iravTa wetpao-iiov, (the devil) having ended 
every temptation, i.e., every form of temptation. 

2 Cor. iv. 2 : irpos ird<rav o-w£i8t)o-iv duBpancov, to every conscience 
of men, i.e., to every variety of human conscience. 

* A construction only twice found: Acts xx. 18, rhv iraura xp^fov; and 
1 Tim. i. 16. 


Eph. iii. 15 : irao-a iraTpia, k.t.X., Every family in heaven and 

Some critics have questioned this translation on the authority of 
ch. ii. 21, where many critics read iraaa oikoSo/at), and render, the whole 
building. This, however, is quite contrary to usage 

2 Tim. iii. 16 : irdo-a ^po4>'h deonvevaros, k.t.X., Every ivriting 
(i.e., of those just mentioned, v. 14) is divinely inspired,* &c., or 
Every divinely inspired writing is also profitable, ^^ &c. 

Luke ii 10 : iravrl tu Xou>, to all the people of Israel. 

The phrase in ch. ii. 31 is different : " before the face of all the 
peoples," i.e., the nations of mankind. 

1 Cor. xiii. 2 : iav ex^ Trao-av tt)v ttiotiv, k.t.\., if I have all the 
faith requisite for sucli a task. 

Col, i. 23 : fv irdo-T) Ti\ KTiVei, in the whole of the creation ; not 
'•'to every creature," as E.V. Compare ver. 15, irdo-qs KTitrtws, 
where the rendering is accurate, of every creature. 

1 Tim. i. 16 : rr\v irdo-av (jiaKpo0vp.Cav, all the long suffering which 
belongs to the Divine character. 

John V. 22 : tt|v Kpio-iv irdo-av, k.t.X., the judgment (of men), all 
of it. The Father has committed this wholly to the Son. 

With proper names, as of countries, cities, <fcc., the Article after 
77aff may be omitted by § 216; the signification being still tJie 
whole. (Matt. ii. 3 ; Acts ii. 36.) 

b. The plural, irdvTts, almost always has the Article when the 
substantive is expi-essed ; almost always omits it when the sub- 
stantive is implied. The few exceptions to the former are chiefly 
when the noun is fi.v0p&)iroi, me/i.^ The exceptions to the latter 
are where the idea is collective. Thus, iravra is all things, seve- 
rally ; TO, irdvTo, all thi-ngs, as constituting a whole. 

* Middleton. 
+ EUicott. 

t See also Acts xviL 21, xix. 17 ; 1 Cor. x. 1 ; 1 Thess. v. 26 ; Heb. i 6; 
1 Pet. ii. 1. 


Phil. iv. 1 3 : iravra laxyoi, I can do all things. 

Col. i. 16 : TO irdvTa St' avrov, All things are hy Him (Christ). 
See also 1 Titru vi. 13; Heb. iL 8, kc. 

The asual position of the plural, Travrey, is before the Article and 
substantive. Twice (Acts xis. 7, xxviL 37) with a special meaning, 
it stands between them : ol -/rdurfs ivSpes, the men in all; at ira<rai 
ifnjxat, the nouU (persons) in all. Occasionally, employed after the 
Article and substantive, it takes a strong emphasis : as John xviL 10, 
TO eya iravra, era, iffri, Mine are all thine. 

225. The constniction of oXos, wltole, in respect of the Article, 
is similar to that of iras. Generally the Article stands between it 
and its noun, as oXos 6 Koo-jios, the whole world (Rom. i. 8) . Occa- 
sionally the noun and Article precede, with an added emphasis on 
oXoy, as 6 Koo-fios oXos, the v:orld, (yea) the whoh (of it) (Matt. 
xvL 20).* A few times it is found without the Article, and its 
force is expressed by the English indefinite, as .John vii. 23, SXov 
fivGponrov, a wlvAe man I have restored to health. The other 
instances are Acts xi. 26, xxi. 31 (before a proper name), xxviii 30; 
Titus L 11. 

226. The employment of the Article with the adjective pro- 
nouns fiXXos, oilier (numerically), and eTepos, other (properly implying 
some further distinction), is analogous to the English idiom. t 
Singular, the oilier ; plural, the others (eTepos only once so used, 
Luke iv. 4.3). :{: 

John XX. 3 : 6 dXXos ixadrjTTjs, the other disciple, 

John XX. 25 : ol £LXXoi fjLadrjToi, the otlier discijtles. 

Matt, vi 24 : tot erepov dyoTTTja-fi, the other (master) he will love. 

Luke iv. 43 : rais ere'pais n-o'Xfo-ti/, to the other cities. 

* The observant reader may trace the emphasis in the other passages 
where this order is found : Matt. xxvL 59 ; Mark L 33, viii. 36 ; Luke ix. 25, 
xi. 36 ; John iv. 53 ; Acts xix. 29, xxi. 30 ; Kom. xvx 23 ; 1 Cor. xiv. £3 ; 
1 John V. 19 ; Rev. iii. 10, xiL 9, xvi 14 

t In classical Greek, 6 a\\us means the rest of. 

i Perhaps also Matt xL 16 (Tischendorf). 


227. The Article with the neuter no\v (" the much") is equi- 
valent to " the abundance." (See 1 Pet. i. 3.) More common, 
however, is its use with the plural, iroXXoi, noWai, rroXXd, many, to 
which it gives the significance of the many, the, (jenerality, the whole 
mass of the particular objects of thought. The o\\\y instances are 
the following : — 

Matt. xxiv. 12: 17 aydirr} rmv ircXXwv, tlte love of the many shall 
wax cold. 

Luke vii. 47 : at anapTiat, ... at iroXXai, her sins — the manii, i.e., 
the vjhule of them — are forgiven. 

Acts xxvi. 24: to. iroXXd, lit., the many Utters; tlie 
mass, the quantity of thy learning. 

Rom. xii. 5 : ol iroXXoi, the many of us — the whole mass — are 
one body in Christ. So 1 Cor. x. 17. 

1 Cor. x. 33 : r6 twv iroXXwv, the (advantage) of the many. 

2 Cor. ii. 17 : a>soi iroXXoi, (we are not) as the many. 
Rev. xvii. 1 : tSjv v^draiv twv iroXXwv, of the many waters. 

Rom. v. 15-19 : This most important passage, containing this idiom, 
has been thus translated * : — 

[We have noted by Italics the Articles which the English version 

15 Howbeit not as the trespass, so also is the gift of grace. For if 
by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of 
God and his free gift abound unto the many by the grace of the one man 
Jesus Christ. 

16 And not as through one that sinned, so is the gift ; for the judg- 
ment came of one unto condemnation, but the gift of grace came of 
many trespasses unto justification. 

17 For if by the trespass of the one death reigned through the one, 
much more shall they which receive the abundance of the grace and of 
the free gift of {the\) righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus 

* " The Epistle of St. Paul to the Romans, after the Authorized Version, 
newly compared with the original Greek, and revised. By Five Clergymeo. 
Second edition. Parker & Son. 1858." 

t In the Greek, but not in the "Five Clergymen's" translation. 


18 Therefore as through one trespass, [the issue was] unto all men to 
coudemuatiou, even so through one righteous act [the issue was] uiito 
all even to justification of Hfe. 

19 JFor as through the disobedience of the one man the many were 
made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one shall tlie many 
be made righteous. 

228. Wlieu the Nominative is used for the Vocative in dii"ect 
address, the Article is prefixed. For an explanation of the 
idiom, see § 244. 

Matt. xi. 26 : va', 6 -iraTirip, Even so, Father I 
Luke viii. 54 : Vj irais, eyeipov, Damsel, arise ! 
John xix. 3 : x'^'^'-P^ ° ^aa-iXivs, Hail, King ! 

John XX. 28 : 6 Kvpids /itou K.a\ 6 0eds /nov, My Lord and my God! 
Heb. i. 8 : 6 Opovos trov 6 ©sds, Thy Throne, God ! See also 
ver. 9, and x. 7. 

229. The Article is often separated from its substantive by 
qualifying or explanatory words. 

a. These are, generally, a preposition with its case, other 
dependent words being sometimes added. 

Matt. vii. 3 : Ti\v 5e iv tw o-w o^BaKpco Sokov, but the beam in 
thine own eye. 

Luke xvi. 10 : 6 eV ikaxiari^ dSiKos, the (man) unjust in the least. 

1 Pet. i. 14 : rats n-porepov iv t?] dyvo'ia vpuiv €iri.9v|xiais, the former 
(lit., formerly) lusts in your ignorance. 

h. Adverbs also are often thus employed : — 

2 Tim. iv. 10 : dyaTrijo-as Tcv vvv alwva, having loved the preseid 
(lit., now) world. 

230. a. The Article is very frequently repeated after its noun, 
to introduce some attributive word or phrase. 

Clearly, this is a result of the original demonstrative force of the 

The phrase introduced may be an adjective or participle, a preposition 
with its case, or (rarely) an adverb. 

The Article so employed gives the attributive a certain prominence 
or emphasis. 


Matt. xvii. 5 : 6 vlos nov 6 dYo-miTos, my beloved Son. 
Titiis il 11 : 7] xapts Tov eeov t| a-ojTT)pios, the grace of God ihat 
hnngeth salvation, lit., the grace ... the salvation-bringing. 

Heb. xiii. 20 : t6v noineva rmv Trpo^aTcov tov p-e'vav, the great 
Shepherd of the sheep. See also Matt. v. 16 ; Luke xx. 35; 
1 Pet. i. 25 ; Rev. xi. 2. 

The absence of the Article before an attributire phrase is often 
significant. Thus Rom. viii. 3 : icaTtKpivi rijv a/jiapTiav iv ttj aapKi, he 
condemned sin in the flesh. The phrase depends upon KariKpive. Had 
it been ti)v iv ry (xapKl, in the flesh woidd have qualified sin. 

1 Pet. i. 25 : t6 prjua tJ> riaY-yjXio-Gsv, the word that teas preached 
lit, the word, the spoken-as-glad-tidings. 

Matt. V. 16 : tov Uaripa vyLwv tov «v toIs ovpavots, your Father in 
t/ie heavens. 

Luke XX. 15 : rj}? avaaTaweas t^s Ik vtKpwv, of the resurrection 
from the dead. 

Rev. xi. 2 : ttjv bvXtjp t^v ii^wGev, the older court. 

h. Occasionally, this emphatic form of expression is employed 
when the noun has no Article preceding. 

Luke xxiii. -49 : ywaiicfs ai o-uvaKoXov0^<rao-ai avrm, (there stood) 
women, those who had followed Him. 

John xiv. 27 : dpjjmjv ttjv eji^v dlBcopi vpXv, Peace (which is) mine, 
I give to you. 

I Tim. V. 3 : xhp^^ '^'V" '^"■5 ovtws X'nP'*?, honour widows, those 
wlio are widows indeed. 

Rom. ix. 30 : hiKaiofnivr^v Be ri\v Ik irio-Tews, (he obtained) righteous- 
ness, yea that (which is) by faith. 

James i. 25 : els v6p.ov TfkeLov tov t^s l\tv^ipla<i, (whoso looketh) 

into a perfect law, that of liberty. 

In passages like these, the former clause contains the general descrip- 
tion ; the latter limits it to a particular case. See also Gal. ii. 20, 
iiL 21; 1 Pet. i. 10, "prophets, those who prophesied;" Jude 6, 
"Angels, (even) those namely that kept not their first estate." 


231. The defining clause being frequently participial, it may 
be r<,'maiked, in anticipation of the account to be given of Parti- 
ciples (§§ 393-396), that with tlie Article the participle qualities 
the noun, as a simple epithet, while without the Article it implies 
a predicate. Thus, 6 Qeos o iroiTjo-as t6i^ Koa-fiov is, God who made the 
vjorld ; 6 Qeos ■7roiT|o-as, k.t.X., would be, God having made, or when 
Ee had made, &c. In 2 Pet. i. 18, again, we render, not "the 
voice which was home from heaven," but " the voice as it was 

Sometimes it will be important to observe the force of the anarthrous 

Thus, in a much-controverted passage, 1 Pet. iii. 19, 20, toIs eV (pvXaKrj 
wtujxaffi.. a-rreie-na-aai iro~€, whatever be the true interpretation, the words 
must be translated, not "the spirits in prison who were once disobe- 
dient," but "the spirits in prison when once they disobeyed." 

This usage will be further discussed in the sections on Participles. 

232. In the enumeration of several persons or things, joined 
by a connective particle, an Article before the first only intimates 
a connexion between the whole, as foi'ming one object of thought. 
This is termed "combined enumeration." The repeated Article, 
on the other hand, implies a separation, in themselves, or in the 
view taken of them. 

Sometimes, however, the separation seems to be chiefly grammatical, 
different genders requiring the repeated Article. 

a. Combined enumeration. — Eph. ii. 20 : eVt roJ 6ejie\i(f twv 
aiiofXToKuiv Ka'i 7rpo(f)T]Tcoi', upon the foundation of the apostles and 
prophets, all together constituting but one basis. 

Eph. iii. 18 : t'l to ttXcltos Ka\ fxrjKOs Koi ^ddoi Ka\ vyj^os, what (is) 

the breadth and length and depth and height, one image of vast 
extension being before the mind. 

Col. ii. 22 : to, evToXfj-ara Koi diBacTKaXias Ta>v avdpunrcov (obs. the 
different genders), the commandments and tea^:hings of men, toge- 
ther constituting one system. 

2 Pet, i. 10 : tt|v kXtjctiv Kal iKXoyrju, (your) calling and eleciiony 
each, mutually implying the other. 


Matt, xvii. 1 : tov ntrpov koI 'la/<co/3oj/ Koi 'luavprjv, Peter and 
James and John, one iiisej^arable group. 

Titus ii. 13: Tif|V ^uKapiav (Xni^a koi enKpafeiav ttjs 86^j]i tov [XfyaXov 
GeoO /cat aorrjpos f]p.a>v 'irja-ov XpiaTov, the blessed hope and mani- 
festation of th". glory of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

Here are two cases of enumeration, each ■with a single Article : 

(1) the "manifestation" is but another exi)ression for the "hope;" and 

(2) the latter phrase may imply, on the above-stated princii^le, either 
that God (the Father) and Jesus Christ the Saviour are so inseparably 
conjoined, that the glory of is the same ; or else, as many of the 
best interpreters have it, and as Ellicott renders it in the translation 
above, that God in this passage is, like Saviour, an ej)ithet of Christ. 
Comp. Eph. v. 5 ; 2 Thess. i. 12 ; 2 Pet. i. 1. See also the phrase, "<Ae 
God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ," Eph. i. 3; 1 Pet. i. 3; Rom. 
XV. 6 ; 2 Cor. i. 3, xi. 31 (1 Cor. xv. 24) : not God, even the Father, &c. 

h. Separate enumeration. — Luke xii. 1 1 : eVl toLs awaya^ya^ /cai 
Ttts apxa.^ Kcu TOLS e^ovaias, to the synagogues, and tJce magistrates, 
and the powers, three difFereat classes of tribunal. The reader 
may compare Mark xv. 1, wli* re the elders and scribes are spoken 
of" as constituting but one class, i.e., in the Sanhedrim. 

James iii. 11 : tJ) yXvKv kuI rh TriKpo , the sweet and the hitter, 
from their very natui'e separate. 

2 Thess. i. 8 : tois pr) flhoai Qew, koX tois ptj vnaKOvovai, k.t.X., 
to tlwse who know not God, and those who obey not the Gospel of 
our Lord Jesus Christ ; two distinct classes, incuri-ing different 
degrees of punishment. 

Heb. xi. 20 : evkoyrjtnv *l(Taa< tov 'Ia*:c!)j3 Ka\ tov 'Hcrati, Isaac 
blessed Jacob and Esau. Both received a blessing, but not 
together, and not the same. 

The same enumeration may be found in dififerent places, ■with and 
vrithout the separating Article. This arises from a difierence in the 
vsrriter's point of view in each particular case. So in 1 Thess. i. 7, the 
Apostle writes, rj? MoKeSovia Koi 7r) Axatci ; but in ver. 8, rrj MaKfSopia 
Kol Axaia. In the former verse, he seems to contemplate the dijfereni 
directions in which the influence of Thessaloniaa Christianity sjiread ; 
111 the latter, the uniform spread of that influence. 

Such distinctions may be slight, but they are real, and even where 
they seem, as Winer says of this passage, "indifferent," should at leaat 
be noted. 


233. The omission of the Article marks indefiniteness, which 
in translation may be represented by our Indefinite Article in 
the singular, and by the anarthrous plural. This point, also, has 
occasionally been neglected in the Authorized Version. 

Matt. xii. 41, 42 : &v8p€s Nivtmrai ... PatrtXicrora Notov, men of 
NiTueveh ... a queen of t}ie South. 

Luke ii. 12 : ei/jvo-ere Pp€'<i>os, ye shall find a babe, which shall be 
the sign that the pi-omise is fulfilled. 

Acts i. 7 : xpovo^s i? Kaipovs, times or seasons, generally. 

Acts xvii. 23 : a.yvd3<rr<a ©tii, to an imhnown God. 

Acts xxvi. 2-7 (Tischendorf) : iyKoKoifim vtto 'lovSaCwv, / am 
accused by Jews ; that they should bring such a charge being the 
wonderful feature in the case. 

Eom. ii. 14 : Srav yap 'i6vi\, K.T.X., For when Gentiles do the things 
contained in the law ; not the Gentiles, as though the case were 

1 Cor. iii. 10 : BefisXiov i'drjKa, I laid a foundation. 

1 Cor. xiv. 4 : €KKXiio-£av olKoSofxf'i, edifies an assembly, antithetic 
to himself. 

2 Cor. iii. 6 : dtaKovovs Kaivfjs 8ia9T|KTis, ministers of a new covenant. 
Gal. iv. 31 : ovk ia-fiiv iraiSto-KTis TiKva, we are not children of a 


Phil. iii. 5 : 'E^palos i^ 'Eppaiwv, a Hebrew of Hebrews, i.e., ot 
Hebrew parents. 

1 Thess. iv. 16 : iv cpiovrj ap\a.yy(\ov, amid the voice of an arch- 

Heb. i. 2 : iXdXrjafv fjfj.iv eV vi<b, God spake to los by (in) a Son, 
i.e., by one possessing that character, in contradistinction to the 
propJiets of former ages. 

234. The use of the word vd|j.os deserves special attention. 
With the Article, it invariably denotes the Mosaic law, except 
where its meaning is limited by accompanying words. Without 

5^18 ARTICLE WITH v6\L0i, LAW. r§284. 

the Article, in cases where the omission is not required by gram- 
matical rule, the term appears to have a wider significance } some- 
times referring to the Mosaic law as the type of law in general, 
and sometimes to law in the abstract, including every form of 
Divine command or moral obligation. 

Rom. ii. 12 : Sa-oi Iv v6\i.<a ^fxaprov, K.T.X., As many as sinned under 
law shall be judged by law. 

Horn. ii. 23 : os «v vojj.w Kavxacrai, K.r.X., who makesi thy boast of 
law, or of a law, through breaking the law, &c. (renewed mention.) 

Rom. ii. 25 : mv vojiov npda-a-rjs, if thou keepest law, i.e., if thou 
dost obey, in general ; so the verse continues, but if thou be a 
breaker of law, &c. 

Rom. iii 20 : e^ '4pyo>v vofjiov, k.t.\., by deeds of law shall no flesh 
be justified, for by law is the knowledge of sin. The omission of 
the Article show* the truth to be universal, applicable to all men 
and to every form of law. Compare ver. '2S, Gal. ii. 16, iii. 2, 5, 10, 
in all which passages the Article is consistently omitted. 

A few passages further need only be mentioned. 
Eom. iii. 31 : " do we make law void ? ... yea we establish law." 
Rom. v. 20 : " there came in by the way a law.'''' 
Rom. vii. 9 : "I was once alive without law," 
Rom. X. 4 : " Christ is the end of laiv." 
Rom. xiii. 10 : " love is the fulfilment of law." 
Gal. ii. 19 : "I through law died to law that I might live to God." 
Gal. iii. 18 : " for if the inheritance is of Icnv, it is no more of 
promise. " 

James iv. 11: "he that speaketh evil of his brother, and judgeth his 
brother, speaketh evil of law and judgeth law ; but if thou jadgest laio, 
thou art not a doer of law, but a judge." 

These passages, taken in connexion with the numerous instances in 
which the Law is specifically spoken of, will illustrate the importance of 
a constant attention to the usage of Scripture in respect to the Article. 

8 2.'i5.J THE NUMBERS OF NOUNS, 219 


235. The ordinary usage of the Singular and Plural needs 
no detailed illustration. The following special rules must be 

236. A Masculine Singular Noun, with the Article, often 
repi-esents a whole class. 

Instances liave been given already, § 211. The omission of the 
Article in passages like E,om. i. 16, ii. 9, 10, 'IovSai(}> re Kat'EW-qvi, to 
both Jew and Greek, is owing to the antithetic form. (See g 233. ) 

237. Some words, like o-wjia, bodi/, KapSCa, heart, when predi- 
cated of several individuals, are occasionally employed in the 
singular. The plural, however, is more common. Thus we read, 
tJ) o-wjia vfiSyv and to. <r<a(j.aTa v/ioji', your body or bodies ; i] KapSla or 
al KapSCai avToav, their heart or hearts. 

The word irpSffoiTrov, face, is always singular in such phrases as they 
fell upon their face, except in the Revelation, vii. 11 (add.), xi. 16. 

238. Many abstract nouns are used in the plural, for repeated 
exemplifications of the quality denoted. 

Mark vii. "Il'l : irXeove^iai, irovTjpCai, covetotosnesses, v)'ickednesses. 

James ii. 1 : iv irpoo-wiroXiixl/Cais, in regard (regards) to persons. 

2 Pet. iii. 11 : eV aylais dvo<rTpo<j)ois Ka\ tvcrcPeCais, lit., in holy 

conducts and godlinesses. 

239. The plural is occasionally used, like tlie English rhe- 
torical we, by a speaker of himself. See especially the passage, 


2 Cor. ii. 14, vii. 16, where the Apostle changes incessantly from 
singular to plural. The reason, however, may be that sometimes 
he is conscious of speaking on behalf of himself and his associates ; 
sometimes, again, for himself alone. In any case, the idiom iu 
question is not a common one. 

240. In some instances, where only one agent or object is 
actually meant, the plm-al is employed. 

Strictly speaking, these cannot be called instances of the plural 
put for the singular, but arise, either (a) from the object being 
regarded in its constituent parts, or (b) from the writer having 
formed the conception generally, without limitation. 

a. A familiar instance of the former kind is in the plural names 
of cities, as 'AGfjvai, Athens, KoXoo-o-a^, Colossce, where the words 
expressed in the first instance the several districts of the place, or 
the different tribes which formed its population. So, in Greek, 
Jerusalem is often 'Icpoo-oXvjia (neut. plur.) 

Analogous woi'ds are dvaroXaC, east; 8vo-p.aC, west ;* ra. 8«^itt, the 
right; to. dpwrrepd or €vwvv(j.a, the left, where some such word as 
pa/rts may be supplied. These words are also found in the singular. 

Some miscellaneous terms to be explained in a similar way are — 

Luke xvi. 23 : Adfapoi/ eV lols KoKirois avTov, Lazarus in his (Abraham's) 
bosom. In ver. 22 the singular had been used. 

John i. 13 : ovk e| aiiJ.dTwi>, not of blood, lit., bloods — a peculiar phrase, 
with a reference perhaps to both parents, f 

Hebrews ix. 12, &c. : ils rb. 071a, vnto the Sanctuary, "the Holies," 
sometimes, as in ver. 2, ayta ayiaii', Holies of holies,t suggesting that 
every spot and every object there was consecrated. 

Names of festivals are sometimes plural : eyKaivia, feast of dedication 

* Or perhaps the plural in these words may denote repetition. The suu 
rises or sets there " aaiain and again.' 

t The expression has no parallel in the Scriptures, and only one in the 
classics (Winer). The plural, nowever, is often found in the Old Testament 
(from the Hebrew), where violent bloodshedding is denoted. 

1 In this expression (not in the other), some would read 07/0, fern., as 
referring to a noun, like x'^P"> place. This is, however, most unUkely. 

§ 240.] THE NUMBERS OF NOUNS. 221 

(John X. 22); afu^o, feast of unleavened bread (Matt. xxvi. 17, &c.) ; 
'yerlffia, birthday feast (Matt. xiv. 6 ; Mark vi. 21). So ydfiot, marriage 
feast, from the various observances and festivities accompanying. 

Alciffs, ages, is phiral, to mark the successive ei)Ochs of duration, 
especially of the Divine j^lan ; the singular either referring to one such 
epoch, or including all as one mighty whole. Hence the phrase for 
ever may be represented either by els Thv aluva (Matt. xxi. 19; John 
vi. 51, 58 ; 1 Pet. i. 25, from Isa. xl. 8, &c.), or by eh tovs alwvus (Luke 
i. 33; Rom. i. 25, ix. 5; Heb. xiii. 8, <!irc.) ; while the emphatic /or 
ever and ever is expressed by els ruiis alwvas tS>v aldiuaiv, to the ages of ages 
(Heb. xiii. 21 ; 1 Pet. iv. 11, v. 11 ; and Rev. often). 

Ovpavol, heavens, is found with meaning indistinguishable from ovpdvus, 
heaven. The plural usage probably arose from the Hebrew, where the 
word is always dual : " the two parts of the firmament." There is also 
"the third heaven." Matthew almost always has the plural; Luke 
almost always * the singular ; Mark most usually the singular ; John, 
the singular always, except in Rev. xii. 12. The other parts of the 
^ew Testament vary between the two almost equally. 

Other plurals of this kind will be sufficiently explained in the Voca- 

b. 1. lu the second above-mentioned class may be included those 
cases where persons are said generally to do what was really done 
by one of their number. Thus, Matt. xxvi. 8, " his disci'ples said, 
To what purpose," &c. ; while in John xii. 4 we i-ead, "o?^e of his 
disciples, Judas''^ Compare Mark vii. 17 with Matt. xvi. 14; 
Matt. xiv. 17 and Mark vi. 38 with John vi. 8, S) ; Matt, xxi v. 1 
with Mark xiii. 1; Matt, xxvii. 37 with John xix. 19; Matt, 
xxvii, 48 and Mark xv. 36 with John xix. 29. So in Luke 
xxii. 67, X€7ovT€s, when in all probability only one is meant. See 
also the same idiom in John xi. 8 ; Luke xx. 21, 39, xxiv. 5 
(elirov) ; Matt. XV. 1, Xe'^ovTes ; xv. 12, elirov.t 

These instances will help to explain apparent discrepancies. Thus it 
may be that only one of the crucitied malefactors actually blasphemed, 
notwithstanding the plural in Matt, xxvii. 44 ; and the narrative of the 
cure of the blind men at Jericho (Matt. xx. 30-.34 ; Mark x. 46-52 ; 

* Perhaps always, except xii. 33, with Acts ii. 34, vii. 50; the other pas- 
sages where the recognised text gives the plural being all doubtful : x. 20, 
xi. 2, xxi. 26. 

t Stuart's " New Testament Syntax." 

222 THK NUMBERS OF NOUNS. [§ 240. 

. Luke xviii. 35-43) may possibly be harmonized in a similar way, although 
the probability seems to be that two different transactions of the kind 
then took place. * 

2. Somewhat different from tlie above, yet related urider the 
same head, are those cases in which a general statement suffices, 
although a jjarticular one .might also have been made. 

John vi. 45 ; Acts xiii. 40 : The prophets is a general reference, 
as when we quote from " the Bible " without specifying a parti- 
cular part. 

Matt. ii. 20: TfdvrjKamu ot tTjTouvres, k.t.X, they are dead who seek, 
&c., when Herod specifically is meant. (See Exodus iv. 19.) 

Matt. ix. 8 : tov homa e^ovdiav tomvttjv tois dvGpwirous, who gave 
such povjer to men, i.e., as instanced in the case of Christ. 

Rom. i. 4 : e^ avaaTaa-eaa veKpcov, hy the resurrection of tlie dead ; 
the context showing the refei'euce to be to the one great illustration, 
in the case of Christ, of this general fact. It is, however, incor- 
rect to interpret 1 Cor. xv. 29, on the authority of this passage, as 
referring to baptism "in the name of Him v/ho was dead, i.e., 

Heb. ix. 2.3 : KpeCrTocri Ouo-Cais, with better sacrifices, i.e., whatever 
those sacrifices might be; the question being, as it were, left open 
for a moment, although the aim was to show that in reality only 
one sacrifice could avail. 

For the use of singular adjectives, pronouns, &c., in agreement or 
apposition with plural nouns, or the contrary, see § 317. 

The Nominative and Yocative. 

241. The Nominative is properly tlie case of the Subject ; 
hence also of the Predicate after copulative Verbs. 
See §§ 163-1G5. 

* Lee on Inspiration, p. 393; Burgon's " In.spiiation and Interpretation," 
p. 67. See, however, " Bible Hand-book," Part II., § 148; Trench on the 
Miracles, p, 429. 


242. In some passages a Nominative is found, unconnected 
with the grammatical structure of tlie sentence ; calling attention, 
emphatically, to the thing or person spoken of This is called a 
Suspended Nominative (" nominativus pendens "). 

Matt. xii. 36 ; irav py\y-a. a.pyhv...dno8coaov(Ti ivepX avrov \6yov, every 
idle word...tliey shall give account of it. 

Acts vii. 40 : 6 Mwo-fjs outos...oi'k oUa^ev, k.t.X., This Moses... we 
know not, &e. 

Rev. ii. 26: 6 vikwv Ka\ 6 TTjpwv . . . Swo-a) alra e^ovaiav, he that 
overcometh, and that keepelh him I will give authority. So 
iii. 12, 21. 

See also Matt. x. 42 ; Luke xii. 10 ; John vii. 38, &c 

A "snsj)encled Nominative" is occasionally employed in expressions 
of time. 

Matt. XV. 32 ; on, ■^St? Tjfiepai rpe7s, Trpoafievovirl fj.ot, because they con- 
tinue with me, now three days. So Mark viii. 2. * 

Luke ix. 28: iyefeTo...S}ai't rj/Mipai oktw, it came to pass, about eight 
days after the sayings. 

Such cases may possibly be resolved into ellipsis, as, in the former 
case, of the substantive verb ; in the latter, of some such word as Siao-xTj/ua, 
interval, the true Sul)ject of 4y4veTo ; and in apposition with rtfi.4pai. 

Some so-called " suspended Nominatives" are really instances of appo- 
sition. Thus (Mark vi. 40), irpaaioX irpaaiai, rank by rank, is in apposition 
with the Subject of avtwecrov.f 

In ver. 39, o-u/Lnrdcrio is iu the Accusative in apposition with iravras. 

243. The Nominative is sometimes elliptically used, as in the 
cases following : — 

a. The Nominative after the adverb l8ov, behold. 

Matt. iii. 17 : Ibuv, (jxovi^ eV t(ov ovpavoov, behold (there was heard) 
a voice from tlie heavens. 

Heb. ii. 13 : l8ov €70!) Kat to, iraiSta, k.t.X., Behold (here am) /, and 
the children which tliou hast given me. 

* In Ijoth passages the ordinary text has r]ix4pas, the usual case in such 
construction. (See § 286.) But all critical editions give the Nominative. 
t See Rev. T. S. Green's "Greek Testament Grammar," p. 8G. 


h. The word 6vo|xa, introducing the name of a person or place, is 
generally found in the Dative, ovoyLan, hy name. (See § 280.) 
Occasionally, however, it occi^rs in the Nominative, with the 
name as predicate and the copula omitted. So John i. 6^ iyiviro 
avBpoiiros ... ovofia avrov ^icodvvr]!, there Was a man ... his name (was) 

Luke xxiv. 13 : fls Kwfirjv ... § <ivop.a 'EfifMovi, to a village ... whose 
name (was) Emmaus. 

c. A. pecidiar ISTominative phrase is used in the Revelation as 
an indeclinable noun, equivalent to the Hebrew name Jehovah 
(ch. i. 4), OTTO 6 «uv Kttl 6 •fjv Kal 6 «px6ji,£vos,y?'OOT Him vjho is, and 
loho was, and who cometh. 

244. The use of the Nominative for the Vocative has been 
already noted, § 228, where see Examples. 

The usage is in fact elliptical, the true Vocative being in the 
personal pronoun, a-v or iixeis, omitted : Thou . . . who art ! or ye ... 
who are ! 

Matt. vii. 23 : airoxoapdre ... 01 €pYatop.«voi tj)v avofiuiv, depart (ye 
who are) the workers of iniquity ! 

Mark xiv. 36 : a/3/3a 6 iraTrip, Ahha (Thou, who art) the Father ! 

So when the Nominative adjective is in apposition with the 
Vocative case. 

Rom. ii. 1 : o) uvdpcoTre, irds 6 KpCvcov, man! (thou) who judgest, 
(I mean) every one ! 

In Luke xii. 20, the Article is omitted, "Acppoiv, and, accordingly, we 
must understand, not a direct address, as E. V., Tliou fool! but an 
exclamation, "How foolish thou art !" A parallel instance is to be 
found in Romans vii. 2-4 : raXanra^pos iyii) dvdpooirus, O tm-etched man 
that I am! and xi. 33, S) ^ados ttKovtov, the depth of the riches! 

245. With the Vocative proper, the interjection 2> is employed, 
chiefly in vehement expressions. 

Matt. XV. 28 : (3 yivai, peyaXrj aov r] tt'icttis, vjoman, great is thy 
faith ! 

§ 245,] THE VOCATIVE CASE. 225 

Acts xiii. 10 : (0 irXripTis Tvavros SoXou, full o/all deceit ! 
Gal. iii. 1 : <3 avoTjToi FaXdrai, foolish Gcdatians ! 

Sometimes, however, the interjection is employed (as iu classical 
Greek) where no special vehemence is intended. So Acts i. 1, xviii. 14. 
But in such cases Si is more usually omitted (Luke xxii. 57 ; Acts i. 16, 
xiii. 15, xxviu 25). 

The Genitive. 

246. The Genitive Case (see § 11) primarily signifies 
motion from, answering to onr question, Whence ? From 
this general meaning arise many modifications, including the 
several notions expressed in English by the prepositions of 
or from. 

247. These modifications may be classed under the following 
heads :* 

1. Origin. 4. Partition. 

3. Separation. 5. Object. 

3. Possession. 6. Relation. 

7. The Genitive Absolute. 

The Genitive with Prepositions will be treated of hereafter. (See 
§291, seq.) 

I. Origin. 

248. The Genitive is often used after substantives, to mark 
the soui'ce or author. 

1 Thess. 1. o : nvrjuovevovrfs vfxcbu rov e'pyov rfjs irCoTews Koi tov 
KOTTov Tijs 0,70.177)5 Ka\ Trjs vnofiovTJs Tijs IX.irC8os, remembering your work 

* These siguitications are again reduced, by Dr. Donaldson and others, 
to three : — 

1. Ablation. 2. Partition. 3. Relation. 

The name of the case, "yeviK-i), designates it as expressive of the geniis to 
•which anything is referred, whether as belonging to it or classed under it 
(Max MUlIer) ; or, according to others, the source from which it is generated, 
or supposed to spring. 


of faith, and labour of love, and endurance of Jiope, i.e., the work 
s]n-inging from faith, the labour prompted by love, the endurance 
sustained by hope. 

2 Cor. xi. 26: kiv8vvols iroTaiitov kui Xtjo-twv, in dangers of rivers 
and robbers, i.e., occasioned by them. 

Romans iv. 13 : 8ia SiKaioa-vvris irLo-Tews, through the righteousness 
of faith. 

Romans xv. 4 : t^? TvapaKKijaems Twv 'ypa<j)wv, the comfort of tlie 

Col. i. 23 : cLTTo Trjs iKiribos Tofi evaY-yeXiov, from the hope of the 

Col. ii. 12: bio. r^j TTLCTTecos TT]? IvepYtCas tov Qeov, through the 
faith of the mighty working of God, i.e., mightily wrought by him. 

249. Tlie Genitive, after many verbs expressive of sense or 
mental afiections of various kinds, indicates the source from which 
the sensation or affection proceeds. 

The full force of the Genitive is evident also in these cases. Thus, 
to smell a flower, really means to receive a certain impression from the 
flower. Compare the ordinary phrase, to taste of different viands. In 
another use, the object of sense itself becomes subject of the verb, and 
its quality is expressed by the following Genitive, as this rose smells of 

Again, to recollect is to remind myself of the object of thought ; the 
influence being regarded as passing from the object to the person. In 
like manner may be explained the phrases denoting other mental 

«• Verbs of Sense, (1) aKov(o, to hear: 

Mark ix. 7 ; Luke ix. 35 : airoi) aKovere, Hear him ! 

John x. 3 : ra TrpojSara ttjs <|)wvi)s nvrov aKovei, the sheep hear his 

Luke XV, 25 : ^Kova-e a-v[i.<j)wv£as KOI x°P"''j ^^^ heard music a7id 

It will be seen that this verb is construed with a Genitive either of 
the person or the thing. Generally, however, the thing is in the Accu- 


sative, as the immediate object (especially \6you, K6yovs, Matt. vii. 24, 
xiii. 20, &c.) When both are expressed together, the thin^ is in the 
Accusative, and the person in the Genitive (Acts i. 4) ; sometimes with 
a preposition (2 Cor. xii. 6; Acts x. 22). The Genitive of the thmg 
probably inclines to the partitive sense. Compare Acts ix. 7, where of 
Saul's com[)anions it is said, aKovovres ttjj (pwvTjs, hearing t/ie voice, with 
ch. xxii. 9, tV (j)a>vi]v ovk ^Kovtrav, they heard not the voice. They heard 
of the voice, Le., its sound, but not what it said. 

(2) yivofiai, to taste: 

Luke xiv. 24 : ov^e\s . .. yevo-erai /nou toO Seiirvov, no one shall taste 
yf my supper. 

Mark ix. 1 : ov /xi) •yevo-ai^rat Oavdrov, shall hy no means taste 
death. So Luke ix. 27 ; John viii. 52; Heb. ii. 9. 

In Heb. vi. 4, 5, the Genitive and Accusative are used in 
successive ch\use.s, yevaafievovs riis Swpeas, liavlng tasted of the Gift ; 
yeva-a/ievovs Qeoij pfjjAa, having tasted the word of God.* 

(3) diyydvoo, to touch : 

Heb. xii. 20 : kqv 6r]plov diyrj tov Spovs, and even if a beast touch 
the mountain. So xi. 28. 

\firi\a(t>, to handle, to touch closely, governs the Accusative (Luke 
xxiv. 39 ; Acts xvii. 27 ; 1 John i. 1 ). " The mount that might be 
touched" (Heb. xii. 18), where this word is used, does not contradict 
V. 20, as it simply refers to the nature of the mountain, 2Mlpable or 

b. Verbs expressive of mental affections ; as desire, caring 
for, despising : 

Acts XX. 33 : dp-yvptou j) XP^O'^O^ V tH-aTicr|J.ov ovBevos eTredviiTjcra, 
I desired no one's silver or gold or raiment. 

* Mr. Jelf (Kuhner's Greek Grammar) explains the difference simjily as 
a variation in the mode of expression ; the Accusative calling attention 
rather to the action, the Genitive to the material, as in English, " He eats 
some meat" (Gen.) ; "He eats meat" (Ace). BengeFs view of this passage 
is more subtle. " ' The gift,' " he says, " can be oul> paL-tiaJiy received in 
this life; while 'the Word' essentially belongs to us now." But see Alford's 
note, comparing the Accusative with that in John ii. 9. 


Titus iii. 8 : Iva <^povTi(u>(Ti KaXuv ^p^wv, that they may he zealous 
of {careful to maintain, E.V.) good works. 

1 Tim. iii. 5 : irms €kkXt]o-Cos ^(ov eTrineXrjo-eTaL, how shall he care 
for tJhe church of God ? 

Heb. xii. 5 : ^17 oXtywpei TraiSeCas Kvplov, do not slight the chastise- 
ment of the Lord. 

c. Verbs of remembrance and forgetting: 

Liilce xvii. 32 : fivrjfxoveiifTe ri]? -ywaiKos Acor, remeinher Lot's wife. 

Heb. xii. 5 : eK\e\j]adf Ti]s ■»rapaKXiqo-€ws, ye have forgotten tlie 

Many grammarians prefer to class the Genitive after all these verbs 
under the head of "Partition." (See § 261, seq.) 

250, Verbs of accusing, condemning, &c., take a Genitive of 
the charge, i.e., of the source of the accusation. 

Acts xix. 40 : tyKaXela-dai o-Taorews, to be accused of sedition. 

The Genitive of the person is used after KaTrjyopeco, to accuse, lit., 
"to assert against one." 

Matt. xii. 10 : tva Karrjyoprjaacriv avTov, that they might accuse Him. 

251. Adjectives and Verbs signifying plenty, want, fulness, 
and the like, are followed by a Genitive of that from which 
another is filled, &c 

John i. 14 : TrXr)pt]s x^piTos Ka\ a.\r\dilas, full of grace and truth. 

John xxi. 11 : TO bUrvov ... fiea-Tov lx9vwv, the net .. full of fishes. 

Luke i. 53 : irfivoivrai evin\r}(rev dvaOwv, Refilled the hungry with 
good things. 

John ii. 7 : yefilaare ras vBplas vSaros, fill the water-pots with loater. 

Romans iii. 23 : Traire? va-Tepovvrai Tr^s SogT]? tov Qeov, all come 
short of the glory of God. 

James i. 5 : ft ns vpav XeineTat croc^tas-, if ciny of you lacJceth 

This Genitive is referred by some to the head of "Separation;" by 
others to "'Partition." 


II. Separation, or Ablation. 

252. Verbs of separation, as those denoting removal, difference, 
hindrance, and the like, take a Genitive as the case of tlieir 
secondary object. (See § 186.) 

Prepositious, however, are more generally inserted. 

Luke xvi. 4 : orav neraaraBS) rfjs olKovo|itas, when I shall have 
been displaced from my stewardship. 

Acts xxvii. 43 ; iKi>k\>a-ev avroiis rov povXruJiaTos, he hindered them 
from their purpose. 

Eph. ii. 12: dm^WoTpLcofxevoL TTJs iroXirtias rov ^lapaijX, alienated 
from the commonwealth of Israel. 

1 Tim. i. 6 : wj/ Tives daroxfja-avTfs, from which some having gone 
wide in aim.* 

1 Pet. iv. 1 : nenavTai afiaprCas, he hath ceased from sin. 

253. Under this head may be placed the important rule, that 
the object of comparison is expressed by the Genitive, whether 
after verbs, or, more usually, after adjectives in the comparative 

See on the Comparative, § 320. This Genitive, also, is one of Sepa- 
ration ; the two things compared being mentally set apart from each 
other. So in Latin, the Ablative case is employed, f 

When the word than is expressed in Greek (by the conjunction ij), 
the things compared are put in ap^josition. 

i. Verbs: 

1 Cor. XV. 41 • davTjp dcTTepos Btaipfpei, star differeth from star. 

* EUicott. 

\ The Hebrew language yet more clearly identities comparison and sepa- 
ration, by its use of the preposition from with the simj.le adjective. Thus, 
"greater than he" would be expressed by the phrase, "great from him ;" 
the Hebrews "conceiving pre-eminence as a taking out, a designating from 
the multitude" (Gesenius). So is Homer, iK izavToiv, more than all. Iv 
modern Greek, the preposition aird is used after the comparative. 


The verb Siacptpu often implies superiority. 

Matt. X. 31 : TToWuv arpovelaiv Sta(pfpeTe u/ie7s-, ye are lettei- titan many 

So vi. 26, xii. 12; Luke xii. 7, 24; Gal. iv. 1, "is no better than a 

ii. Adjectives in the Comparative degree : 

Jolm xiii. 16 : ovk eari doiiXos ^ei^cov tov Kvpiov, a servant is not 
greater than his master. 

Jolm xxi. 15 : dyoTray /ne liKiiov toiItwv ; lovest thou me more tloan 
these 1 

1 Tim. V. S : eartv dirto-rov x^'-P^v, he is worse than an unbeliever. 

The subject of comparison is sometimes repeated by implication 

in the object. 

Mark iv. 31 : fxiKponpos irdvrwv tuv crir€p|xdT«ov, ^^6^5 tlian all the 
seeds, although itself a seed. 

1 Cor. xiii. 1 3 : ixil^mv tovtcov 17 ayan-q, love is greater than these ; 
love, nevertheless, being one of the three. 

A comparative and superlative are combiflecl in Eph. iii. 8, so tbat the 
following Genitive may be referred to this -rule or to the partitive con- 
struction : iixoi T^ i\axt(TTOTfp^ Toiurwu toov ayloiv, to me. who am less iJian 
the least of all the saints. 

III. Possession. 

254. The most frequent use of the Genitive is as the 
Possessive Case, generally with substantives. 

Here, also, the fundamental meaning of the case as denoting whence 
is very apparent. From, the notion of origiuation, by an easy transition, 
comes that of possession. Thus, "the sons of Zebedee" may be taken 
as "the sons begotten by Zebedee," or " the sons belonging to Zebedee;" 
"the kingdom of heaven" may mean "the kingdom set up by heavenly 
powers," or "the kingdom governed by these powers." So, again, the 
notion of "belonging to" attaches to the Genitive where that of 
"originated by" has disappeared.* 

* Com]mre Midler's "Lectm-es on the Science of Language," Vol. L, 
p. 105. 


Mark i. 29 : tj\6ov els. ti)v oIklqu 2f|A«vos Kal 'AvSpe'ou, thei/ came 
into the house of Simon and Andrew. 

Romans i. 1 : llavXos 8ov\os 'Itio-ov Xpio-rov, Paul a servant of 
Jesus Christ. 

255. The Genitives of the iiersonal pronouns are mostly 
employed in this sense irk:.tead of the po?.sessive adjectival forms. 
So Tj dvyaTTjp jiov, 7ny daughter ; ol ixadrjTal airov, his disciples. 
(See § 333.) 

256, Words denoting kindred, &c., are often omitted before a 
Possessive Genitive, especially when they wonld stand in appo- 
sition with a pi'oper name. Sometimes the Article of the omitted 
noun is inserted. (See §§ 194, 196.) 

1. vids. Matt. iv. 21 : 'idKcojBov t6v tov ZejBe^aiov, Jawes tlie {son) 
of Zehedee. • 

John vi. 71 : tov 'lovdav ^ifiavos, (the) Judas (son) of Simon. 

John xxi. 15, 16, 17 : Si'/xcoi' 'iwm, Simon (son) of Jonas. 

2. iraTTip. Acts vii. 16 : 'Enfj-op rod ^vxtp-, Hamor the {father) 
of Shechem. 

3. iJ-TJTTip. Luke xxiv. 10 : Map'ia 'laKco/Sov, Mary the {mother) of 
James. So Mai-k xv. 47, xvi. 1. 

4. d8€\<J)os. Luke vi. 16; Acts i. 13: 'lovSa? 'laKa^ov, Judas 
(the brother) of James ; as expressed, Jude 1. 

5. 7DVTJ. Matt. i. 6 : « rrfs tov Ovplov, from the (wife) of Uriah . 
So John xix. 25. 

6. ol'Keioi. 1 Cor. i. 11 : ino tu>v XXo'jjj, hy the {kinsfolk's of 

7. oIkos or 8d)|ia. Mark v. 35 : airo tov apxia-wayayov, from, (the 
house) of the ruler of the synagogue. This is clear, as the ruler 
■was himself with Jesus. So, perhaps, John xviii. 28. 

Acts ii. 27, 31 : els a8ov, " thou wilt not abandon my soul" to 



[the habitations) of Hades ; a classical phrase ; or, " to (the power) 
of the iiuseeti world." In Ps. xvi. 10, some copies of the LXX. 
read abov, others}v. 

In Luke ii. 49, tV toTj tov ■naTp6s ixov have been variously read, in my 
Father's business, or in my Father's house (plural, as in John xix. 27, 
Ta i'Sia). The former gives the wider significance : " among my Father's 
matters " (Alford). So all the versions of the Enghsh Hexapla, Luther, 
De Wette. 

257. Attribute or quality is often expressed by the Possessive 
Genitive of an abstract substantive. 

In such cases the person or thmg is spoken of as belonging to the 
virtue, vice, or other abstraction. The phrase may often be idiomatically 
rendered by turning the Genitive into an adjective. Thus, Luke xvi. 8, 
■rhv oIk6voij.ou Tris aSiKi'as, the steward of injustice, may be read the unjust 
steward. But such renderings lose the force of the original. 

Rom. i. 26 : TtdBr] dTtjiCas, lusts of dishonour. 

Heb. ix. 10 : BiKataifiaTa o-dpKos, ordinances of flesh. 

1 Pet. L 2 : eV ayiatrfx^ irvevnaTos, " in sanctification of spirit, 
*' a spiritual sanctification." 

James i. 25 : dKpoarrjs t-n-iXTjo-noviis, a hearer of forgetfulness, "a 
forgetful hearer." 

James ii. 4 : Kptral SiaXo-yicriAwv irov^pdiv, judges of evil thoughts, 
" evil-thiuking judges." 

258. 1^0 the strictly Possessive Genitive belong several phrases 
which have been otherwise interpi-eted — 

2 Cor. iv. 6 : rfjs yvaxncas ttjs SS^ns rod Qeov, of the knowledge of the 
glory of God, i. e, the glory which belongs to God, and which He reveals 
in Christ; not, certainly, "the glorious God." 

Eph. i. 6 : els firaipov SJjrjj rris xap'Tos avrod, to the praise of the glory 
of His grace, i.e., the glory which characterizes Divine gi-ace; not 
"glorious praise" or "glorious grace." 

Col. i. 11 : Kark rh Kpdros r^y S(5|7/y, according to the power of His 
glory; "not 'his glorious power' (Auth., Beza, &c.), but 'the power 
which is the peculiar characteristic of His glory ;' the Genitive belong- 
ing to the category of the Possessive Genitive " (Elhcott). 


Heb, i. 3 : tuj prjtian ttJs ^vvajx^ais avruv, by the word of His j^ower ; 
belougiug to it, as its true utterance, "not," says Alford, "to be 
weakened into the comparatively unmeaning ' by His powerful word.'" 

See also Rom. vii. 24 ; Col. i. 13 ; Rev. iii. 10. 

259. The Genitive is occasionally used by way of apposition, 
as if with some such ellipsis as consisting of, or bearing the name of. 
Compare the English idiom, the City of Jeriisalem, where Jeru- 
salem is the city. 

This rule is an exception to the ordinary construction. The usual 
idiom in Greek is the city, Jerusalem. 

2 Pet. ii. G : irdXeis SoSojj-wv Kal ropoppas, (the) cities of Sodom and 

John ii. 21 : Treys t ToO vaov ToB o-tinaros aiiToti, concerning the temple 
of his body. 

Rom. iv. 11: <rT]|ieiov TKa^e irepiTOfitjs, he received the sign of cir- 
cumcision. So Acts iv. 22, 

2 Cor. V. 1 : T| o'lKia toB o-kt^vovs, the house of [our) tabernacle. 

2 Cor. V. 5 : tov dppapwva tov nvevi|AaTos, the earnest of the Sjnrit. 
So ch. i. 22. Compare Romans viii. 23.* 

See also Eph. vi. 14-16 ; Heb. vi. 1 ; and many other passages. 

The difficult phrase, Eph. iv. 9, eis to Karunepa t?5$ 77)5, has by many 
interpreters been regarded as an instance of the Genitive of Ajiposition : 
"to the lower earth," " to earth beneath," contrasted with such phrases 
as "the height of heaven" (Isa. xiv. 14). See Pishop Ellicott's note, 
iu which the opposite view (the descent into Hades) is maintained. 

260. Position of the Genitive. 

a. The Genitive is usually placed after the governing noun. 

When both noixns have the Article, each is usually preceded by its 
own. In classic Greek, the Article of the governing noun usually stands 
first in the phrase ; then the governed Article and Genitive ; and lastly, 

* " The first fruits (of our inheritance) consisting of the Holy Spirit" (Dr. 
Vaughan on Rom. viii. 23. So Winer. 


the governing noun. This arrangement is very rarely followed in the 
New Testament : 1 Pet. iii. 20, t) tov &euv /xaKpoOufMia, the loncj-suffering 
of God; Heb. xii. 2, rlv rrjs irluTews apxvyoi', the author of the faith. 
Occasionally the Article of the governing noun is repeated before the 
Genitive ; also a classic idiom (see § 196), 1 Cor. i. 18, b \6yos 6 tov 
(TTavpov, tlie doctrine of the Cross. 

h. But the Genitive precedes — 

1. When one Genitive belongs to more than one substantive — 
Acts iii. 7". oAiTov at fidcreis koI to acpvpd, his feet and ankle-bones. 

2. When the word in the Genitive is emphatic. The emphasis 
may arise — 

(a) From antithesis — 

Phn. ii. 25 : rhf (JV(TrpariwTr)v fiov, vfxwv Se a-rrocrruAou, my fellow- 
soldier, but your messenger. See also Eph. vi. 9 ; Heb. vii. 22, &c. 

[b) From the Genitive containing the principal notion — 

Rom. xi. 13 : iSvwv air6<jTo\os, ajjostle of Gentiles. See also 
1 Cor. iii. 9 ; Titus i. 7 ; James i. 26, &c. 

In Heb. ^^. 2, Panriaixiiiv SiSax^js, it has been questioned which word 
is the governing one, doctrine of baptisms, or, baptisms of doctrine. Winer 
favours the latter (Grammar, § xxx. 3, note 4). 

IV. Partition. 

261. Closely connected with the fundamental notion of the 
Genitive is that of participation. The part is taken from the 

1 Pet. i. 1 : (KKfKTois Trapen-tSij/xots Siao-iropas, fo elect sojourners of 
(the) dis2)ersio7i. 

ISIatt. XV. 24 : ra irpofiaTa ra diroXcoXoTa oI'koi) 'icrparjX, the lost shecp 

of the house of Israel. 

262. This Genitive is most commonly found after partitive 
adjectives, the indefinite and interrogative pronouns, with the 
numerals, and adjectives in the superlative degree. 

Partitive Adjectives. 
Matt. iii. 7 : noWois tuv <l>apicraiwv Ka\ SaSSovKaitov, many of the 
Pharisees and Sadducees. 



Luke xix. 8 : rh fjula-tj rav virapxovTwv the half (bialves) of my 

Acts xvii. 12 : av8puv ovk oXiy«i, of men not a few. 

Matt. XV. 37 : r6 Tj-epiaaeiJov riy K\ao-|AdTwv, the remaining (part) 
of the broken pieces. 


Matt. ix. 3 : nves t«v ■ypajiiiaTeuv, soms of the Scribes. 

Acts V. 15 : iiTKTKiaa-r) Tivi avTwv, might overshadow any of them. 

Luke X. 36 : rls ovv Toirav, which, then, of these ? 

Numerals— Cardinal, Ordinal, Negative. 

Matt. V. 29 : Iv twv jieXwy crov, one of thy members. 

Acts X. 7 : (Pcovf](Tas 8vo TWV o'lKtTiov, having called two of tlie 

Rev. viii. 7 : to Tplrov ttjs 71)5, the third of the land. So 
vv. 8-18. 

Mark xi. 2 : oiSek dvOpwirwv, lit., no one of men. 

But tlie preposition 4k is more frequently used after numeral adjec- 


1 Cor. XV. 9 : 6 i\dxi(TTos twv dTroerroXwv, the least of the ajwstles. 

263. Verbs of partaking are followed by a Genitive. 

1 Cor. X. 21 : TpairetTjs Kvpiov fier^xeiv, to partake of the table of 
the Lord, Once this vei-b is found with Ik, ver. 17. 

Heb. ii. 14 : ra Traidia K^Koivuvr^Ke capKis Ka\ a'i!jiaTOs, the children 
are p>0''>'tahers of flesh and blood. This verb is found also with a 
Dative, Rom. xv. 27 ; 1 Tim. v. 22 ; 1 Pet. iv. 13; 2 John 11. 

Heb. xii. 10 : ixeraXa^eiv TTJs d^idTiiTOS avrov, to jya?'to^e his 

264. So also verbs which signify to take hold of, to attain, 
when a part is implied. 


Luke XX. 35 : tov alwvos Ueivov Tv^eh, to attain that world. 

Luke viii. 54 : Kparrja-as- Tr\s x^i'pos avTTJi, having taken hold of her 

The strictly partitive sense is well illustrated by this verb. "When 
the whole is grasped, KpaTfw takes an Accusative, as in Matt. xiv. 3, &c. 

Some verbs of this class are followed in the Middle voice by a 
partitive Genitive, whereas in the Active they would take an 

Matt. vi. 24 : tov Ivos avGe^erat, he will cleave to the one. 

Matt. xiv. 31 : eTreXd^fro avTov, he took hold of him. 

For the force of the Middle, see § 355. "Holding one's self by the 
given object " is implied. 

265. Adverbs of time are followed by a partitive Genitive. 

Matt, xxviii. 1 : o-<^l 8e o-appdrtov, a7id late upon the sabbath. 

Mark xvi. 2 : Xiau irpat tt]? jiwds a-aQ^drcov, very early on the first 
day of the weeh. 

Heb. ix. 7 : ana^ TOV IviavTov, once in the year. 

So Luke x^^i. 4, xviii. 12. Compare the English colloquialism, late 
of an evening. 

266. Certain Genitive phrases are used, in the partitive sense, 
to denote time or place. 

So Matt. ii. 14 : wktos, by night; Luke xviii. 7 : tifi^pas Ka\ 
vvKTos, day and night; Gal. vi. 17: tov Xomtov, for the rest (future); 
Luke V. 19 : iroias (o^ov) flafveyKaaiv avTov, by what (way) tlisy 
might bring him in. 

Prepositions are, however, more generally employed to define these 

267. The verb to be is often followed by a Genitive in the 
partitive sense. 

Heb. X. 39 : ij/xel? be ovk ea-jiev viroo-ToXfiS . . . dXXa irio-Ttws, but we 
are not of a desertion (literally), but of faith. 

§ 267.] THE PArvTITlYE GENITIVE. 237 

Rom. ix. 9 : k-rayyiKCa's yap 6 \6yos ovros, for this Word (is) one 
of promise. 

The Genitive in tliis connexion may, however, have other signifi- 
cations, as, e.g., that of Possession — 

1 Cor. iii. 21 : iravTo. vnS>v iariv, all things are yours. 
] Cor. vi. 19 : om iari iavToiv, ye are not your oion. 
In general, the verb to he, followed by a Genitive, implies an ellipsis, 
siich as part, characteristic, property, &c. 

Y. Object. 

268. The Genitive case is often objectively employed,* that is, 
it expresses the object of some feeling or action, and may be 
rendered by various prepositions, as below. 

The fundamental meaning of the Genitive is here also very apparent, 
the object of a sentiment being, in another view of it, the source or 
occasion of its existence. Thus ex^'''^ nlaTiv Qeov (Mark xi. 22), have 
faith in {or toivards) God, reallj' means, "have such faith as His 
character excites." Compare CoL ii. 12. 

Luke vi. 12 : iv Tfj irpoo-evxTl "^^^ ©eov, in prayer to God.f 
John ii. 17: o ?TjXos tov o'ikov a-ov, the zeal concerning thy house ; 
compare Titus ii. 14. 

John xvii. 2 : Igovo-iav irdo-Tis <rapKos, power over all flesh. For 
similar consti'uctions of i^ova-ia, see Matt. x. 1 ; Mark vi. 7 ; 
1 Cor. ix. 12. 

Acts iv. 9 : evtp-yecn'a dvGptoirov do-Sevoiis, for a benefit conferred on 
an impotent man. 

Heb. xi. 26 : tJ>v 6v€i8io-|j.ov tou Xpio-rov, the reproach in con- 
nexion with the Christ (as the hope of Israel). 

1 Pet. ii. 19 : hia crvvefSiio-iv Qiov, on account of conscience toward 

* Compare Angus's "Handbook to the English Language," § 384. 

t Some, less naturally, interpret the j)hrase, i)i the place of prayer to 
God, comparing the passage with Acts xvi. 13, "where there was accus- 
tomed to be 2^rayer," as RV"., AJford; a place of prayer, Neander, Meyer, 
Hackett, &c. 


Eom. X. 2 : SijXov 0€oB e;^ovo-ii', they have a zeal toward God. 

2 Cor. X. 5 : els t^|v {iiraKo^v tov Xpio-ro*, to the obedience ren- 
dered to Christ. But viraKo^ irio-Tews, Rom. i. 5, is obedience 
s^winging from faith. 

Col. ii. 18: GpTio-Keia twv ayyiXav, worship paid to angels. (See 
Ellicott, in loc.) 

269. Some phrases are susceptible of either a possessive 
(attributive, subjective), or an objective signification. Thus, rj 
a.ya.Trr\ ©coii, the love of God, may mean, the love which God 
possesses as His attribute, that which He bears to us, or that 
which is borne towards Him. A few important passages may 
be subjoined by way of illustration. 

Passages with ayaTri) and a subjective Genitive — 
2 Cor. xiii. 13 : tlie love of God ...he with you. 

Eom. viii. 35 : what shall separate us from the love of C/u-ifit ? 
So ver. 39. 

Eph. iii. 19 : to know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge. 

2 Cor. V. 14 : the love of Christ constraiueth us. Not our love to 
Christ, but His love to us. * 

In the following, the Genitive seems objectively used — 

John V. 42 : ye have not the love of God in you. So 1 John ii. 15, 

1 John ii. 5 : in him is the love of God perfected. 

2 Thess. iii. 5 : the Lord direct your hearts into the love of God. 

In Romans v. 5, "the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts," Dr. 
Vaughan writes of the subjective and objective interpretations, that 
the two ideas may be inchided. See 1 John iv. 16, v. 3: "the two 
are but opposite aspects of the same love ; the sense of God's love is 
not the cause only, but the essence of ours. 1 John iv. 19." 

2 Cor. V. 11 : tiSJres rov <p6fiov rod Kvpiov, knowing the fear of the 
Lord, generally taken as subjective, as E.V., "the terror of the 
Lord," belonging to Him as Judge; but everywhere else the phrase 
is objective — fear, i.e., reverence towards Him. So Alford renders 
here, conscious of the fear of the Lord; but doubtfully, for other 
passages, see Acts ix. 31 ; Eom. iii. 18 ; 2 Cor. vii. 1 ; Eph. v. 21. 


yi. Relation. 

270. Closely conuected with the objective vise of the Genitive 
are cases where a more general relation is signified ; some such 
prepositional phrase as in respect of being applicable, while the 
context shows the kind of relation intended. 

This general way of expressing relation is often not so much, 
ambiguous as comprehensive. Thus, in the frequent j)hrase, rh 
evayyeKiov rod Xpiarov, theGospel of Christ, it is needless to ask. whether 
the meaning be the Gospel from Christ as its author,* about Christ as 
its subject, t or in the prerogative of Christ as its administrator. J Each 
of these thoughts is but one element in the analysis of the phrase. 

Mark i. 4 : ^d-nTKTjjia p-eravoias, a baptism which had reference to 

John V. 29 : avuuratjiv ^wfjs . . . dvdcrTa<riv Kpio-fws, resurrection in 
order to life ... in order to condemtiation. 

John vii. 35 : Ti\v SLaanopav twv 'EWtivuv, the dispersion (of the 
Jews) among tJie Greeks (Gentiles.) 

Romans v. 18 : hiKaiaa-iv X,iJif^%, justification in order to life. 

Romans viii. 36 : npolSara cr4)a'yfjs, sheep doomed to slaughter. 

Rom. vii. 2 : utro rov vojxov tov dvSpds, the law of the husband, 
i.e., that which defines the relation. § 

Rom. xiii. 3 : (p6j3os rS>v d^aOwv 'ipytav, a terror in respect to good 

Ephes. iv. 16 : Sta irdcrrjs cKprji Ttjs lirixopiryias, through every joint 
(which is) for the purpose of the supply. See Ellicott, in loc, who 
comj>ares the phrase with tu vKevr] n}? Xeirovpyias, Heb. ix. 21, the 
vessels of the iniyiistering . 

* So the Gospel of God, Eom. i. 1, &c. 

t Compare the phrase, Gospel of the Kingdom, Matt. iv. 23, ix. 35. 

\ In the language of the A postle Paul, my Gospel is evidently the Gospel 
entrusted to b^tiA preached by me, Eom. ii. 16; xvi. 25; 2 Tim. ii. 8. 

§ See Winer, who quotes Old Testament parallels, Lev. vii. 1 ; xiv. 2, 
XV. 32 ; Numb. vi. 13, 21. 


Phil. iv". 9 : 6 Geo? ttjs tlp-fivr\s, the God who bestows ^jeace, or 
perhaps a Genitive of quality. 

In most of these instances, a preposition with its case would be an 
equally idiomatic usage. 

271. The Genitive is also used after adjectives, as after nouns 
(§ 256), to denote various kinds of relation. Examples of this in 
the general sense are such as the following : — 

Hel>. V. 13 : tineipos \6yov SiKaioa-vurjs, unskilled in respect of the 
word of righteousness. 

Heb. iii. 12 : KapSia novrjpa dirio-Tias, a heart ivicJced in respect to 
unbelief (Winer) . 

James i. 13 : dneipaa-Tos KaKwv, unversed in things evil (Alford). 

272. Adjectives, especially, signifying worthiness, fitness, or 
their opposites, take a following Genitive. So also their adverbs. 

Matt. iii. 8 : Kapnov figiov xfjs Y-^ra.vo(.as, fruit meet for repentance. 

Matt. X. 10 : i|ios 6 ('pydrrji tt]? Tpo4)fis avrov, the workman is 
worthy of his maintenance. 

1 Cor. vi. 2 : dva|ioL eVrf KpiTiipitov fXax^o'Tcov, are ye unworthy of 
(incompetent for) the least decisions 1 

Rom. xvi. 2 : d|ua)s tuv k-^ltav, " worthily (in a manner becoming) 
tlie holy" "■ as becometh saints," E.Y. 

See also Eph. iv. 1 ; Phil. i. 27 ; Col. i. 10 ; 1 Thess. ii. 12 ; 
3 John 6. 

273. So, in general, price, equivalent, penalty, and the like, 
are expressed by the Ge^iitive. 

Matt. X. 29 : olxi 8vo arpovdia aa-fraplov TrcuXeirai ; are not tWO 
sparrows sold for a fartldng ? 

Rev. vi. 6 : p^otvi^ a-irov 8i]vapiov koi rpeis ;^oii/tKey KpiGwv 8T]vapfov, 
a measure of wheat for a denarius, and three measures of barley 
for a denarius. 


274. In a few instances, one noiin governs two Genitives in 
different relations. 

Acts V. 32 : ■^;U6?s idfjuv avrov /xdpTvpes tS)i> pTHJ-driiiv tovtooi/, we are his 
(possess. ) witnesses of {remote obj. ), or iu respect to, these things. 

2 Cor. V. 1 : ^ iiriyeto^ t)ixS>v oiKi'a rov (XK'fivovs, our (possess.) earthly 
house of the talernacle (appos.) 

Phil. ii. 30 : th vnuv vcnepriina ttjs AeiTovpylas, your lack in respect of 
the service. 

2 Pet. iii. 2 : rris rSsv aTrotndXaiv vnZv fVToXrjs tov Kvpiov, the comTnand- 
ment of the Lord (orig.), given by (remote obj.) your apostles. The 
ordinary reading has t^ixHv, but even then the reading of E. V. is inad- 

The two Genitives in John vi. 1, tj BdXaaaa t^j VaXiKalas, t^s Ti;8e- 
piaSos, are virtually in apposition, the sea of GaUlee (as the Jews call it), 
of Tiberias (as the Gentiles), one name denoting the country, the other 
the city. So we might say, "the Lake of the Four Cantons, of 

The dependence of successive Genitives on each other is frequent, as 
many foregoing examples will show. 

Yll. The Genitive Absolute. 

275. A Genitive nonn, in agreement with a participle expressed 
or understood, often occurs in a subordinate sentence absolutely, 
i.e., without immediate dependence on any other words. The noun, 
in these cases, is to be translated first, without a prejjosition, then 
the participle. In idiomatic English, a conjunction must often be 

It will be observed that the Genitive in this construction refers to 
some other than the Subject of the principal sentence. 

Equivalent idioms are in English the nominative absolute, in Latin 
the ablative absolute. 

Matt. i. 18 : |jivi]o-t€v0€io-t)s ... Mapias, Mary having been betrothed. 

Matt. i. 20 : raira he avrov €v6v|n]9€VTos, and he having reflected 
on these things, i.e., when he reflected. 

Matt. ii. 1 : tov 'I-no-ov *yevv7]6e'vTos, Jesus liaving been born, l.e., 
when Jesus was born. 


Matt. ii. 13 : dvaxwp-no-dvTwv Se airwv, and they having departed, 
i.e., when tliey departed. 

Matt. xvii. 9 : KaraPaivovTwv avrwv e'/c rov opovs, they descending 
from the mountain, i.e., while they were descending. 

Heb, iv. 1 : KaTaXenrop^viis eiraY^eXCas, a promise being (still) le/t. 
(See Alford's note.) 

The Genitive Absolute, says Dr. Donaldson, is originally causal, in 
conformity with the j^rimary notion of the case. Hence arise, by way 
of analogy, its other uses as denoting accessories of time, manner, or 
circumstance. The tense of the particijde greatl}'^ determines the force 
of the phrase. (See § 393.) 

The Dative. 

276. In its primary local sense (see § 11), the Dative 
implies juxtaposition.* Hence the various modifications of 
its meaning, which may be classed as follows : — 

1. Association. 3. Keference. 

2. Transmission. 4. Accessory. 

The Dative in a sentence is generally an indirect complement 
of the Predicate, or "remote object." (See § 186.) 

I. Association. 

277. a. Yerbs signifying intercourse, companionship, and the 
like, are often followed by a Dative. 

Matt. ix. 9 : dKoXovdfi. y-ot,, follow me. 

Luke XV. 15 : (KoXkr]6rj evl tqiv ttoXltwv, he attached himself to one 
of the citizens. 

Acts xxiv. 26 : i>fii\ei axiro), he conversed with him. 

* The Greek Dative is therefore diametrically opposed to the Genitive. 
1, The latter signifies separation, the former jn-oximity. 2. The latter 
denotes subtraction, the former addition. 3. The latter expresses com- 
parison of different things, the former equality, or sameness. — Dr. 



Rom. vii. 2 : dv8pl SeSerai, she is bound to a husband. 

James iv. 8 : iyy la-are Tti 0€«, Koi e'yyiel vip.iv, draw near to God, 
and he will draw near to you. 

b. Likeness, fitness, equality, and their opposites, are marked by 
a Dative after adjectives and vei'bs. 

Matt, xxiii. 27 : ofs-oLa^eTe Td(}>ois k€kovio|1£voi.s, ye are like unto 
whited sepulchres. 

Luke xiii. 18 : ri'vi 6fioia>aa) aiiTrjV, to what shall I liken it ? 

James i. G : eoiKe KkvBavi daXaacrrjs, he is like a wave of the sea. 

Eph. V. 3 : Kadois irpenei d^iois, as it beconieth saints. 

Matt. XX. 12 : 'tcrovs tjiaiv avrovs eiroiria-as, thou madest them equal 
with us. 

c. After a substantive verb, the Dative often denotes possession 
or property. 

Matt, xviii. 12 : mv yevrjrai rivi dvOpwTro) eKarov Trpo^ara, if a man 
have (if there be to any man) a hundred sheep. 

Acts viii. 21 : ovk ecm cot fiepls ov^.e KXrjpos ev tui X6yo> tovtco, thou 
hast not (there is to thee) part nor lot in this Tnatter. 

The verb is sometimes omitted. 

2 Cor. vi. 14 : nV yap peroxr) 8iKai.ocn5vT) koi d,vo|xia, Jbr what 
participation have righteousness and iniquity ? 

II. Transmission. 

278. a. Verbs of giving, whether active or passive, are fol- 
lowed by a Dative of the person. 

After the active verb, the thing (Accusative) is the direct, the 
person (Dative) the indirect object. (See § 186.) 

Matt. vii. 6 : ju?) Swre to ayiov Tois Kva-l, give not that which is 
holy to the dogs. 

Matt. vii. 7 : atVetre, Koi 8o6jjaeTai v|xiv, ask, and it shall be given 
unto you. 


Rom. 1. 11 : iva Ti /ifraSw ;^apt(r/xa v[i.Zv TTvevfJiaTiKov, that I may 
impart to you some spiritual gift. 

Meb. 11. 5 : ov yap d-yY^^oiS vnfTa^e ttju oiKovfievrjv Ti]v jxiKKovcraVy 
for he did not subject the world to come unto angels. 

h. The Dative also indicates the receiver of information, tidinirs, 

So in the common Xe'^o) {i[xiv, / say unto you. 

Matt. xiii. 3 : eXdXrja-ev avrois ttoXXu, he spake many things to them. 

1 Cor. V. 9 : eypa\\ra vp-tv ev rrj eTriaroXr}, I wrote (or have written) 
to you in m,y letter. 

Luke iv. 18 : eiJayyeXio-ao-^at Trrwxols, to preach glad tidings to the 
poor ; LXX., Isa. Ixi. 1 (also with Accusative). 

Acts i. 3 : epTeiXdfievos tois diroo-ToXois, having given command- 
ment to the apostles. 

But KiXevco, to order, governs the Accusative, 

c. Words denoting assistance, succour, ifec, are followed by a 

Matt. iv. 1 1 : k ai ^irjKovow a«Tw, and they ministered unto him. 

Matt. XV. 25 : Kvpie, ^nrjOei [Aoi, Lord, help me ! 

d. The object of a mental affection, as esteem, anger, worship, 
&c., also obedience and faith, is often expressed by a Dative. 

The Genitive iu a similar counexion expresses the source of the 
feehng. (See § 249.) 

But the construction with prepositions is generally jjreferred, as 
giving additional precision and emphasis. 

Matt. vi. '25 : jxtj nepi/ivdre TT) \|/uxfj, care not for your life. So 
Luke xii. 22. But with nepl, Matt. vi. 28, Luke xii. 26; with 
vnep, 1 Cor. xii. 25 ; with Accusative, 1 Cor. vii. 32-34. 

Matt. V. 22 : 6 dpyi^opepos tu dSeX<j>io, he toho is angry with his 
brother.* With eVi, Rev, xii. 17. 

* The following word ei'/c^, without a cause, should probably be omitted. 
Lachmanu, Tischeudoif, &c. 

• § 278.] Tllli DATIVK OF TRANSMISSION. 245 

Gal. i. 10 : (rjTco tv0pioirois dpea-Kdv ; do I seek to please men ? 

Matt. ii. '2 : jjXOofiev npoa-Kwrjaai avTw, we are come to worship 
him; always with Dative in Matt., Mark, and Paul (except Matt, 
iv. 10, from LXX.), in other books with Dative or Accusative. 

Matt. xxi. 25 : ovk (TTia-TevcraTe aixfj), ye believed him not; also 
with enl (Dative), enl (Accusative), and els. 

Acts V. 36, 37 : Saoi endBovro aircS, as many as obeyed him. 

Horn. X. IG : ov -navTes vnrjKovarap tu tva-yytXto), they did not all 
obey the Gospel. 

III. Reference. 

279. The person or thing in respect of whom or which any- 
thing is done, whether to benefit or injure,* or in any other way, 
may be expressed by the Dative. This reference may generally 
be expressed in English by the preposition /br. 

Matt. iii. 16 : avecdx^rjcrav auTu oi ovpavol, the heavens were opened 
for him. 

Matt. xvii. 4 : 7voir]<T(o SiSe rpeis aKrjvds, (rol niav kcu Mwiicrei plav 
Km 'SXla. p'lav, let me make here th7-ee tabernacles, one for thee, and 
one for Moses, and one for Elias. 

Rom. vi. 2 : olnvis cmiBavopev rfj d|iapTia, ive who died to sin. 

2 Cor. V. 13 : elVe ydp f^icrTTjpev, 0e<i, eiVe aaxppovovpev, ii|Aiv, for 
uhbther we ware beside ourselves, (it was) for God, whether we are 
sober, (it is) for you. 

James iii. 18 : Kapnos ... cnreipeTat. tois iroioiio-iv elpi^i/rjv, the fruit 
of righteousness is sown for them that make peace. 

Heb. iv. 9 : lipa aTroKeiTreTac aa^^aTiaphs Tii Xau rov Qeov, there 
rtviaineth therefore a sabbath-keeping for the people of God. 

Matt, xxiii. 31 : fiaprvpe^re taxjTois, ye bear witness against your- 
selves. See also James v. 3 : and compare 1 Cor. iv. 4. 

Rom. vi. 20 : eXtvOtpoi tJTe r% SiKaiocrvivT], ye were free in regard 
to righteousness ; not simply " from righteousness," which would 
have required the Genitive. 

* Latin, Dativus commodi vel incommodi. 


To this use of the Dative may be attributed the phrase, ri e/jioi 
Ka'i a-oi ; what have I to do with thee 1 lit., what is for me and thee ] 
i.e., what have we in common % Mark v. 7 (Matt. viii. 29) ; John 
iL 4, &c. 

lY. Accessory Circumstance. 

280. a. The mode of an action is expressed by the Dative. 

Acts xi. 2.3 : TrapeKakei navra^ rfj irpoOeVei r^s Kaphlas Tvpoa-fifveiv to> 
Kvpicp, lie was exhcrting all to cleave to the Lord with the purpose of 
the heart. 

1 Cor. X. .30 : ei eyo) x^'P''''''' /^ff'x'^' i/* ^ partake with thank- 

Phil. i. 18 : iravTl Tpoiru, elre irpoclxio-ei, etre dX.T)0£ia, Xpiaros Kuray- 
yeWfrai, in every vmy, whether in pretence or truth, Christ is 

See also Acts xv. 1 ; 2 Cor. iii. 18 ; Eph. v. 19, &c. 

6. A modal Dative sometimes emphatically repeats the notion 
of the verb. See an analogous idiom with the Accusative (§ 282), 
and with the Predicate Participle (§ 394, i., 3, d) This Dative 
may have a qualifying adjective. 

James V. 17: irpoo-€vx^ irpocrrji/^aTo, he prayed with prayer, i.e., 
he prayed earnestly. 

Mark V. 42 : e^eaTrja-av kKo-raa-n ]itya.\r\, they were astonislied with 
a great astonishment, i.e., were greatly astonished. See also 
1 Pet. i. 8. 

For other examples, see Matt. xv. 4; Liike xxii. 15; John iii. 29; 
Acts iv. 17, V. 28, xxiii. 14 

For modal Datives that have become actual Adverbs, see § 400. 

c. The Dative is used to denote the cause or motive. 

Rom. iv. 20 : ov BifKpidr) t^ a.iri.a-Tia, a\\' evftwafimdr) tyj iriVxti, he 
hesitated not through unbelief, but was strong through faith. 

Gal . vi. 1 2 : ipa pf/ tw a-ravpia tov XptoroO SicoKwrrat, that they ITiaj/ 

not be persecuted for the cross of Christ. 


1 Pet. iv. 12 : fir] ^evL^eade TTj ev vixiv TTuptoa-*!, be not dismayed 
(lit., " be not as strangers") at tlie conflagration (which, has broken 
out) among you. 

d. The Dative is also the case of the Instrument. 

Jilatt. ill. 12 : to 5e u)(vpov KarciKavaei irupl derpeo-TO), but the chaff 
he will burn with unquenchable fl^'e. 

Acts xii. 2 : di/fIXe 8e 'laKcojSoi/ . . . fiaxaipa, and he slew James with 
[the) sword. 

Rom. i. 29 : tveTrK-qpafiivovs irdo-i] dSiKia, irovripia, TrXeovetfa, KaK^a, 
being filled (utterly engrossed) htj all iniquity, depravity, greed, 
baseness. "Filled with" would have required the Genitive. (See 
§ 265, and compare 2 Cor. vii. 4.)* 

Eph. ii. 5, 8 : x'^P'''''^ f ""'"^ a-fama-pivoi, by grace ye have been saved. 
In Romans viii. 24, rfj yap IXttlSi eaudrjpev may be rendered, ybr we 
were saved by hope (instrumental), or in hope (modal). 

2 Pet. i. 3 : tov KoXea-avros f)pas I8ia 8o|t) kuI dperg, oj" Mm who 

called ws by his oivn glory and virtue. The reading is that of 
Lachmanu and Tischendorf, but the received text gives the same 
meaning. " To glory and virtue " is manifestly incorrect. (See 
Alford's note.) 

See further 1 Cor. xv. 10; Titus iii. 7 ; 1 Pet. i. IS; Eph. i. 13; and 
many other passages. 

Hence the verb xp^ofiai, to use as an iiistrument, Ls followed by 
a Dative. 

2 Cor. iii. 12 : itoXXt) ira^piia-iij xp<^f^f^a, we employ much boldness. 

So Acts xxvii. 3, 17 ; I Cor. ix. 12, 15; 2 Cor. i. 17 ; 1 Tim. i. 8, 
v. 23. In 1 Cor. vii. 31, the best MSS. read the Accusative, rbv 

e. From denoting the instrument, the Dative sometimes appeai-s 
■jO take the signification of the agent, being used after Passive 

* In Eph. iii. 19, ds conveys a different notion again, "that ye may be 
filled up to all the fulness o/Ood.'' 



verbs where we might expect the more usual vn6 with a Genitive 
(which see, § 304). 

Luke xxiii. 15 : oidiv a^iov davarov ea-Ti ireirpayixevov avri, nothing 
worthy of death has been done hy hira. 

2 Cor. xii. 20 : Kayay fvpedo} vjjiiv, and I should be found by you. 
Compare 2 Pet. iii. 14, and Rom. x. 20, from LXX. ; Isa. Ixv. 1. 

Luke xxiv. 35 : as eyvaadr] ovTots, how he was known by thetn. 
Compare Phil. iv. 5. 

The passive Aorist of 6pi<o, to see {Sxpen", see §103, 4), is generally 
coustriied with the Dative, as 1 Tim. iii. IG, iocpdr] ayyeKois, he was seen 
by angels. Here, however, the notion is rather that of appearing to, 
so that the Dative is regular. And in some of the other instances a 
somewhat similar explauation may be given, as in the last: "he was 
made known to them." 

In Matt. V. 21, fppijdr] rots apxaCois, tlie best commentators 
rendei", it was said to the ancients, not " by them," as E.V. 

f That in which a quality inheres, " the sphere," is expressed by 
the Dative. 

Matt. V. 3 : ot TTTcaxol Tu irveviAaTi, tJie poor in spirit. Ver. 8 : ot 
Kadapol TTJ KopSCa, the p)ure in heart. 

Acts xiv. 8 ; ahvvaTo% Tots iroo-iv, impotent in his feet. 

] Cor. vii. 34 : "iva y ay in Kal o-w|j.aTi /cat irveviJiaTi, that she may be 
holy both in body and spirit. 

1 Cor. xiv. 20 : pr] naiBia ytvecrde rais <}>p£<riv aWa ttj KaKia vT]Tnd^(T{, 

be not children in understanding, but be infants in malice (Dative 
of mode). 

Ei)h. ii. 3 : ^pei> rUva <J>vo-ti opyrjs, we were in nature children of 

This use of the Dative evidently springs from its original local import. 
The "local Dative" is not found in the New Testauieut, exce])ting (1) 
in the phrase by tlie way, or ways, dSi^, 6So'is, where the Avay is regarded 
as the instrument : James ii. 25 ; 2 Pet. ii. 15 ; and (2) connected with 
the figurative use of iropivufxai,, irepnTaTfoi, to walk, as Acts ix.- 31, 
xiv. 1(5 ; 2 Cor xii. IS, &c. 


g. Accessories of time are marked by the Dative, as — 

(1) A space of time,ybr. 

Acts xiii. 20 : ws 2t€0-i TtrpaKOO-tois kui irevrriKOVTa eSoj/ce Kpirds, for 
about four hundred and fifty years he gave fudges. 

See also Luke viii. 29 ; John ii. 20 ;, Acts viii. 11 ; Rom. xvi. 25. 
The Accusative is more frequently used. (See § 286 ; also uuder SicJ, 
§ 299.) 

(2) A point of time, at, on, when particularized or specified. 

Mark vi. 21 : 'HpwSTj? rots veveo-iois avrov hunxvov enoiijcre, Herod 
on his birthday made a banquet. 

But where the point is not specified, the Genitive is used. (See § 266. ) 

Matt. XX. 19 : rfj rpiTT) rmepa, eyepS-fjafTai, ou the third day he 
shall be raised. 

Luke xiv. 3 : el i^fo-Ti tw o-appdT(<> defjaneveWy is it lawful to heal 
on the Sabbath ? 

The preposition eV is frequently inserted in this connexion. ( See § 295. ) 

The Accusative. 

281. The Accusative primarily denotes that towards which 
motion is directed. Hence its use to complete the notion of 
the Predicate.* 

The Accusative expresses the immediate Object of a 
transitive verb. 

Matt. iv. 21 : iibev &XX.ovs 8ilo o.8eX<|>ovs ... Ka\ eKuXea-ei/ avrois, he 
saw other two brothers... and called them (transitive active). 

* "The Accusative," says Dr. Donaldson, "has the following applications 
in Greek Syntax : — It denotes (a) motion to an object ; (b) distance in space ; 
(c) duration in time ; {d) the immediate object of a transitive verb ; (e) the 
more remote object of any verb, whether it has another Accusative or not ; 
(/) the Accusative of cognate signification, i.e., the secondary predication 
by way of em])hasis of that which is already predicated by the verb itself ; 
(g) an apposition to the object of the whole sentence ; {h) the subject of the 
objective sentence, when this is expressed in the intinitive mood." — Gretic 
Ch'ammar, p. 497. 


Acts i. 18 : (KTTjaaro x^P^o"? ^^^ purchased a field (transitive 

a. It should be noted that some verbs which in English are 
intransitive, i.e., complete m themselves as predicates, and which 
extend their meaning by the use of prepositions, are transitive in 
Greek, and therefore require an Accusative to complete their 


Thus, English : " whosoever shall be ashamed of me and of my 

Greek : 6y yap lav eTraicrxyvdrj [m koI Tois €(j.ovs Xd-yovs (Mark 
viil 38). 

Acts xiv. 21 : fvayye\i(Tdfj.(uoL re t^v irdXiv €K£ivt]v Kat fiadrjTeva-apTes 
iKavoiis, and having preached the Gospel in that city and made 
many disciples, lit., " having evangelized that city and discipled 

The two verbs in this passage, however, with some others, vary iu 
their use. (See Vocabulary.) 

h. Generally, the employment of the same verb in different 
places as transitive and neuter may be explained by change of 
meaning, or a variation in emphasis. 

So 1 Cor. vi. 18 : (fievytre Tf|v TTopviiav, fiee fornication, avoid it. 

1 Cor. X. 14 : (fxvyete diro t^s elSuXoXarpsias, flee from, idolatry, 
make good your escape from it. 

Matt. X. 28: \ir) (po^ela-Be aifO TCtfV diroKT6ivdvT«v to crcJfjLa, k.t.X 

(f)o^Ti6TiTe 8e fiaXkov rov Svvdjievov, k.t.X., be not afraid of those who 
kill the body . . . but fear him who is coble to destroy, &c. 

c. Some verbs, denoting the exercise of a faculty, may be read 
either transitively or intransitively, according to the nature of the 
expression. So in English we may say, " / see," or " I see you." 

Matt. vi. 4 : 6 ^Xtnav eV r<p KpvirTw, he that seeth in secret. 

Matt. vii. 3 : rl Se /iXcVety xb Kdp4)os; but why seest thou the 
splinter ? 

Mark iv. 24 : /SXeVere tI aKovfre, look to (take heed) what ye hea/r. 


In Mark viii. 15, xii. 38, jSXeTrere dno — lit., "look away from!" — 
sigaifies beware of. But in Phil. iii. 2, /SXeVeT-e tovs Kuvas, k.t.X., 
literally signifies " look to the dogs, look to the evil-workers, look to 
tJie concision I " caution being implied.* 

d. The immediate Object is omitted after certain verbs, which 
are nevertheless strictly transitive. 

So e^specially Trpoa-ex^ay, to apply (om. rbv vovv, tite mind), to give 

Luke xvii. 3 : vpoa-exen favrols, give heed to yourselves. 

With d-TTo, to beware of, lit., to give beed (so as to turn) from. 
Matt. vii. 15 : •n-poo-^x*'''* ^^ "•'"■^ t^" ^evbonpocprjTau, but beware of 
false propliets. 

For tlie usage of particular verbs, consult the Vocabulary or a Lexicon. 

282. Any verb, whether transitive or intransitive, may extend 
its meaning by a "cognate Accusative," or "internal Object." 
This Accusative is always connected with the verb in signification, 
often in etymology. 

For a similar use of the Dative, see § 280, b ; and for the 
Participle, § 394, i., 3, d. 

Matt. ii. 10 : exdprja-av x^-po^v pe7dX.T)v, lit., they rejoiced a great 
joy, i.e., "rejoiced greatly." 

Luke ii. 8 : (f^vKda-fTovTes <}>v\aKas t^s wktos, lit., watching watches 
by night, i.e., keeping watch. 

Col. ii. 19 : av^n Tfjv ai!|Tjo-iv Tov Qeov, increaseth the increase of 
God, i.e., yields the increase. 

See also John vii. 24; 1 Tim. vi. 12 ; 1 Pet. iii. 14, &c. 

Eph, iv. 8 : 7;;)(juaXwr6V(rej' alxH-aXoxriav, he led captive a captivity, 
i.e., a train of captives. Ps. Ixviii. 18.t 

* Ellicott. 

f This passage is rather an instance of a cognate external object, the 
abstract noun representing a multitude (Numbers xxxi. 12, LXX., "they 
brought the captivity.") So Ostervald's translation, "il a men6 captive une 
grande multitude de captives ;" and De Wette's, "er fuhrte Gefangene." 


283. An Accusative is often used by way of more exact 
definition of the Predicate.* 

John VI. 10 : aveneaav ol nv8p€S, tJ)v dpiGfJibv wtret irevraKitTxiXioi, iJie 
men sat down, in number about Jive thousand, 

Phil, i. 1 1 : TTerrXripcoixfvoi Kapirbv SiKaioavvrjs, filled with the fruit 
of righteousness. So Col. i. 9. Compare under Genitive, § 251, 
and Dative, § 280, d. The Accusative strictly denotes the respect 
in which fulness is attained. 

More generally, however, the Dative of accessory circumstancft, 
§ 280, is employed. In Acts xviiL 3, the approved reading is t^ 
''■^'x^'Tl (Lachmann, Tischendorf) for the received tyjv re^vrjv, '■'■by 
occupation they were tent-makers." 

284. Many transitive verbs may have two objects, and be, 
therefore followed by two Accusatives; generally of a person ("the 
remoter object") and a thing ("the nearer object "). So verbs of 
asking, teaching, clothing and unclothing, anointing, with many 

This Accusative of the thing is analogous to the ' ' internal object " 
of the verb. (See § 282.) 

Matt. vii. 9 : 8v atnya-ei 6 vlbs avrov dipTov, whom his son shall ask 
for a loaf. (Occasionally the person with pi-epp., jrapd, diro.) 

John xiv. 26 : iKtlvos v(i,ds 8i8a^ei iravra, lie shall teach you all 
things. (Once with Dative of person, Rev. ii. 14.) 

Mai'k XV. 17 : ifbidva-Kova-ii' avxbv 'irop<j>vpav, they clothe him in 
2)ui'ple. (The preposition iv sometimes found, as Matt. xi. 8.) 

Heb. i. 9 : expia-e a-i ... '^Xaiov ayaWidaeois, he anointed thee with 
the oil of gladness, LXX. ; Ps. xlv. 7. (But the Dative of 
material is sometimes used. Acts x. 38, and with dXeitJxu always.) 

* This Accusative is often said to be governed by Kara, in respect of, 
understood. "It is only a variety of the cognate Accusative. It defines 
more exactly the act or state described by a verb or adjective by referring it 
to a particular object, or part affected. It is the Accusative of an equivalent 
notion — the part wherein the act or state consists." — Dr. Jacob. 

§ 284.] THE ACCUSATIVE. 253 

The Passive retains the Accusative of the nearer object. 

Luke xvi. 19 : eveStSva-Kero iTop<pvpav Ka\ ^vcrcrov, lip. was clothed with 
purple and fine linen. 

Acts xxviii. 20 : r)}v aXvcriv Ta{irT\v irfpiKeifiai, 1 am hound with this 
chain. (See Heb. v. 2.) 

2 Thess. ii. 15 : KpaTtTre ras TrapoScJireis as fSiSdxdtiTf, hold fast the tra- 
dUions loldch ye ivere tau{/hf. 

1 Tim. vi. 5: Sie^Oapiieuiov avBpanrwv rhu vow, of men corrujyted in mind. 

The same remark applies to verbs which in the Active express the 
remoter object by the Dative. 

1 Cor. ix. 17 : o'lKovoixiav ir€vi(rT€, I have been entrusted with a 
stewardship. So Rom. iii. 2; Gal. ii. 7 ; 1 Thess. ii. 4; 2 Thess. i. 10; 
1 Tim. i. 11. 

285. The Subject of an Infinitive Verb is put in the 

In translation, the Infinitive is gen era] ly to be rendered as a 
finite verb, and the Accusative as the nominative, with the con- 
junction that prefixed. 

For the Infinitive, see § 387. It is really a verbal noun, and is 
used to complete the predication. The Accusative thus becomes 
an Accusative of definition* (§ 283). 

1 Tim. ii. 8 : (SoCXo/jLai ... irpocreuxco-Oai, " I wish for... a praying ;" 
^ovXofiai vpoa-evxio-Qai tovs &v8pas, " I wish for a praying on the part 
of men," / wish that men should pray. 

Luke xxiv. 23 : o\ Xiyovaiv airbv t^v, who say that he is alive. 

Acts xiv. 19 : vofiia-avTes airhv T€0vi]K€'vai, thinking that he was 

1 Cor. vii. 10, 11 : TrapayyiWoy ... 'yvvaiKtt aTTO di^S^jos fin \<api<rBr^vai 
... Kai dv8pa yvvaiKu fxr^ d<{>t€'vai, / enjoin that a wife shoidd not be 
separated from (her) husband, and that a man should not desert 
(his) v}ife. 

Luke i. 75 : rov bovvai fjfiiv ... pva-Qevras ... Xarpeveiv avroJ, to grant 
unto us that we being delivered (rjiJias implied in pvaffevras) should 
serve him. 

* Compare Dr. Donaldson's Grammar, § 584. 


. When the Subject of the Infinitive and of the princii)al verb is 
the same, it is not repeated except for emphasis, and adjectives, 
&c., in agreement with it are put in the nominative case. 

Rom. XV. 24 : eXTrt^o) 8iairop€v6|Aevos Oeacrao-Sai v^as, I hope that 
when I pass through I shall see you. See also 2 Cor. x. 2. 

But Phil. iii. 13 : eycb Ipavrbv ov Xoyi^ofMai KaT€i\T]<j)€'vai, 7 do not 
reckon that I rtiyself have attained. So Romans ii. 19 ; Luke 
XX. 20. 

When the Infinitive is siibstantivized (see § 201) by the Article, the 
relations expressed by the Genitive after nouns are denoted by the 

Inf. gen. Acts xxiii. 15 : 7rpJ> tov fyyiirat avrSu, before his approach. 
Inf. dat. Matt. xiii. 4 : iv r^ aweipeti' avrov, in his sowing. So 
xxvii. 12. 

Inf. ace. Matt. xxvi. 32 : juera rb iyfpQr\val pit, after my rising again. 

286, Relations of time and space are denoted by the Accu- 

a. Space. — Luke xxii. 41 : dnfa-Trdo-dr] d-rr' avTuv ebo-el Xidov PoXtjv, 
Jie withdreiv from them about a stone s cast. 

John vi. 19 : iXrjknKOTes ovv o)? o-raSiotis tlKoo-iirevre f) TpiaKovro, 
having therefore rowed about twentyfve or thirty stadia. 

b. Time. — (1) A point of time — 

Acts x. 3 : el^fv... wo-el wpav IvvaTtiv, he saw, about tJie ninth hour. 
Some (Lachmann) read -Kepi But see John iv. 52 ; Rev. iii. 3. 

(2) Duration of time — 

Luke XV. 29 : roo-avra ?TT] SovXeuo) aoi, SO many years do I serve 

See also Matt. xx. 6; John i. 39, ii. 12, v. 5, xi. 6 ; Acts xiii. 21, &c. 

(3) Succession of time — 

Matt. XX. 2 : avix<p(i>vi]a-as ... (K hr]vaplov Tf|v T|[M'pav, having agreed 
for a denarius a day (or perhaps, rather, this is another instance 
of (2) the Accusative of duration — a denarius for the day's work). 


287. The Accusative is sometimes found in elliptical or 
apparently irregular constructions. 

Matt. iv. 15 : S^ou QakaaaTi^, the loay of the sea, stands apparently 
•without government. The regimen is to be sought in its Old Testament 
connexion, Isa. ix. 1, from which it is a citation.* 

Luke xxiv. 47 : apldfievof anb 'lepovaaATifx, beginning at (from) Jeru- 
salem, the Accusative neuter participle in apposition with the objective 

Acts xxvi. 3 : 'yvu>(r'Tr)v Svra ffe, k.t.K. The Accusatives here seem to 
stand without any dependence. A A'^erb is probably to be understood 
from rryrjixai, in the preceding verse : especially as I regard thee as being 
acquainted, &c. 

Rom. viii. 3 : rh aSvvarov tov vS/xov, the impossibility of the law. The 
phrase is here probably a nominative absolute (nominativus pendens). 
(See § 242.) Some, however, read it as Accusative, "in apposition to 
the object of the sentence,f or governed by ^noiijcrev understood, "hath 
wrought. " 

1 Tim. ii. 6 : t^ fxapTvpiov Katpo7s t'Stois, the testimony to be set forth, in 
its 07vn seasons, an Accusative, perhaps, in apposition with the preceding 
sentence. + 


288. Prepositions, as already stated, § 118, govern the 
Genitive, Dative, or Accusative, and are auxiliary to the sig- 
nificance of these cases. 

Sometimes a preposition is simply emphatic, i.e., it is used where the 
case alone would have expressed the same meaning, although with les.s 
force. More frequently, however, it denotes a relation which the case 
of itself would be insufficient to specify. 

Two points must be considered in relation to the prepositions : 

* We often make similar quotations almost unconsciously: e.g., " 'Christ 
and Him crucified' is the theme of the faithful minister." Him in that 
sentence appears plainly ungrammatical, until we turn to the connexion, 
1 Cor. ii. 2. 

f Webster. 

X Ellicott. The difficulty here is that the preceding sentence is not 
objective. It would seem better to take the Accusative as more directly 
dependent on Sovs. 

256 PREPosiTioxs. [§ 288. 

first, their own original force, and secondly, the significance of the 
case or cases to which they are severally applied. 

Thus, napd is beside, denoting, with the Genitive from (from 
heside), with the Dative at or near (by the side of), with the 
Accusative toioards or alovg (to or along the side of). From these 
meanings, again, others arise through the application of physical 
analogies to mental relation.s. Some prepositions from their 
meaniug can govern only one case, as //c, out of (Gen.); eV, in 
(Dat.); flsi into (Ace). Others may govern two, as implying 
different directions of motion, but excluding the idea of rest, as 
Kara, dowmoards ; with the Gen., down from ; with the Ace, 
down upon : others are found with all three cases. 

Every preposition probably denoted at first a relation pf place. 
(See the scheme in § 124.) Hence by an easy transition their 
reference to time, and their iise for purely mental relations. It 
will be seen in the following sections that most have this threefold 

289. Certain prepositions are very nearly allied in some of 
their significations. Hence it may be a matter of indifference which 
is employed, the same circumstance being regarded from slightly 
different points of view. Thus it might be said of a commission 
given to a servant, that the act was executed hy him or throiigh 
him. It will be seen, however, that there exists a real distinction 
in the notions, although they meet in one transaction. We could 
not, for instance, infer that the words through and hy were 
synonymous, or that one was used for, or interchanged with, the 
other. Such mistakes, however, have often been made in New 
Testament criticism ; and it is especially necessary, even where 
these important parts of speech appear most nearly alike in 
meaning, to observe their real distinction. (See further, § 308.) 

290. No mistake is so common with learners as that of supposing 
that the words of one lauguage must correspond individually to those of 
another. The fact is, that every word, as it were, fences off a particular 
enclosuie from the great domain of thought ; and each language has its 
own method of division. The ways in which the English and the Greek, 

§ 290.] PREPOSITIONS. 257 

for examjile, have mapped out the vast territory do not mutually corre- 
spoucL Perhaps, therefore, no one word of the former claims a province 
that has its precise counterpart in the latter. Or, to adopt another 
illustration, the words of two languages do not run in equal parallel 
lines, thus : — 



Were it so, translation would be easy work. Eather may they be repre- 
sented thus : — 



where in each language there are words that overlap those of the other, 
sometimes containing more meaning, sometimes less ; and a single word 
in one often including the significance or part of the significance of 
two or three in the other. 

Prepositions governing the Genitive only. 

'Avt£, otto, €k, irpo. 

291. I. 'Ai/rt, OVER AGAINST,* Containing the notion of oppo- 
sition, as an equivalent : instead of, for. 

Matt. V. 38 : 6(f)da\^ios olvtI 6(j>6aX|j.ov, eye, for an eye. 

Matt. XX. 28 : Xvrpov dvrl iroXXuv, a ransom for many. 

Heb. xn. 2 : dvrl ttjs npoKeinevris avTa x*P*s, in return for the joy 
set before him. 

John i. 1 6 : eXd/So^ei/ . . . x^piv dvrl x^pi-Tos, we received grace for 
grace, i.e., grace within, as correspondent with grace without, the 
Divine gift being as the Divine source ; or (with most commen- 
tators), one measure of grace to succeed and replace another: 
"grace upon gi-ace." t 

This preposition is employed with the neuter relative plural in the 
adverbial phrase, ove' uiv (in return for which things) = because. (Luke 
i. 20, xii. 3, xix. 44; Acts xii. 23 ; 2 Thess. ii. 10.) 

* The primal significance of each preposition wiU be shown by small 


t " Ununterbrochene, immer sich erneuernde Gnade." Winer. 


292. II. 'Atto, from the exterior. 

1. Separation, the preposition expressing removal, the governed 
noun the point of departui-e in place or time : from. 

Matt. i. 21 : a-coa-ei ... airb t«v o|iapTic!)v, he shall save ...from their 

Matt. iii. 1.3 : Lirh Tfjs Ta.\\.\a.ia.%, frotn Galilee. 

Matt. ix. 22 : dirb Ti)s wpas iKiivrji, from that hour. 

Matt. vi. 13 : pGo-ai r^jxai airb tow irovTjpov, deliver lis from evil, or, 
the Evil one. 

2. Derivation, source, descent : from, of. 

Matt. vii. 16 : dirb TpipdXwv avKa, figs from thorns. 
Matt. xi. 29 : ixadere dir' €p.ov, learn of me. 

3 . Hence, especially, cause, occasion : from, on account of. 

Matt. xiv. 26 : dirb tov (}>dpov i'Kpa^au, they cried out for fear. 

Matt, xviii. 7 : ova\ . . . dirb t«v o-Kdv8aXwv, Woe, on account of the 
offences ! 

So, according to some commentators, Heb. v. 7, flffaKovcOtU airh TTJt 
euAo/Seias, heard on account of his fear (godly fear, or piety). Others, 
however, understand "heard (and delivered) from his fear," i.e., from 
the calamity which he apprehended. * 

4. This preposition is sometimes used (after transitive verbs) 
elliptically, a word like some (as the real object of the verb) being 

John xxi. 10 : eveyKan dirb Ttov 6»|/api«v, bring of the fish. 

Acts ii. 17 : e/cx«ft> o^'^'b tov IIveviiaTos \i.ov, I will pour out of my 


5. 'Atto is frequently joined with adverbs, as dirb r&t^from, then, 
Matt. iv. 17, (fee. ; dir' dpTi, henceforth, Matt, xxiii. 39, &c. ; dirb 

* The verb elaaKovm has a similar extended meaning in Ps. cxviii. 5, LXX. 
But see Alford in he, who cites Luke xix. 3, xxiv. 41 ; John xxL 6; Acts 
xii. 14, XX. 9, xxii. 11, as passages where avo means on account of. 


p.aKpd6£V, from, afar ; dirb dvwGev, from above ; dirb roi) vvv, frorti 
now, &c. In all these cases, a .substantive of place or time is 
really understood. 

293. III. 'Ek, e'^, FROM THE INTERIOR (opposite to ety). 

1. Out of, locally. 

Matt. iii. 17 : ^uivr) Ik tuv oupavwv, a voice out of heaven. 

Matt. viii. 28 : €k twv |jivti|X€iwv e^epxantvoi, coming out of the 

To this meaning may be assigned the phrase, e'/c 5e|i£i', on the right 
hand, literally, " off frona the right-liand parts" (Matt. xx. 21, &c. 
But fV 5€|iix is also employed. 

2. Originating in, as place, parentage, from, of 
Matt. iii. 9 : «k t«v Xt6a>v TovTav, of these stones. 

John iv. 7 : ywi] Ik ttjs Safiapeias, a woman of Samaria. 

Phil. iii. 5 : *E|3pator ig 'Eppaiwv, a Hebrew of Hebrews, i.e., of 
Hebrew descent. 

3. Originating in, as the source, cause, or occasion, yro??i, by. 

Luke xvi. 9 : Troi-fjcraTe eavTois (plXovs etc ToiS (Jiap.wvd ttjs dBiKias, 
make to yourselves friends by the mammon of unrighteousness, i.e., 
by (the proper use of) your wealth. 

Rom. V. 1 : StKaiw^eWes «K irCo-Tews, being justified by faith. So 
in many passages. 

1 Cor. ix. 14. : Ik tov tia-yyeXiou (rjv, to live from the Gospel. 

4. The material or mass from which anything is made or 
taken, of. 

Matt, xxvii. 29 : uTi^avov \\ dKavSuv, a crown of thorns. 

5. Belonging to a class, of; often with abstract nouns. 

John xviii. 37 : 6 av €k rfjs dX-qOeCcu, he who is (on the side) of 
the truth. 


Rom. ii. 8 : ol e^ epiGeias, fhey who are of a self-seeking sjnrit. 

Gal. iii. 9 ; Rom. iv. 12: ol ik iricrrews • ol Ik -ircpiToixfjs, they who 
are of faith — of circumcision, i.e., who ninge tliemselves under 
these opposite symbols. So Rom. iv. 14, oi Ik vd|Aou, they wlu> are 
of law, &c. 

This meaning is closely allied with (3). 

6. Springing from : of the state of mind giving occasion to any 
action, yrooi, out of 

2 Cor. ii, 4 : kx TroWfjs e\i\|/€ws typay^ra, I wrote out of much 

1 Thess. ii. 3 : fj irapaKK-qcm fjpmv ovk Ik irXdviis, ov8i It ciKaOapo-ias, 

our exhortation was not from deceit nor from uncleanness. 

7. Used of time, from, the future being infolded in, and 
springing out of the present. 

John vi. 66 : Ik roirov, from this time. 

Acts ix. 33 : l| Itwv oktu, for eight years. 

294. IV. np6, IN FRONT OF. 

1. Before, in respect of place. 

Acts xii. 6 : (pCXuKes re Trpb ttjs Ovpas, tAe guards before the door. 
So ch. xiv. 13 ; James v. 9. 

Matt. xi. 10 : irpb irpoo-wTrov <tov, before thy face, from LXX. 
So Mark i. 2 ; Luke i. 76, &c. 

2. Bfore, in respect of time. 

John xvii. 2-4 : irpb KarapoXfjs Koa-pov, before the foundation of the 

1 Cor. iv. 5 : /xi) irpb Kaipov tl Kpivere, judge nothing before the 

2 Cor. xii. 2 : irpb Ituv SeKartcro-dpwv, fourteen years ago (lit,, 
before fourteen years, i.e., counted backward from the present 
Dime). See also John xii. 1. 

$5 294.] PREPOSITIONS. 261 

3. Before, by way of superiority. 

Only iu the phrase irpb irdvTwv, before, or, above all things. 
Luke xxi. 12; Col. i. 17 ; James v. 12 ; 1 Pet. iv. 8. 

Prepositions governing the Dative only. 

'Ev, cnuv. 
295. I. 'Ei/, in, correlative with e?s and Ik. 

1. Of place, in; so within, upon, at. 

Matt. ii. 1 : Iv BrjOXe^ii. r^j louSatas, Mi Bethlehem of Judaea. 

Matt. XX. 3 : ev rfj d-yopa, ijn the market. 

John XV. 4 : €v tt) d|nreXa), in the vine. 

Heb. i. 3 : €v Segio. rijy fxeyaXwavvtjs, on the right hand qf the 

Rev. iii. 21 : ev tu Gpdvw fiov, on my throne. 

2. Among, with plurals or collective nouns. 

Matt. ii. 6 : ^v tois Ti7€| lov8a, among the princes qf Judah ; 
LXX., Micah v. 2. 

Luke xiv. 31 : ev SeVa xi^iafiv, among ten thousands, i.e., attended 
by such a troop. See JuJe 14 ; also Acts vii. 14. 

A-cts ii. 29 : ta-TLv Iv rifxiv axpt rris fjfiepas TavTr]s, it (the Sepulchre) 
is among us unto this day. 

1 Pet. v. 1, 2 : Tvpecr^vTepovs rovs ev v|itv ev v^iv noifiviov, the 
elders among you ... tkefioch among you. 

3. " The €v of investiture," in or with ; as when we say, " The 
general came in his sword, the peers in their robes." Tlie Greek 
of the New Testament extends this use of the preposition to accom- 
paniments which do not literally invest.t 

* Compare the use of Ik (1). 

+ A usage infrequent in classic Greek, and probably due to the influence 
ot tne Hebrew preposition 3, in, with^ by, &0-., for which the LXX. coa- 
stautly uses 4v, 


1 Cor. i\^. 21 : €v pdpSu 'dXOca npos v/xas j am I to come to you 
with a rod ? 

1 Cor. V. 8 : /xi) €v tvpi] iraXaia . . . aAX' tv dtiJ(iois, not in old leaven 
... but in unleavened bread. 

1 Tim. i. 18 : "iva aTparevt} ev ovrais, that thou mayest fight in 
them, (prophesyings), i.e., ai'med witli tliem. 

Heb. ix. 25 : 6 ap^i-epevs €i(Tep)(eTai ... kv al'iiari, aXKoTpico, the high 
priest enters ... in the blood of others. Compare ch. x. 19 ; 
xiii. 12. 

So, perhaps, Eph. vi. 2 : fVroXij npduTT] ev kva^yiKCa,, tlie first 
commandment in, or with promise. •• 

To this notion of investiture that of action is sometimes superadded 
(Luke i. 51). Hence " the eV instrumental. " 

Luke xxii. 49 : et TraTa^ofxiv eV f^axaipa.; shall we smite with the sword? 

See also Heb. xi. 37, and the Eevelation frequently, as ii. 16, vi. 8, 
xiii. 10, xiv. 15. In Matt. v. 13, Mark ix. 50, iv rlvt; may be rendered 
wlierewith ? 

4. The sphere in which the subject is concerned, as dwelling or 
acting, i)i. 

So the phrases Iv d|AapT(a, in sin ; kv iria-Tti, in faith ; kv o-o({)ig,, 
in wisdom; Iv ci^dirTj, in love; iv H-vtv^ari, in spirit, or, in the 
Spirit. Matt. xxiL 43 ; Rev. i. 10 (Eom. vii. 5). 

The frequent phrase, eV XpuTcji (so ev Kvpicf, &c. ), means, not simply 
attached to Christ as a follower, but in Christ, in the most intimate 
abiding fellowship.* So "Christ in us," GaL i. 16, &c. A similar 
phrase is used of the revelation of God himself. 

2 Cor. V. 19 ; &ehs ^v Xpicrr^, k.t.x., God in Christ was reconciling, &c. 

Eph. iv. 32: 6 Qehs iv Xpicrrcfi ex^P'"'"''"'' "f"'^t God in Christ forgave you. 

See also Acts xvii. 31 : " in a man whom he hath ordained." 

5. In the power of, by. 

Matt. ix. 34 : Iv tu dp^ovrt ri^v baip.ovia>v, by the prince of the 

* "Nicht bios diirch Chr. heneficio Christi sondern in Chr., in geistig, 
kraftiger Gemeinschaft mitChr." — Wi7ier, 


Matt. V. 34 : Iv tw oipav« ... ev Tg yxi, by heaven earth. So 
elsewhere in asseverations. 

In Matt. iv. 4, the best copies read Iv irdvri pTip.aTt, by every 
word of God. Compare I Thess. iv. 15. 

'Ev IfioC, 1 Cor. ix. 15; Mark xiv. 6, must be rendered in my 
case; 1 Cor. xiv. 11, in iny apprehension. 

6. This preposition with its case is often equivalent to an 
adverb. Compai'e (4) preceding. So we may render ev Suvanei, i)i 
power, or power/idly ; kv 8oX<u, craftily ; kv rdxei, speedily, &c. In 
John xviii. 20, ev Kpvntii is in secret, secretly, different from kv tu) 
KpvTrru, ]\Iatt. vi. 18. 

7. Of time, in, iipon. 

Matt. ii. 1 : Iv rnxlpats 'HptiSov, in the days of Herod. 

Matt. X. 15 : Iv riiilpa Kpiaeais, in tlie day of judgment ; xii. 36, &c. 

Often with the infinitive treated as a noun. 

Matt. xiii. 4 : Iv tco o-ire^peiv avTov, while lie was sowing. < 

With the relative pronoun, iv 5, ivJdht, as jNIark ii. 19 ; iv oTs, mliilst^ 
as Luke xii. 1. The only ditfereuce between the singular and the plural 
is that the latter is more general. 

8. Constructio prcegnans. — This preposition seems occasionally 
to include the sense of els, and so is used after verbs implying 
motion : — " into, so as to be in." 

Matt. xxvi. 23 : 6 l(j.pd\l/as ... Iv rm rpvl^Xlto, he who dipped ... in 
tlie dish. 

Luke xxiii. 53 : 'iQ-i]Kiv avro Iv iivr^fian Xa^evTU), they laid it in a 
rock-hewn sepulchre. 

Komans ii. 5 : GTjo-avpCSeis a-eavrco opyr)v kv rjfxepa opyr)s, thou 
treasurest to thyself wrath (to be poured forth) up>on a day of 

296. II. "Evv, coxjUNCTiojf WITH (union, or co-operation). 

With, together with. 

Matt. xxAd. 35 : o-vv <rol airoQavt'w, to die with thee. 


264 PREPOSITIONS. [§ 296. 

Luke viii. 45 : Uerpos km oi <rvv avT^, Jr^eter mid those with him. 

Not merely co-existence, but association is generally implied (see 
Hfrd). Hence, crvv is used of the fellowship of believers with Christ, &c. 
(Rom. vi. 8 ; Col. ii. 13, 20, iii. 3 ; 1 Thess. iv. 17, v. 10). There is the 
further suggestion of co-operation in such passages as 1 Cor. v. 4, xv. 10. 

In Luke xxiv. 21, together with becomes nearly equal to beside; aXAo 
ye Kol ahv -nacn toutois. Moreover, beside all this. Compare Nehemiah 
V. 18, LXX., "yet for all this," E.V. 

Prepositions governing the Accusative only. 

'Avd, els. 

297. 'Ai'd, UP TO, or, UP BY.* 

This preposition is of infrequent occurrence in the New Testa- 
ment, and always has a special meaning. 

1. dvd [le'irov, in the midst of, Matt. xiii. 25 ; Mark vii. 31 ; 
1 Cor. vi. 5 ; Rev. vii. 17. 

2. dvd [Atpos, hy turn, 1 Cor. xiv. 27. 

3. With numerals or measures ^of quantity or value, apiece, 
Matt. XX. 9, 10; dvd STjvdpiov, a denarius apiece. Compare 
Mark vi. 40; Luke ix. 3, 14, x. 1 (dvd Zio, two by two); 
John ii. 6 ; Rev. iv. 8. 

4. In Rev. xxi. 21, dvd els '^Katrros, the pi'eposition must be 
rendered as an adverb, each one separately. 

298. II. EtV, TO THE INTERIOR (opposite to eK, and correlative 
with €V).t 

1. Of place, into ; so, figuratively, of a state. 

Matt, ii. 11 : eXdovres «ls TTjv o'lKCav, having come into the house. 

Matt. V. 1 : dift^rj els to opos, he went up into the mountain. 

* In classical Greek, ava also with a Dative. 

■f- In Latin, the preposition in includes the notions of els and iv, taking 
the Accusative and Ablative respectively; and eh (really iys), m fact, ia 
only another form ot 4v, as «{ of iK. 


Matt. vi. 13 : p.^ elaeveyKr)s fjfxas As irEipao-jJidv, lead US not into 

So with collective words. 

Acts xxii. 21 : ds ?9vt] e'^aTroo-reXco ere, I tvill send thee forth into 
the community of Gentiles. 

2. Unto, to, where the context or the nature of the case limits 
the movement to the exterior. 

Matt. xvii. 27 : nopevBen els GaXao-o-av, having gone to sea. 

John xi. 38 : epx^erai els tJ> nvT]ixeiov, he cometh to the tomb. So 
XX. 1, 3, 4 (ver. 5, "he went not in"). 

Matt. vi. 2Q : e'/i/SXei/rare els TOL ireTeivd, looh to the birds. 

Luke vi. 20 : indpas tovs 6(j)0a\povs els tovs |Aa9Tiids, having lifted 
his eyes towards his disci2}les. 

Rev. X. 5 : rjpe tj)v x^ *P« avrov els tov ovpavdv, he lifted his liand to 

3. The meaning towards is especially found in relation to 
persons, marking direction of thought, speech, &g. Sometimes 
this implies hostility, against ; sometimes mere reference, in 
regard to. 

Rom. xii. 1 6 : to avrh els dXX'iiXovs (jipovovvres, being of the same 
mind one towards another. 

Luke xii. \0 '. nas os epei Xoyoi/ els tov vihv tov avBpoi-nov, whoever 
shall say a word against the Son of man. 

Acts ii. 25 : AajSlS yap Xeyet els a.\iT6v,for David says in reference 
to him. 

4. Towards, with respect to a certain result, in order to, for. 

Matt. viii. 4^ x. 18, &c. : els jjiapTviptov avTois, for a testimony to 

Matt. xxvi. 2 : irapahlhorai els tJ) o-ravpwGqvai, he is surrendered 
to be crucified. 

1 Cor. xi. 24 : Trotftre els T'fiv d,vdjJivT]<riv, do ii for the remembrance 
of me. 


2 Cor. ii. 12: iKdiov ds rrjv Tpa>a8a, «ls rh ivayyikiov, having- come 
to Troasfor (the preaching of) the Gospel. 

5. Into, symbolically, as marking the entrance into a state or 
sphere (see under iv, 4). 

So we enter els Xpiorrdv, into Christ, actually by faith, sym- 
bolically by baptism, Christians being Iv XptoTw, in Christ. 

Rom. vi. 3, 4 : ocrot i^aTrricrdijpLev els Xpi(rTj>v Jrjcrovj/, els tov Q&varov 
avTov i'^anTlaBrjufv, as many of US as were baptized into Christ 
Jesios, were baptized into his death. 

Compare Matt, xxviii. 19, "into the name," &c ; Acts xix. 3 ; 1 Cor. 
L 13, X. 2, xii. 13 ; Gal. iii. 27. So Acts ii. 38. ets t))v &(pea-tv aixapnlav, 
into the remission of sins, or, according to some interpreters, as (4). 

6. This preposition is used in some important passages to denote 
equivalence,* and may be rendered ybr, or as. 

Matt. xix. 5 : eo-ovrai ... els o-dpKa jtCav, they shall become one 
flesh. So Mark x. 8 ; 1 Cor. vi. 16; Eph. v. 31 ; from LXX., 
Gen. ii. 24. 

Matt. xxi. 42 : eyevr]6r] els Ke({>aX^v yavias, it became the head of 
tJie corner. So Mark xii. 10; Luke xx, 17; from LXX., 
Ps. cxviii. 22. 

Compare Luke iii. 5 (from Isa. xl. 4), xiii. 19; John xvi. 20; Acts 
vii. 21, xiii. 22 ; Eom. xi. 9 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 22, xv. 45 (see Gen. ii. 7, 
LXX. ) ; 2 Cor. vi. 18, viii. 14 ; Heb. i. 5 ; James v. 3. . 

Acts xix. 27 : to ... Upov els ovS^v 'koyiad^vai, the temiole to be 
esteemed as notJdny. 

Rom. ii. 26 : oi^' h aKfjo^va-ria airov els wepiTOiJiTiv Xoyia-drjaeTai ; 
shall not his uncircumcision be accounted as circumcision 1 

Rom. ix. 8 : Xoyi^erai. els o-rre'pua, it is accounted for a seed. 
Rom. iv. 3, 5, 9, 22 ; Gal. iii. 6 : iXoyia-di] avra els SiKaiooriviiv, it 
was accounted to him /or righteousness. 

* This answers to a common Hebrew use of the preposition ) (equivalent 
to (Is) after copulative verbs. 


7. When referiing to time, ds may mai^k eitlier (a) the interval 
up to a certain point, during ; or (h) the point itself, regarded as 
the object of some aim or purpose, up to, for. 

a. Luke i. 50 : els yeveas ^evecov, to generations of generations. 

Luke xxi. 19 : «ls tov alwva, for ever, lit., " unto or dui'ing the 
age;" also in the Epistles of Paul (not in the Hebrews), els tous 
alwvas, lit., " unto the ages," in the later Epistles and tlie Revela- 
tion, els Tois aluvas rav altovwv, to the ages of the ages, " for ever 
and ever." 2 Pet. iii. 18, els fifiepau alwvos, " to the day of eternity;" 
all with the same meaning. 

So in the adverbial phrases, tls rh fieWov, Jiereafter; els rh SLrjveKes, 

h. Matt. vi. 34 : ^ij ovv iiepijxvr^a-ere els tt|v aiJpiov, he not anxioics 
for (lit., "project not yoiir anxieties into") the morrow. 

Phil. i. 10 : els ■f\\>.epav Xpiarov, unto the day of Christ. So 
2 Tim. i. 12. Eph. iv, 30, is slightly different, expi-essiug more 
prominently the intent of the Spirit's " sealing." 

Rev. ix. 15 : iji-ot/iaa-jueVoi els ri\v upav Kal Tjp-e'pav Kai \yf\va Kai 
eviavTov, prepared for (or unto) the hour and day, and month and 
year, i.e., for the precise time appointed. 

Acts xiii. 42 : eh rb fj-era^v cd^fiaTov presents a little difficulty, as 
"on the next Sabbath" would be rendering the preposition with undue 
licence. We must understand either "for the next Sabbath" — the 
Gospel being regarded as a treasure reserved for that time — or <luring 
die intervening week. 

8. Constructio p)'>'<xgnans. — See under iv (8). As iv in a similar 
double construction implies the previous els, so els here implies the 
following iv. 

Mark xiii. 16:6 els tov dypbv tSv, "he who is into the field," i.e., 
who has gone into the f eld and is in it. Matt. xxiv. 18 has iv. 

Acts viii. 40 : ^iXittttos etipe'Gi] els "ACootov, Philip was found (to 
have been led) to Azotus. 

Acts xxi. 13 : diro0aveiv els 'lepovcraXrip, " to die into Jerusalem," 
i.e., to go into Jerusalem and die there. 



Heb. xi. 9 : irapwKTjo-ev els tijv yrjv, "sojourned into tlie land," i.e., 
travelled into the land and sojourned in it. 

In one passage, eh is apparently followed by a Genitive : Acts ii. 27, 31 
(LXX., Ps. xvi. 10), SIS aoov, to JIade.t. The phrase contains a classical 
ellipsis ; oiKiav, habitation being understood, and Hades being personified. 
" Thou wilt not abandon my soul to the realm of the Unseen." 

Frepositions governing the Genitive and Accusative Cases. 

Aid, Kara, fitTo,, "JrepC, 

virep, viro. 


299. I. ii.i.d, THROUGH, from the notion of separation, dis- 

a. With the Genitive — 

1. In refei-ence to place: through, literally, i.e., "through and 

John IV. 4 : eSei he avTov Stepp^ecr^ai Sid, ti]s 2a[xapeias, and he must 
needs go through Samaria. 

John xiv. 6 : ovhe\s epxerai irpos rbv irarepa el /ii) 8t' tfiov, no One 
Cometh to the Father but through me — the Way. 

1 Cor. iii. 15 : acodrjo-erai. Sid, Toii irvpds, Ae shall be saved as 
(one who has passed) through the fire. 

1 Cor. xiii. 12 : ^XiTrojxev yap apTL Si' leroiTTpov, for we see now 
through a mirror (the image appearing on the opposite side). 

2. In reference to agency : through, by means of. 

Matt. i. 22 : pr]6ev vtto Kvpiov Sid Toii irpocjjTjTov, spoken by Jehovah 
through the prophet. Here mark the distinction between in-d and 
Sta, and compare uTrd (a). 

1 Cor. iii. 5 : hiaKovoi Si' «» iTTitrrevcraTe, ministers through whom 
ye believed. 

2 Thess. ii. 2 : prjre Sid wvevixaTOS, p^ire Sid Xdyov, pfjre Si' 
eirKTToXfjS; ois 8i' T||iu)v, neither by Sjnrit, nor by word, nor by letter 
as from us (through us as the mediate authors). 

* In classic Greek, irepl and inr6 may take a Dative ; also /terci in poets. 


Epli. i. 1, etc. : 8ia ScXV^iiaTos Qeov, hy the. will of God. 
xJpn. ii. 8, &c. : a-ea-wcrfievoi 8ia ttjs irioTfws, saved hy faitJi. 

2 Coi'. V. 10 : TO. Sid ToO <r«|iaTos, the things (wrought) by means 
oj the body, 

3 John 13 : ov 6eXco 8ia p.A.avos ko). KaXdjiov ypd(f)fii^, I do not wish 
to write with ink and pen. 

This preposition is used, especially in such phrases as 5iit 'ItjitoD Xpiarov, 
of Christ's mediatorial work in aU its manifestations.* (Rom. ii. 16, 
V. 1; 2 Cor. i. 5; Gal. i. 1; Eph. i. 5; PhiL i. 11 ; Titus iii. 6; and 
perhaps 1 Peter ii. 14. ) 

Very rarely it seems to indicate the primary agent. 1 Cor. i. 9 : 
•nta-rhs 6 @ibs 5i' ov (KA-fjOriTe, k.t.\., God is faithful by ivJiom ye were 
called, &c. Yet even here the proper force of 5id is not lost. The 
Father is represented as acting on behalf of his Son, to bring Christians 
into fellowship with him. 

3. In reference to time, it marks the passage through an interval : 
(a) during, or (b) after the lapse of. 

(a) Luke v. 5 : 8i' 'okt\% ti]s wktos, all night. 

Hcb. ii. 15 : 8id -n-avros rov Si)v, all through his life. 

The phrase 8id (r^s-) vvkto's denotes by night, i.e., during its 
lapse, no particular hour or hours being specified, Acts v. 19, 
xvi. 9, xvii. 10, xxiii. 31. So Acts L 3: 8i' Tjnepwv T€o-<rapdKovTo, 
at intervals during forty days. 

(b) Matt. xxvi. 61 ; IMark xiv. 58 : 8ia, rpiuv %£puv, three days 


Gal. ii. 1 : Sid 8€KaTeo-o-apwv krwv, fourteen years after. 
Compare Mark ii. 1 ; Acts xxiv. 17. 

^. With the Accusative — 

On account of: as in the frequent phrase 8td toCto, " on this 
account." So " because of," " for the sake of." 

"With the Genitive, dia notes the instrument of an action; 
with the Accusative, its ground, ratio.''* 

* Winer. 

270 Ata, WITH THE ACCUSATIVE, Kara. [§ 299. 

Matt. X. 22, &c. : 8id to ovojxa fxov, for my name's sake. 

Matt. xxiv. 12 : Sia to- irXijOvvSiivau tt^v avofxiav, because of tlie 
abounding of the iniquity. 

Eph. ii. 4 : Sia ttjv noXXfjv oLYd-rrTjv avrov, on account of his great 

Jclm vi. 57 : eyo) {"w Sid. tov IlaTepa, / live because of the Father, 
i.e., "because lie liveth." 

Heb. V. 12 : Sid rbv xpo^o^; '^''^ account of, i.e., considering the 
time that yovi have been Christians. 

Rom. viii. 11 : 8id to tvoiKow alrov nv€V|xa, on account of his 
indwelling Spirit. 

The distinction between the Genitive and the Accusative should be 
marked in such passages as Rom. xii. 3, xv. 15. "I say to you," 
writes the Apostle in, the former, Si& t7)s x<^P^'''o^! through the grace given 
to me, i.e., "the favour bestowed is the power by which I write ;" but 
in the latter, Sia tijj/ x°P"'' on account of the grace given me, "that I 
may worthily vindicate its bestowal." 

An instance of a different kind is in Heb. ii. 10 : Si" hy rh irdina Koi 
St' oE TO TTOLVTa, for %vhom are all tilings and hy whom are all things, 
i.e., for his honour and by his agency. Compare also 1 Cor. xi. 9 and 12 : 
Sia T7)j/ yvvaiKo., for the sake of the woman ; Sict rrjs ywaiKos, by the wotnan, 
i.e., in birth. 

300. II. Kara, DOWN, 

a. With the Genitive, " down from" — 

1. Literally, of place, down. 

Matt. viii. 32 : apjirjae KaTd TOV KptjjAvov, rushed down the steep. 
Mark V. 13 ; Luke viii. 33. 

1 Cor. xi. 4 : KaTd K€(})a\^s ej^wf, having a covering on (depending 
from) the head. 

See also Mark xiv. 3 ; Acts xxvii. 14 ; 2 Cor. viii. 2. 

2. Hence tlie more usual signification, against, in opposition to 
(the reverse of vnep, which see). 

Mark xi. 25 : ei' n. i'xfTf kotA tivos, if ye have anything against 
any one. 

§ 300.] Kara, WITH THE genitive and accusative. 271 

Acts xiv. 2 : eTn']yeipav kixto. rav a8eX<j>wv, theij rose uj) against the 

3. Occasionally in asseverations, bi/ —  

Matt. xxvi. 63 : i^opKi(a> a-e Kara tov Qiov, I adjure thee by God. 

So Heb. vi. 13-16. 1 Cor. xv. 15, is probably to be referred to the 
same rule. " We have called God to witness," though the rendering 
against might be admissible. " Of God" is plainly incorrect. 

4. As with the Accusative, over, throughout, a usage confined to 
Luke, and to the following passages — 

Luke iv. 14 : Ka6' oXtjs rtjs irepixwpov, through all the region round 

Luke xxiii. 5 : Acts ix. 31, 43, x, 37. 

j8. With the Accusative, down upon, or along — 

\. Throughout (see a, 4), with singular or plural. 

Luke viii. 39 : Ka0' 8\t]v ttiv wdXiv, through the whole city. 

Acts viii. 1 : Kara rds X"P*s rrfs lov8aias, throughout the regions 
of Judcea. 

Acts xxvi. 3 : rwi' Kara 'lovSaiovs iQoiv, of the customs among the 

2. Over against, locally — 

Luke ii. 31 : Kara irpoo-toTrov Trdvrav rav Xauv, before the face of all 
the peoples. 

So Acts ii. 10; Gal. iL 11, iii. 1, &c. 

3. In reference to time, at or in, " correspondent with," " at the 
period of" (" over against") — 

Matt. i. 20, &c. : Kar ovap, in a dream. 

Acts xvi. 25 : Kara to |A€(rovvKTiov, at midnight. 

Kom. V. 6 : Kara Kaipbv, i^i due time. 

4. Of place or time, distributively, from one to another — 
Mark xiii. 8 : <^ -.a-uol tcra, tottous, finrthquakes in divers 'olaces. 

272 Kara, WITH THE ACCUSATIVE, fxera. [§ 300. 

Luke viii. 1 : StajSeue Kara irdXiv, lie was journeyinj from city to 


So Kar' iros, year hy year, Luke ii. 41 ; KaT ohov, at different houses. 
Acts ii. 46, V. 42 ; /cara irac cd^^aTov, every Sabbath, Acts xv. 21 ; uaff 
fjfx^pav, daily, Matt. xxvi. 25, &c. (and the phrase kuB' us, or KaOels, one 
hy one, Mark xiv. 19; John viii. 9; Rom. xii. 5.) 

5. From the meaning " over against" arises that of according to, 
in reference to some standard of comparison, stated or implied. 

Matt. ix. 29 : Kara t^v irfcmv inuv yevrjdt'jToy, according to your 
Jaith let it be. 

Luke ii. 39 : ra Kara t<5v v(5pLov Kvpiov, the things according to the 
law of Jehovah. 

So in the phrases kot' &vepa)irov, as a man ; Kar' efxf, according to my 
ability or view ; Kara xap'", according to favour ; kut e'loxV, by way of 
pre-eminence, Acts xxv. 23, &c. The phrase koto eefJc means, in accord- 
ance luith the character of God, "divinely," as 2 Cor. vii. 9, 10, 11. 
Thus also, Eom. viii. 27, He (the Spirit) divinely intercedes;* Rom. 
xiv. 15, KOT ayan-nv, according to love. 

Heb. xi. 13 : Kara iriariv UneOavov, they died according to faith, i.e., in 
a way consistent with, corresponding to the spirit of faith ; contented, 
though they had not seen the blessing. 

6. Phrases like the foregoing often pass into an adverbial 
meaning — 

Matt. xiv. 13, &c. : Kar' ISCav, alone. 
Acts xxviii. 16 : koG' lavrdv, by himself. 

SOL III. Mera, IN ASSOCIATION WITH (locally), distinguished 
from a-iv, which implies co-operation, and is not necessarily local. 
a. With the Genitive, "with and from," or separable connexion, t 
1. With, amidst, among. 

Matt. i. 23: 'E/ti/naj/ou-^X ... H-eB' ■fi]>.S>v 6 Gedj, Emmanuel, God with us. 
Matt. xii. 3, &.c. : ol iier airoO, those with him, his companions. 

« Winer here prefers the rendering before, as (2) a)jove, but, as it seems, 
without sufficient reasop. 

t Donaldson. Merci is connected with (i.4aos, midst. 

§ '60L] Merd, Trepi. 273 

So of two parties to a conversation or controversy — 
John iv. 27 : iacto, -yvvaiKos iXakei, he was talking with a woman. 
See also Matt. xii. 41, 42, &c. 

2. Of attendant circumstances, objects, states of mind (not 
instrumental), together with — 

Matt. XXV. 4 : ixcxd twv XajxirdScov avruiv, with their la/mps. 

Mark vi; 25 : da-ikdovva (i.€Ttt o-irovSfjs, coming in with haste. 

Heb. xii. 17 : jAerd SaKpvwv fK^rjTrjaas, having sought with tear». 

1 Tim, iv. 14 : jict tircGea-ews rav x^'-P'^") t^ith (not hy) the laying 
on of the hands. 

Matt, xxvii. 66 : (lerd t^s Kovo-TwSCas, together with the watch. 

3. The object of a deed of love, mercy, or the like, is sometimes 
spoken of, by this preposition, as associated with the agent — 

Luke X. 37 : 6 noifjaai TO eXeos |a€t' avrov, he loho wrought the 
com,passionate deed vjith him,, i.e., " who showed mercy towards 

So also in Acts xiv. 27, xv. 4; 1 John iv. 17. 

p. With the Accusative, after. 

Matt. xxvi. 2 : |X€Td Stio ■^[A^pas, after two days. 

Luke V. 27, &c. : |i€Td raiJTa, after these things. 

Luke xxii. 20 : p.€Td to Sciirvfjo-ai, after supper; 1 Cor. xi. 25. 

Once only of place, beyond; to be explained, however, in the same 
way, the observer arriving at the second point subsequently to the first. 
Heb. ix. 3 : /texd rh Sevrepof KaTaneTaa-ixa, beyond the second veil. 

302. IV. Uept, AROUND. 

a. With the Genitive, " around and separate from." 

About, concerning ; chiefly as the object of thought, emotion, 
knowledge, discourse, &c. 

Acts viii. 12 : ra irepl rris Pao-iXei'as rov Qeov, the things concerning 
the kingdom of God, 

5?74 UepC, ijTTip. [% 302. 

Matt. vi. 28 : irepl evSxijiaTos tL (lepnivare ; why are ye anxious 
about raiment ? 

Luke ii. 18 : IBavjiadav ircpl T(Sv Xa\T]0£VTwv, tliey wondered about 
the things that were spoken (tliis verb generally lias eVi, "to wonder 

Matt. ix. 36 : ean'kayxvicrdr] irspl avTwv, he was compassionate 
about them (also generally with iin. Dative or Accusative). 
1 Tliess. V. 25, &c. : npoa-evxea-de irepl r\[i.&v, pray for us. 

Rom. viii. 3 : 6 ©toy t6v iavrov vlov TTSfji-^as ... irepl dfiapTias, God 
having sent his ovni Son for sin. Compare Gal. i. -1 (Teschendorf, 
Lachmann, &c.) ; Heb. x. 6, 8, 18, 2G ; 1 John ii. 2, iv. 10. (See 
under vnep, a, 2.) 

/3, With the Accusative, " around and towards." 

1. .4?*oM«(^, of place. 

Matt. viii. 18 : tSiv ... oxKovs irepl avrbv, seeing multitudes 
around him. 

Used of dress, &c., Matt. iii. 4 : irtpl rfiv 6o-<f)vv avrov, about his 
loins. So xviii. 6 ; Eev. xv. 6. 

Por the idiomatic expression, ol irepl IlavXov, see § 197. 

2. About, of time. 

Matt. XX. 3 : irepl T^>iTt\v «pav, about the third hour. 

3. In reference to, about, of any object of thought. 

Lnke x. 40 : TTepiea-naro irepl iroXX^v SiaKoviav, she was cumbered 
about much serving (ver. 41). 

1 Tim. i. 19 ; irepl T'fiv itCo-tiv ivavayrja-av, they made shipwreck 
in reference to the faith. 

See also Mark iv. 19; Acts xix. 25 ; 1 Tim. vi. 4, &c. 

303. V. 'Ynip, OVER. 

a. With the Genitive, "over and separate from." 
1. On behalf of, as though bending "over" to protecf< (the 
opposite of Kara). Of persons. 

§ 303.] T-n-ep, WITH THE GENITIVE. ii75 

Matt. V. 44 : Trpoaevxea-Be virep tmv StwKovTwv vjias, pray for* ilwse 
who persecute you. 

Mai'k ix. 40 : 6y ylip ova fan Kad' vjxav xnrep v^SiV icrriu, he who is 
not against us is for us. Compare Rom. viii. 31. 

2 Cor. V. .14, 15: itflp ■n-dvTcov dnedavev, he died for all. So 
Rom. V. 6, 7, 8 ; Gal. ii. 20, iii. 10 ; Eph. v. 25 ; Heb. ii. 9 ; 
1 Pet. ii. 21, &c. 

Philemon 13 : tva inrlp o-ov not 8iaKov[i, that he might minister to 
me /or thee. 

As a service is often rendered on behalf of another by being offered in 
his stead, the notion of vnep may become ioterchangeable with that of 
avTi, as in the last passage. The distinction is, that iiirep of itself 
leaves undetermined the way in which the service is performed, simply 
affirming the fact; avTl, on the other hand, is definite. See Winer, 
§ 47, I, n. 2. 

2. Of things ; for their sake, in various ways. 

John xi. 4 : iirlp ttjs 8d^T]s tov Qiov, for the glory of God, i.e., to 
promote it. 

Rom. XV. 8 : tnrep dXtiOeias Qeov, for the truth of God, i.e., " to 
confirm his promises." 

2 Cor. xii. 19 : virep ttis vjj.cbv o'lKoSojjifjs, for your edification, i.e., 
to minister to it. 

Phil. ii. 13: vvip ttjs iiSoKia.'s, for (his) good pleasure, i.e. to 
accomplish it. 

Acts V. 41 : vvip TOV ovdjiaros, on behalf of the Name of Christ, 
i.e., to glorify it. Compare ix. 16 ; 3 John 7, «tc. 

1 Cor. XV. 3 : anidavev virlp twv a|iapTiwv rjfxaiv, he died, for our 
sins, i.e., to take them away. Compare Heb. v. 1, &g. ; and see 
under lapi, a. 

3. About, "in reference to," simply; the notion of benefit or 
service having disappeared. 

2 Cor. viii. 23 : elVe vvkp Titov, whether (you enquire) about Titus. 

* More emphatic than Trepi in the same connexion. 

276 "Titip, iT:6. [§ 3C3. 

2 Thess. ii. 1 : vir^p rfis irapovo-ios tov Kvptov, with respect to the 
coming of the Lord. 

The passage, 1 Cor. xv. 29, Paim^Sfxevoi vir\p tZv viKpSov, baptized for, 
or on behalf of, or in reference to the dead, possiljly refers to some 
observance (perhaps local) in connexion w-ith the act of baptism, of 
which the trace is lost. 

0. With the Accusative, " over and towards." 

Beyond, above, used in comparison. 

Matt. X. 24 : ovk eam jxadriTrjs virip rbv SiSdo-KaXov, a disci2yle is not 
above his teacher. 

2 Cor. i. 8 : e^aprjdrjufu iirlp 8vva|iiv, We were ojjjJressed beyond 
our strength. 

So occasiona]Iy after a comparative adjective to add emphasis 
(Lukexvi. 8; Heb. iv. 12.) 

Here, too, may be referred the use of vrrip with adverbs, as 2 Cor. 
xi. 5, xii. 11, uTTEp \iav or vnepKiau, beyond measure ; also the "improper 
preposition " virepdvu (from aud), up over, governing the Genitive (Eph. 
i. 21, iv. 10 ; Heb. ix. 5). See under m6 {P, 1, note). 

304. VI. 'Ytto, under. 

a. With the Genitive, " beneath and separate from." 

This preposition marks that from which a fact, event, or action 
springs, i.e., the agent ; hence its meaning, by, especially after 
passive verbs. 

Matt. iv. 1 : avrjx^l ^^ '''°^ nv€V(J.aTOS rreipaad^vat virb toO AiapdXou, 

he was led up by the Spirit to be tempted by the devil. 

Matt. V. 13 : KaTaTvaTda-dai, vTsh rJiv dvSptoTrwv, to be trodden under- 
foot by men. 

Note. — The Agent is signified by vit6. 

The Imlrumenf, by the Dative alone. 
The Minister of another's will, by 3ic4, with the Genitive. 
The Motive or Cause, by Sta, with the Accusative. 
The Occasion may be signified by o.tc6. 

r§ 304. 'Ttto, with the accusative. 277 

^. With the Accusative, " under and towards." 

1. Under, locally or figuratively — 

Matt. V. 15: Tideaa-cv avToi> vtrh tov ndSiov, they put it under the 

Kom. vi. 14 : oh yap ea-re vtrh voixov dXX' itrh \a.piv, for ye are not 
under law, hut under grace. 

In this sense, joined with the adverb Kara (from Kara), vn6 forms 
the " improper preposition " {nroKdro), down under, followed always 
by a Genitive, as Mark vi. 11, &c. 

2. Close %ipon (" under," as, e.g., under a wall, hill, &c.), like 
the Latin suh, applied in the I^ew Testament to time only, and in 
one passage. 

Acts V. 21 : inrb TOV opGpov, dose upon tlie dawn, "very early in 
the morning." 

Prepositions governing the Oenitive, Dative, and Accusative. 

'Etti, irapd, irpds. 
305. I. 'ETTt, UPON. 

«. With the Genitive, "upon, and proceeding from," as, e.g., a 
pillar upon the ground. 

1. On, upon, locally — 

Matt. vi. 10, &c. : hf\ tt^s 7tjs, on the earth. 

Luke viii. 13 : ol hi I'tI rrjs ireVpas, and those upmx the rock. 

John xix. 19 : lirl tov o-ravpov, upon the cross. 

Acts xii. 21 : KaBia-as eirl tov prijxaros, sitting upon the throne (lit., 
hema, or tribunal). So xxv. 6. Compare E,ev. iv. 9, 10, v. 13, 
vi. 16, &c. In Matt. xix. 28, eVt in this sense has both the 
Genitive and the Accusative. 

3. Over, of superintendence, government, ifec. 

Acts vi. 3 : oiiy Karaa-TTjcroiiev l-ni tijs xptCas ravTrjs, whom we shall 
set over this business. 

Rom. ix. 5 : 6 Sjv iirX irdvTwv, who is over all things. 

278 'Etti, with the gemtr^. [§ 305. 

3. On the basis of, figuratively, upon. 

John vi. 2 : to. a-rifxela a iiroUi ittX tS>v oktGsvovvtojv, the iniracles 
wJdch he lorought upon tJie infirm. 

Compare Gal. in. 16, &c. 

Here, too, may be referred the phrase, eV h.\-rj6iias, in truth (Mark 
xu. li; Luke iv. 25, &c.), i.e., "on a basis of truth." 

4. In the presence of, especially before a tribunal. 

1 Cor. vi. 1 : Kplvea-dai hri twv aS^Ktov nai ov)(^i en\ twv d-yiwv, to be 
judged before the unjust, and not before t]ie holy. 

So Acts xxiiL 30, xxiv. 19, xxv. 9, 26, xxvi. 2 ; 1 Tim. vi. 13. 

1 Tim. V. 19 : e-irl 8vo tj rpiuiv fiapTiiptov, before two or three wit- 
nesses. But see 2 Cor. xiii. 1 : eirl o-Td(jiaTos, k.t.A., ^ipon the 
testimony (mouth) where the preposition, from the LXX., denotes 

5. In the time of or under. 

Luke iii. 2 : eirl dpxiept'us "Awa, under Annas, the high priest. 

Acts xi. 28 : eirl KXavSiov, under Claudius. 

Matt. i. 11 : eirl rfis neroiKeo-ias 'Ba^vKoavos, at the time of the 
deportation to Babylon. 

Romans i. 10 : lirl twv irpoo-evxtov |xov, at the time of my prayers, 

1 Thess. i. 2 ; Philemon 4. 

1 Peter i. 20 : «ir' lerxdrtov TWV xpovwv, in the last times, Heb. i. 2; 

2 Peter iii. 3 ; Jude 18 (Tischendorf, Lachmann). 

In Mark xii. 26 : eiri /Sarou, at the Bush, means, " at the Old Testa- 
ment section entitled ' The Bush.'" 

6. Constructio proegnans. — This preposition with the Genitive 
sometimes (see under iv, 8) implies the foregoing motion. 

Matt. xxvi. 12 : PaXoOo-a ... to jxvpov tovto eirl tov <rwnaTos /zov, 
having cast this ointment 07i my body. 

Mark xiv. 35 : Jireo-av lirl ttjs 7T]s, tliey fell upon the ground. 

5 30'J.J 'E-t, WITH THE DATIVE. 279 

/3. With the Dative, " resting upon " 

1. On, upon, locally ; like tlie Genitive, except that the point of 
view is different. (See y, 1.) 

Luke xix. 44 : oIk a<^r](jovo-Lv ... Xidov lirl Xi'Go), they will not leave 
stone resting upon stone. 

2. Over, of superintendence, tl'c. (>See a, 2.) 
Luke xii. 44 : e-n-l rots virdpx^ovxi, over the goods. 

3. On (ab), as the groundwork of any fict or circumstance. 

Matt. iv. 4 : ovk €ir' dpT&> iiova ^r](jeTai, shall not live on bread 

Luke V. 5 : e-n-l toj pTj[j.aTt (Tov ;^aXao-a) to 8lktvov, at thy loord I 
will let down the net. 

Acts xi. 19 : TTJs ^Xi\|/-fa)s TTjs yevofj.evT]s itr\ 2Te<|)dvft), the affliction 
that arose upon Stej^hen. 

Mai'k ix. 37, itc. : lirl tu 6v6^o.tL jiov, hi my name. (Compare 
Matt, xxviii. 19, with Acts ii. 38.) 

Rom. viii. 20 : eu' iXviSi, in hojye, i.e., " resting on the basis of a 
hope that," ttc. 

2 Cor. ix. 6 : eir' tiXcyiai?, on a groundwork of blessings, i.e., 

1 Thess. iv. 7 : oi- yap iKoAccrfv rjy^as 6 Geor «irl aKaGapa-ia, /or God 
did not call us on the ground of impurity, or perhaps as (5). 

So the phrase f>' a", "on the condition being realized that," -where- 
fore, because (Rom. v. 12, &c.) 

4. Over and above, in addition to ; as by one fact resting upon 

Luke xvi. 2G : «irl irao-i Totrois, beside all these. 

2 Cor. vii. 13 : eirl rfj irapaKX^o-eu ^^Civ (Tischendorf, Lachmann), 
in addition to our comfort. 

.^. Constructio pra'g7ians,— (See a, 6.) The force of the Accu- 
sative also is sometimes implied. 


280 'Etti, with the dative and accusative. [^ 305 

Matt. IX. 16 : ov8e)s Se linpdXXei, . . . Iirl ijAariai iraXatw, no one 
putteth . . . U2wn an old garment. 

y. With the Accusative, " upon, by direction towards." 

1. Upon, witli motion implied. 

Matt. V. 15 : riBkaaiv lirl t^v XvxvCav, they put (it) upon tlie 

Matt. vii. 24 : cpKoBo/jirja-e eirl T'fjv ■treVpav, he built upon the rock. 

Matt. xiv. 29 : ■n-epie-rrdrTja-ev eirl to, vi'8aTCi, he walked upon the loaters. 

Matt. xxiv. 2 : X/(9os cirl XiGov. See the Dative in the same 
connexion, ^, 1. The notion there is of rest, simply; here, of 
downward pressure. 

So after the verlj eXiri^ai, to liope ; tm, with the Dat., 1 Tim. iv. 10; 
with the Ace, v. 5. In the one case, the hope is said to rest iipou, as 
a fact ; in the other, to be placed upon, as an act. So after -Ktidoi, 
2 Cor. i. 9, compared with ii. .3. The difference is so slight, that the 
expressions are easily interchangeable. 

Constructio j^Tccgnans. — In Matt. xix. 28; 2 Cor. iii. 15, and 
some other passages. 

2. Over, of authority, superintendence. 

Luke i. .33 : ^aa-iXeva-ei eirl tov oIkov 'IokuiJB, he shall reign over 
the house of Jacob. 

Heb. ii. 7 : KaTia-Trjcra^ avrov sm to, ?p7a, k.t.X., thou didst set htm 
over the works of thy hands. 

The three cases in this connexion seem "interchangeable," i.e., the 
notions which they respectively express are so nearly aHied that any of 
them may be employed without materially altering the sense. The 
Dative, however, and not the Accusative, is used when the preposition 
follows a verb of existence ; the Accusative, and not the Dative, when 
the verb is transitive. The Examples (a, 2) show that the Grenitive 
may be with either. 

3. To, implying an intention (for, against). 

Matt. iii. 7 : (pxojJiivovs bt\ rh pdirrio-na avrov, coming for his 

§ •30r\] 'Etti, with the accusative. 281 

Mark V. 21 : a-wrixdrf o^Xos tvoXvs eir' avTov, a great multitude was 
gathered together to him. 

Matt. xxvi. 55 : ms tirl Xtjo-t^v e^rjXdere, are ye come out as 
against a robber 1 

So Luke xxiii. 48. 

4. Towards, the direction of thought, feeling, speech. 

Luke vi. 35 : avrhs ;^p?;(7rof iariv lirl TOiis ttX,aptorTOVS neat irovir)povs, 
he is good to tlie ungrateful and wicked. 

2 Cor. ii. 3 : Trejroi^a)? €irl irdvTas v|x5.s, having confidence with 
regard to you all. 

Mark ix. 12 : yeypanrai IttI tov vihv tov avBpionov, it is written 
with regard to the Son of man. 

Matt. XV. 32 : a-n'KayxviCofxai €Trl tov 6-)(\ov, I have compassion on 
the multitude. This verb and preposition are also found with the 
Dative (see /3, 3) ; i.e., the compassion may be conceived as moving 
towards, or as resting on, the multitude. 

5. Of number or quantity, up to. 

Acts iv. 17 : €iri irXeiov, to a further p>oint, "any further." 

E.ev. xxi. IG : lirl o-raSiovs ficoSfKa yCkiahav, to twelve thousands of 

Matt. XXV. 40, &c. : «<}>' So-ov, inasmuch as. So of time, as long 
as, Matt. ix. 15. 

With numeral adverbs, Acts x. 16, xi. 10. So in the compound 
adverb, iciidrra^, once for all, at once (Rom. vi. 10 ; 1 Cor. xv. 6 ; Heb. 
vii. 27, ix. 12, x. 10). 

6. Of time, over, during on. 

Luke X. 35 : eirl T'fiv aiSptov, in the course of the morrow. 

Luke xviii. 4 : ovk riOi'krja-ev itr\ xpovov, he would not for a time. 

Acts xiii. 31 : Si(^6r} lirl rui^pas irXe^ovs, he was seen during several 

So in the phrase, M rh a\n6, at the same place or tiw^., " together" 
(Luke xvii. 35; Acts ii. 1 ; 1 Cor. vii. 5, &c.) 

282 Uapd, WITH THE GENITIVE. [§ 30(i, 

306. II. nnpd, BESIDE (of juxtaposition). 

a. With the Genitive : "Beside and proceeding from." 

With persons only : from, generally with the notion of some- 
thing imparted. 

Matt, ii, 4 : inwdaveTo irap' avTuv, Ae enquired of them. 

Phil. iv. 8 : be^d^xevos irap' 'Eira(}>po8tTov ra irap vfiwp, having 
received of Epapliroditus the things from you. 

John xvi. 27 : wapSL tov 0€ov i^?j\6ov, I came forth from God. 
Comiiare John i. 14. 

Matt. xxi. 42 : irapa Kvpi'ow iyevero avrr], this wasfrom Jehovah — 
"his doing," from LXX., Ps. cxviii. 23. 

Mark iii. 21 : oi irap' avroO, those from him, i.e., from his home 
or family. 

B. With the Dative, "beside and at." 

1. With, near, of persons only, except John xix. 25. 
John xiv. 17 : irap' v)xlv ^ivei, he remains with you. 

Acts x. 6 : ^ei/l^erai irapd rivi 2i|xwvi, he lodges with one Simon. 
John xix. 2a : irapcC tw o-ravpu), oiear the cross. 

2. With, in the estimation or power of. 

Matt. XIX. 26 : -Trapd, dvOpuTrois . . . dSiJvaTOV, irapd 5e 0€u Trdin-a 
dvfaTu, with men ... impossible; but with God all things are possible. 
Rom. iL 13 : diKaioi irapd tw ©eiu, just vjith God. 
iiom. xu. 16 : (fypovifioi irap laurois, wise in your own esteem. 
y. With the Accusative, " to or along the side of." 

1. -By, near, after verbs implying motion; also rest by an 
extended object, as the sea. 

Matt. xiii. 4 : iVeo-e irapd T^v oSo'v, it fell by the wayside. 

Matt. XV. 30 : eppi-^av avTovs irapd Toiis ircSas, they cast them al 
his feet. 

§ 306. J Uapd, WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. 283 

Acts X. 6 : £0 eariv oIklu irapa Ql\aar(rav, whose house is hy the 

2. Beside, as not coinciding with, hence contrary to. 
Acts xviii. 13 : irapd. vojaov, contrary to law. 

Kom. i. 26 : irapa <j>v<riv, contrary to nature. 

Rom. iv. 18 : iropa tXirtSo, contrary to expectation. 

Rom. i. 25 : wapa rbv KxtcravTa, instead of the Creator ; or 
possibly, rather tlutn, as (3). 

3. Beside, with the notion of comparison, superiority, above.* 

Luke xiii. 2 : ajxapTa\o\ Trapa iravTas, sinners above all. 

Romans xiv. 5 : Kpivei rjnepav Trap' T|(j,€pav, esteems day above day, 
i.e., one above another. 

Heb. ix. 23 : KpfiTTocri dvalms irapa ratiTas, better sacrifices than 
these. So i. 4, iii. 3, xi. 4, xii. 24; Luke iii. 13. 

4. From juxtaposition arises the notion of consequence, + in the 
phrase irapa tovto, 1 Cor. xii. 15, 16, there/ore. 

307. III. Upos, TOWARDS. 

a. With Genitive, "hitherwards." 

Belonging to the j^art or character of,:j: conducive to, in one 
instance only — 

Acts xxvii. 34 : tovto yap irpbs T'qs iip.eTc'pas o-u)TT]pCas ijTrdpxei, Jbr 

this is for your deliverance. 

/3. "With Dative, "resting in a direction towards." 

Near, hard by — 

Luke ix. 37 : irpos rfj Kardpao-ei, close to the descent. 

* See iiirep. The difference is, that uirep affirms superiority, -Kapa. institutes 
comparison, and leaves the reader to infer superiority. 
+ So in Latiu, propter, because of, from prope, near. 
+ So in classical Greek, ivpls kukov apSpds. 


John x\dii, 16 : irpbs rf) 0vpg. e^&j, close by the door outside. 

John XX. 12 : eva irpos T^ K€<}>a\^ Ku\ eva irpbs tois tcocriv, one at the 
head and one at the feet. 

Kev. i. 13 : irpbs toIs nao-rots, about the breast. 

These are the only undoubted instances in the New Testament. Some 
copies add Mark v. 11, John xx. 11, in the same sense. 

y. With the Accusative, " hither wards." 

1 . To, of literal direction. 

Matt. xi. 28 : bexne wpds |i€, come hither to me ! 

Matt, xxiii. 34 ; dTrocrreXXci) irpbs tijias 7Tpo(}iT]Tas, I send to you 

Luke i. 19 : Xakijaai irpo's o-c, to speak to thee. 

1 Cor. xiii. 12 : Trpoo-wTrov irpbs -rrpoa-utrov, face to /ace. 2 John 12; 
3 John U. 

2. After the substantive verb (construe tio prcegnans), with. 
Matt. xiii. 56: oi;^! naaai irpbs Tifjids ftVij are they not all with us? 
John i 1 : 6 Ao'yoy ^v irpbs rbv 0«bv, THE WORD WAS WITH GoD. 

3. Of mental direction, towards, against. 

Luke xxiii. 12 : iv ex^Pt ovrt^ irpbs lavTovs, being in enmity 
towards themselves. 

1 Thess. V. 14: fxaKpoSvfie'irf irpbs irdvras, be long suffering 
towards all. 

Acts vi. 1 : yoyyvafios irpbs Toiis 'EppaCous, a murmuring against 
the Hebrews. 

In Heb. i. 7, simple reference is denoted : irphs tovs ayj(\ovs \fyei, in 
regard to the angels he saith. 

4. From the general notion of mental direction arises (i) that of 
estimation or proportion, in consideration of. 

Matt. xix. 8 : irpbs Trjv o-KXiipoKapSCav vfiCiv, in consideration of 
the hardness of your hearts. 

§ 307.] 11/309, WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. 285 

Luke xii. 47 : -irpbs to 9e\Ti|ia avrov, in consideration of (iu 
accordance with) liis vnll. 

Rom. viii 18 : ovk ci^ia ... irpbs T^v jJieXXova-av 8d|av dnoKa\v(pdrivai, 
unworthy (of thought) . . . in consideration of the glory that is to he 

5. Also (ii) that of intention, in order to, especially with the 

1 Cor. X. 11 : eypdrpr] Se irpbs vovGeo-fav fjixcov, they were written 
for our admonition. 

Matt. vi. 1 : irpbs to GfaGTjvai avrois, in order to he seen hy them. 


308. Although no two prepositions are synonymous, they 
often approach one another so nearly in meaning as to be 
apparently interchangeable. It is sometimes important to 
notice the distinction, however subtle ; at other times it 
appears immaterial to the sense. 

Yet it is always safer to look for a real difference in meaning. Com- 
pare what has been said ou the meaning of eVi iu the government of the 
three cases. (See also § 289.) 

The subject is one which often calls for the most delicate 
criticism. It must suffice here to cite some of the principal 
instances of real or seeming interchange, with such brief 
explanations as may indicate the general principles on which 
these cases are to be judged. 

309. Atd, with the Genitive, is especially subject to these 
alternations of expression. 

1. With e'/t. Rom. iii. 30 : ds 6 Geo's-, 6s- SiKaicoo-et nfpiTOfJLrjv €K 
iri<rT€ii)s, Kal aKpo^variav 8id Tfjs iricTews, God is one, who will justify 
the circumcision hy faith, and the uncircumcision by means of tJte 


(same) faith. In the former case tlie source of tlie justification is 
more distinctly marked ; in tlie latter, the means. 

See also 2 Pet. iii. 5, &c. 

2. With uw6. Gal. i. 1 : IlavXos cnrucrTokos ovk cltc dvOpuirwv ov8e 
8i' dvSpapirov, Fatd an apostle neither (originally commissioned) yV'oni 
men, no7- throuyli (the intervention of) any man; the latter 
particular being added to show how absolutely independent his 
designation had been even of human instrumentality. The 
ordination to the ministry is dirb Geov, but Si' dvOpioirwy. 

3. With eV. 2 Cor. iii. 11: d yap t6 Karapyovfifvov 8id 8($tT]S 
TToXXto paWov TO jjifvov €v 8J|T), for if that which vaidalieth (was) by 
vieans o/' (through the intervention of) glory [i.e., a glorious display), 
much more that ivhich abideth (is) in glory. 

Other instances are in Heb. xi. 2 (compare with 39) ; Kom. iv. 11, 
V. 10 ; 1 John v. 6. In 1 Cor. i. 21, the distinction is ] hiin : in the 
wisdom of God, i.e., according to the wise appointment of Him who 
left mankind to make the eflort, the world by (Sid) its wisdom, i.e., by 
the exercise of its reason, knew not God (mcludiug both failire and 

4. In Eomans xi. 36, the respective meaning of (k, bia, eh (the 
starting-j)oint, the course, the goal), are finely marked : i^ auroi) kuI 
8i' avTov Kal €15 a^Tov to. Travra, all things are from him as their 
author, through liini as their controller, to him as their end. 

'■'■ Uim first, Him last, Him midst, Him without end." 

See also 2 Cor. i. 16. 

Eph. iv. 6, presents a somewhat different antithesis: 6 «irl 
irdvTwv Ka\ Std TrdvTwv Ka\ iv irdo-iv,* wlio is over all and through all 
and in all. 1 Cor. xii. 8, 9, has another combination : 8ia, tov 
XIvcvpaTos ... Kara to avrb Xlvevjia ... ev Ta> avrw XIvfixinaTi, — " the word 
of wisdom is given by tlie Spirit ; the word of knowledge according 
to the same Spirit; faith, in the same Sjnrit : the Spirit bestowing 
the gift, in a degree commensurate with his own might and love, 
while He himself becomes the element of the Christian lite. 

* Omit Vfuu according to the best authorities, Lachmann and Tischendorf, 

§ 310.] ixtp:iichange of prepositioxs. 287 

310. 'Ek and tliro may sometimes be interchanged without 
injury to the sense. 

Matt. vii. 16 ; fxrjTi avWeyova-iv awb aKavOuv (nac^vkriv ] surely they 
do not gather grapes of thorns ? 

Luke vi. 44 : ov yap eg dKavGav avXkeyov<n avKa, for they do not 
gather figs of thorns. 

Heb. vii. 2 : hiKaTr]v diro iravruv, a tithe of all. Vcr. 4 : S«/cdri;v 
... Ik t»v d,KpoOiviwv, a tithe of the spoils. 

1 Thess.,ii. 6 : ovn ^rjrovvTfs €g ttvOptoiruv bo^av, ovre d<|)' {i|iwv ovTe 
dir' &X\wv, nor seeking glory from men, either of you or of others. 

See a' so John xi. 1. In these passages it is immaterial whether the 
phrase " om< o/" a thing " or "from a thing" be employed; but in the 
following there is an evident distinction : — 

John vii. 42 : 6k tov aTripfxaros AafiiS km. airh BrjBXee/x, from the seed of 
David and from Bethkhcm. 

2 Cor. ili. 5 : ovx on iKavui ifffief a(p' tavrioi/ Koy'iTaaOai ri, us e| eavTwv, 
not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think anything, as from ourselves. 

311. 'Ej/ is occasionally interchanged with a simple Dative. 

So Col. ii. 13: veKpol iv tols, dead in transgressions ; 
Lph. li. 1 : viKpoX Tois irapaTrTto|Aa<rt. So Matt. vii. 2 : ev w (xeTpo) 
fierpuTf, in what measure ye mete; Luke vi. 38 : tw yap avrui 
|j.€Tpu) w perpelre, with the same measure with which lie mete. Asrain. 
Luke iii. 16 : liSari l3anTiCa3, I baptize with water ; so Acts i. 5 
xi. 16; but £v vSari, m water, Matt. iii. 11 ; John i. 26, 33. The 
expressions are evidently equivalent, however the act be under- 
stood. , 

The opposites iv and e| may in some cases be even interchanged. 
Thus, Matthew (xxii. 37) gives "the great commandment" as, Thou 
Shalt love the Lord thy God in (iv) all thy heart, &c. ; Mark (xii. 30), 
out of(e^) all thy heart ; the love being regarded in one case as abiding 
in the heart, in the other as manifested by it. The LXX. (Deut. vi. 5) 
has e|. 

312. Els may often be interchanged with other forms of 


1. Witli TTpos. Rom. iii. 25 : els ^vSei^iv ... ver. 26 : irpJjs 'ivin^iv 
TTjs 8iKaio(Tvvr]s avTov, in order to the manifestation . . . tending to the 
manifestation of his righteousness. The former expression refers 
to a completed manifestation, the latter to one still in progress. 

Pliilemon 5 : " thy love and thy faith," r]v 'ix'^i^ '""P'^s rbv Kvpiov 
'lT)o-oi)v KcCi €ls ■n-dvTas Toi)s a-yCovs, towards the Lord Jesus and unto 
all tlie saints. 

This seems nothing more tlian a variation in expression, although by 
some it is explained on the principle of reverted parallelism ; 

"thy love 

and thy faith 
towards the Lord Jesus 
and to all the saints," 
i.e., love to the saints, and faith towards the Lord Jesus. 

2. With eni These instances are very frequent, and need no 
special remark. 

Matt. xxiv. 16 : (fievyeTaxrav lirl to, Spi], let them fee up to the 
mountains. Mark xiii. 14 : (pivyiruia-av tls to, opT), let them flee into 
the viountains.* 

Rom. iii. 22: BiKuioavvr] Qeov ... ds iravras kuI tirl iravras rovs 
Tvia-TevovTas, the righteousness of God unto all and upon all who 
believe, i.e., " so communicated to as to abide iqjon." 

3. Interchanged with a simple Dative. 

Matt. V. 21, 22 : i'voxos Tfj KpCo-ei ... k'voxos As Tfivye'ewav rov irvpos, 
liable to the judgment ... liable to (up to the point of) tlte Gehenna 
of fire. 

Rom. xi. 2-4 : €V(KevTpi(r3rjs «ls KaXXie'XaioV ... eyKevrpiadrjO-ovrai rg 
ISio, IXaCa, thou wast grafted into a good olive tree . . . they shall be 
grafted on their own olive. 

4. The remarkable phrase, 2 Cor. iv. 17, in Avhich els is com- 
bined with Kara in one rhetorical expression, claims a reference 

* Lachmaun, however, reads six in the former passage ; so also Dr. 
Tregelles. The similarity between different prepositions has occasioned 
many various readings. 


here: Ka6' irirspPoX^v els {nr€pPoX.TJv, E.V., "far more exceeding," 
literally, according to abundance (on a scale of vastness) unto an 
abundance (to the realization of that which is immeasurable). 

5. The many instances in which eiV seems to be used for iv, and 
vice versd, may be explained by constructio prcegnans. (See § 295, 8.) 
The two prepositions are found in the same connection : Matt, 
iv. 18, compared with Mark i. 16 : Mark xi. 8, with Matt. xxi. 8 ; 
Mark xiii. 16, with Matt. xxiv. 18. 

313. Tltpi, about (with Genitive), may be substituted for a 
more definite preposition, and the convei'se, e.g. — 

1. For Sta (with Accusative). John x. 32 : our Lord asks, StoL 
iroiov avT(ov ?p7ov Xidd^ere fxe ; for whicli ivork of these do ye stone 
me 1 The answer is, ver. 33 : ircpl KaXov ?p7ou ou \i6a(,o^iv ae d)\\a. 
irtpl p\a<r<})Ti|xios, for a good work we stone thee not, but for blas- 

2. For vnep. See under O^-ep and Trep/, §§ 302, 303. 

Verbs signifying prayer, thanksgiving, &c., may be followed by 
either indifierently. / ]}7-ay about you, irepi, "you are the subject 
of my prayers ; or, / ^jray for you, inr«p, " your welfare is the 
object of my prayers." 

So in the many passages in respect of the death of Christ, which 
theological inquirers will do well to examine. In some, as in 
Gal. i. 4, the reading of good MSS. varies between vire'p and irepi. 

314. A preposition governing several words in one regimen is 
repeated before each of them if a distinction, severally, between 
them is to be marked ; but if they are combined in one notion, 
the preposition is not repeated. 

This rule is analogous to that respecting the repetition of the article 
(§ 232). Yet the article is often repeated where the preposition is not. 

Thus with the repeated preposition — 

Matt. xxii. 37 : «v Z\ri t% Kaphla a-ov, Kal iv oXjj tjj yj^vxfj (tov, koi Iv 
oAp TJ diayola (xov, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and 


with all thy understanding. Compare Mark xii. 30 (e^, see § 311, 

For other instances, see Mark vi. 4 (eV) ; Luke xxiv. 27 (air({) ; 
1 Thess. i. 5 (eV) ; John xx. 2 (Trpds), &c. 

"With the preposition not repeated — 

John iv. 23 : Iv Trvevnan KUL akrjde'ia, in Spirit and truth, one 
state of mind, viewed under a twofold aspect. In like manner we 
interpret iii. 5, k^ vtaros Ka\ Uvevfiaros, of one spiritual baptism, not 
of two things (as the outward and the inward). So Matt. iii. 11. 

For other instances, see Luke xxi. 26 (airS) ; Phil. i. 15 (Sm) ; and 
very frequently with proper names when closely connected, as Phil. i. 2 
Acts vi. 9, &c. 

"Where the nouns after the preposition are connected h}- this 
disjunctive or, the preposition is always repeated; as also where 
they stand in antithesis. Acts iv. 7 : eV tvom 8vvdp.ei ^ Iv ttom ovofiart 
enolrjcraTe Todro vfieh ; in what name or in tohat iwiocr did ye this 1 
Joha vii. 22 : ovx on €K tov Mcov^eccs earlv, aW eK rau irarepav, not 
that it is from Moses, but from the fathers. But where the anti- 
thesis is formed by two adjectives agreeing with the same noun, 
the preposition need not be repeated. 1 Pet. i. 23 : ovk €k a-rropas 
a4>6apT?^^, axxa <pedpTov, not of corruptible, but of incorruptible seed. 



315. According to the Second Concord, § 178, Adjectives, as 
also Participles and Adjective Pronouns, agree with their 
Substantives in Gender, Number, and Case. 

An adjective may be an Epithet or a Predicate, the rule 
applying in both cases. For the adjective as predicate, see 
§§ 178-180. 

316. Where the reference of the Adjective is plain, the Sub- 
stantive is often omitted. Compare § 199. 

Matt. xi. 5 : tv<j>XoI dva^\€Trov(n kciI \(>)\o\ TrepinaTovai, Xeirpol Kadar 
pi^ovTai Ka\ K<o<j>ol aKovovcri, vcKpol eyeipovrai Koi ittwxoI fvayy€\l^ovTai, 
blind (men) are restored to sight and lame (men) walk, leprous 
(men) are cleansed and deaf (men) hear, the dead are raised and 
destitute (men) have glad tidings brought to them. % 

Rom. V. 7 : poKi^ yap vnep 8iKaiov ris anodavdrai, v-rrep yap toO 
ttYttOov raxa th Ka\ roXpa anodavelv, for scarcely/ for a righteous (man) 
will one die, for on behalf of the good (man) one 2^e'>^chance even 
dares to die." 

\ Cor. iii. 13 : irvtviiariKots irviviJiaTiKd crvyKptvovres, putting 
together spirituals with spirituals, i.e., " attaching spiritual words 
to spiritual things," Alford ; or, " interpreting spiritual things by 
spiritual ■" or, " explaining spiritual things to spiritual men," 
Stanley ; or, " adapting spiritual language to spiritual matters," 

The last example shows how an occasional ambiguity will arise. 
Such cases can only be decided by a careful study of the context and 
of the words emplo3'ed. In general, however, the application of the 
adjective will be perfectly plain. See further, Eph. i. 3, &c. 

Among the substantives most frequently omitted after AdjtM> 

21^2 A-DJECTIVES— CONCORD. [§ 316. 

tives, beside the words for man, woman, thing, with the three 
geuders respectively, are the following — 

Xelp, hand, as rj Segia, " the right." 

yr), land, as rj olKovjAevi], the inhabited, "the world." (Luke 
ii. 1, &c.) 

rifj-epa, day, as Tfj liTiowo-Ti, " on the morrow." 

vBojp, water, as iroTT|piov \|/vxpov, " a cup of cold." (Matt. x. 42 ; 
compare James iii. 11.) 

Acts xix. 35, is peculiar : tov Aioirerovs, of that which fell from 
Zeus : not precisely " an image," probably a great meteoric stone. 

For the neuter article, especially, as substantivizing the Adjec- 
tive, i.e., making it an abstract noun, see § 199. 

Matt. vi. 13: pvaai rjpas aivo tov irovrjpov, deliver us from evil. 
So V. 37, 39; John xvii. 15. Some with less appropriateness 
render "the Evil one." In 1 John ii. 13, 14, the adjective 
(Accusative) is certainly masculine ; in Rom. xii. 9 (Acciisative), 
certainly neuter ; but as the Genitive and Dative of both genders 
are alike, passages like Eph. vi. 16; 2 The.«s. iii. 3; 1 John iii. 12, 
V. 19, can only be detei-mined by the context. 

In Matt. xix. 17, the best editor.s concur in the remarkable reading, 
Ti ^€ (pwras Tvepl rov ayadov; Why dost thou ask me concerning the good? 
instead of Why callest thou me good? In Mark x. 18, the received 
reading stands without any variation. 

317. The number and gender of adjectives, participles, and 
pronouns are often determined (according to Synesis, or Rational 
Concord) by the sense rather than the form of their substantives. 
Compare §§ 175, 179. 

Acts iii. 1 1 : a-wiSpape TTas o Xabs . . . ^KGajxpoi, all the people ran 
together, greatly wondering. 

Acts V. IG : awr]p)(^(To ...TO irXfjSos... <|>€povT€s, k.t.X., the multitude 
came together, bringing, &c. So Luke xix. 37, (fee. 

Eph. iv. 17, 18: to, XotTra ?0VT] TreptTrarel ... €<rKOT<o|A^voi ... 5vT€S 

§ 3 17. J ADJECTIVES — CONCORD. 293 

amiXXoTpwoiAtvoi, the rest of the Gentiles walk . . . darkened . . . being 

Luke 1]. 13: ivkrjdos o-rparias ovpavlnv, aivouvTwv rnv Qeov Kai 
Xiyovroiv, a multitude of a heavenly host, praising God a.nd saying. 

Rev. xi. 15 : iyevovro <f)<oval /ieydXat ... X^^ovres,* there were great 
voices, saying. 

In Matt. xxi. 42, Traph. Kvplov iyevero avri) Koi eari QavfiaaT^, this 
(thing) was from (lie Lord, and it is wonderful, the feminine gender is 
to be explained by the Hebrew idiom. That language, havincr no 
neuter, employs the feminine for abstract notions. See Ps. cxviii 23 
(LXX. , cxvii.) 

For Synesis with Pronouns, see § § 335, 345. 

318. An Adjective referriiig to two or more substantives, if an 
epithet, commonly agrees with the nearest, or is repeated before 
each ; if a predicate, is properly in the plural number, and follows 
the rule, § 179. 

Luke X. 1 : (U irao-av noKw kcu ronnv, into every city and place 
(different genders, agreeing with nearest). 

James ]. 17 : irdo-a fiocrts aya6r] Ka\ irdv duprjfxa reXeiop, every good 
and perfect gft. So Mark xiii. 1 ; Acts iv. 7 (different genders, 

Matt. IX. 35 : Sepanevaii/ irdo-av voaov Koi -rroKrav [xaXaKLav, healing 
every (kind of) disease, and every (kind of) infirmity (same gender, 

Matt. iv. 24 : iroiKiXais voaois kol ^acrdvois, with divers dis^,ases 
and torments (same gender, not repeated). 

When two adjectives stand as epithets to one substantive, a con- 
junction generally stands between them. Thus, for "many other," 
the Greeks say, "many and other." This rule, however, is not inva- 
riable in the New Testament. 

John XX. 30 : iroAAot fxku oCv koI &A\a a-r]ix€7a, many other miracles therefore. 

Acts XXV. 7 : TTiiWa. Ktxl I3ap€a aiTiw/xaTa, many heavy chai'ges. 

See also Luke iii. 18; Titus i. 10; and on the contrary, Acts xv. S.'j. 

* Tischendorf, Lachmann. 


319. An Adjective is often employed in Greek where the 
English idiom requires an Adverb. 

Mark iv. 28 : avToixctTT] ly y^ KapTrocjiopd, the earth yields fruit 

Luke ii. 2 : aur-q fj aTroypa(f>ri irpoTT] eyeuero, k.t.X., this enrolment 
was first 7nade* (compare John xx. 4). 

For the adverbial use of adjective forms, see § 399. 


The Comparative. 

320. An Adjective in the Comparative degree usually 
takes the object of comparison in the Genitive case. In 
English the conjunction than is to be supplied. 

See § 253, with observations and examples. 

The object, as expi-essed by the Genitive, sometimes corre- 
sponds, not with the precise subject of the comparison, but with 
the general notion of the sentence. 

Matt. V. 20 : irXeiov twv -ypaniJiaTtW Kal iapia-aimv (your ri"-hteous- 
ncss), lit., mo7'e than the Scribes and Pharisees. 

John V. 3G : eyoi Se «;(« rrjv fxapTvpiav |X€i5» Toii 'Iwdvvov, the 
witness which I have is greater than John,. 

1 Cor. i, 25 : to pa>pov tov GeoC (rocjxoTcpov twv dvOpioTTtov earl, K.r.X., 
tJie foolishness cf God is wiser than men, &c. 

The beginner must beware of translating these genitives as possessives 
governed by an understood object of the comparative: "than John's 
(testimony)," "than men's (wisdom)," &c. This the construction 

* Other translations have been proposed to escape the chronological diffi- 
culty. Thus, the enrolment first too,k effect, when, &c., it having been 
originated some years before ; or the enrolment waf> made before Quirinius 
was governor (compare ttpSitSs jjlov, John i. 15). But Dr. Zumpt has recently 
shown the great probability of Quirinius having been governor of Syria at 
this early date, as well as a.d. 6, on the deposition of Archelaus. (See 
Smith's "Dictionary of the Bible," Art. "Cyrenius"). 


will not ailmit. The form of expression is one of the utmost generality: 
"God's 'foolishness' is wiser," not only than men's wisdom, but "than 
men" themselves, with all that they are or can do. So of the other 
passages. * 

321. The comparative particle % than, may also be employed ; 
the object then being in the same case with the subject of com- 

Luke ix. 13 : ovk elaw rjfiiu irXilov f\ rrivre aproi Ka\ IxdvfS 8vo, we 

have no more than five loaves and two fishes. 

1 Cor. xiv. 5 : fisiSwv 8e 6 irpocfirjTei/cov ^ 6 XaXav yXaxrcrais, greater 
is he who prophesies than he who speaks with tongues. 

This particle is specially employed (1) after the comparative 
adverb fiaXXnv, more. 

Acts iv. 1 9 : vjjiwv tiKoveiv nfiWov i^ toO Gfou, to hear you rather 
than God. 

It may be hardly necessary to remind the learner that OeoC is in the 
Genitive, not because it is the object of comparison, but because coupled 
by fi with imSsv, Gen. after axo{ieiv, by § 249, a. 

So Matt, xviii. 13; John xii. 43 (^Tep), &c. VlaWov ^ may connect 
two adjectives, as 2 Tim. iii. 4, where a Greek classical idiom, of which 
there is no instance in the New Testament, would have admitted two 

(2) "When the object of comparison is a clause. 

Rom. xiii. 11 : l-yyviTepov ... ^ 8t€ i-m<mv<rai).iv, nearer (our sal- 
vation) than when we believed. 

(3) When a Comparative governs, as an adjective, words other 
than its object. 

Matt. X. 15: dv€KTCT€pov earai yfi 2oB6fjia,v i\ ircXtt cKtivT], it shall 
be more tolerable/or the land of Sodom (Dative, by § 271)) than/or 
that city. 

After TrXci'ttfv, nXelov, more, and eXdxTwv, tXaTTov, less, the pai-ticle 
may be omitted before numerals. 

 Winer, § xxxv. 5. 

296 ADJECTIVES — COMPAinSON. [§ 321. 

Acts xxiv. 11 : ou trXiCovs elcri /xoi Tjiiepai SeKaSuo, k t.A., lit., there 
are to me no more days (than) twelve. So iv. 22, xxiii. 13. 

Matt. xxvi. 53 : irXeiovs SwSeKa Xe^taivas, more than twelve legions. 
lu some of these passages the received text inserts ^. 

A peculiar comparative is occasionally made by ndXXov after the 

Mark ix. 42 : KaXov ioTiv avra fj-aXXov, k.t.X., it is better /or him. 

Acts XX. 35 : [AaKupiov can jidXXov fiiSd^/at i\ XanJidveLv, it IS more 
blessed to give than to receive. 

Sometimes fjioXXov is omitted. 

Matt, xviii. S, 9 : KaXov aoi eariv elaeXdeh ... f\ ... ^Xridrjvai, it is 
better for thee to enter ... than ... to be cast, lit., "it is good ... rather 
than." So Mark ix. 43-47. Compare also Luke xviii. 14 
(rec, but the reading is probably nap' iKiivov ; § 306, y, 3). 

Hence also a comparative notion may be ex^jressed by ^ after a 
noun or verb. 

Luke XV. 7 : x«^P* so-i""' ••• «''^'' *^' "•'^ '^'' «»"'f«"7'fo'""a '^^vea, there 
shall be joy . . . over one . . . (rather) titan over idnety and nine. 

Luke xvii. 2 : X-uo-ireXet airw ... 'i^ "iva a-Kciv^uiXlcrrj, lit., it IS pro- 
fitable for him ... (rather) than that he should of end. 

1 Cor. xiv. 19: GtX'j) TreVre Xdyous Sia rod poos fJ-ov \a\ri<yai ... 'f\ 
^.vpiovs 'koyovs Iv yXwaar], I tvould (rather) sjjeak five words with my 
understanding, than ten thousand words in a tongue. 

322. For the Comparative as strengthened by the prepositions 
ijrep and itapd, see §§ 303, 306. 

Other emphatic modes of comparison are specified, § 47. 

323. A Comparative is often found without any expressed 
object of coinparison. 

a. The object may be supplied by tbe context, as Acts xviii. 2v^ : 
dKpip€o-T€pov alr^ e^iBfVTo r^v roi GeoO 6h6v they expounded to h%m 
the way of God more perfectly, i.e., than he had known before 


(ver. 25). Compare John xix. 11 ; Eom. xv. 15 ; 1 Cor. xii. 31 ; 
Phil. ii. 28; Heb. ii. 1, &.c. So in correlative expressionsj 
Horn, ix. 12 ; Heb. i. 4. 

b. The Comparative may be a famih'ar jihrase, as ol vXdovis, the 
majority, Acts xix. 32 ; 1 Cor. xv. G ; 2 Cor. ii. G (not simply 
'•many,"as E.V.), &c. 

c. The object is to be supplied mentally, according to the 
general sense of the passage. * 

Matt. XVlll. 1 : ris apa \iiit,wv icrriv ev rfj ^acriKeia Ta>v ovpavSiv ', vili.O 
then is greater (than the rest) in the kingdom of heaven f 

So Mark ix. 34; Luke ix. 46, xxii. 24. In Matt. xi. 11, 6 fjuKp^rtpos 
may be rendered., /te tliat Is less titan all others, i.e., "he that is least," 
as E.V., or lie that is less than John (in fame and outward, honour), 
i.e., Christ himself ; the sentiment being that of John i. lo.f 

The following examples further illustrate this usage of the 
comparative : — 

John xiii. 27 : that thou doest do inore quichly, rdxiov, i.e., than 
you seem disposed to do. 

Acts xvii. 21 : ^0 tell or to hear some newer thing, n Kaivdrepov, 

than the last things that they had heard, "the later news." 

Acts xvii. 22 : ye men of Athens, I ])erceive that in all things ye 
are incre addicted to worsJtij), Seio-iSaifAoveo-Te'poiis, i.e., than heathen 
nations generally (not merely, like them, worshipping recognised 
deities, but even the "unkaown.") J 

Acts xxiv. 22 : the matters pertaining to the way (the Christian 
doctrine) more accurately, aKpipeo-rcpov, than to need detailed 

Acts XX v. 10 : to the Jews I Iw^ve done no wrong, as also tho7i 

* See Winer, § 35, 4. 

t This latter is the interjiretation of many of the fathers, but is disal- 
lowed by most modern critics. (See Alford's note.) 

;;: "Too superstitious," therefore, misses the true meaning both ot the 
word and the grammatical form. 


Tcnowest better, KdXXiov, than thou clioosest to confess. Alford 
compares our current phrase, to know better. So 2 Tim. i. 18, 
better even than I do. 

Acts xxvii. 1.3 : they steered closer by Crete, a<ra-ov Trape^eyovro 
TTjv KprjTrju, i.e , than they had done before ; ver. 8. 

On Eph. iv. 9, see § 259. 

Phil. i. 12 : rather, \i.a.\\ov, for the furtherance of the Gospel 
than for its hindrance as we feared. 

1 Tim. iii. 14 : hoping to come unto thee more quickly, toLxvov, 
than to make such injunctions needful. Compare Hcb. xiii. 19, 23. 

2 Tim. i. 17 : he sought me out more diligently, cnrovSaioTepov, 
than if I had not been in captivity. 

2 Pet. i. 19 : Ka\ 'ixofJ-ev PePaiOTSpov tov vpoi^rjTLKov \6yov, lit., 

and toe have more sure the prophetic word, i.e., we hold that word 
with a sui-er confidence even than before, inasmuch as we received 
a confirmation of its testimony "upon the holy mount." 

2 Pet. ii. 11 : angels which are greater in power and might, 
(lei'Soves, either greater than other angels,* as the archangel, Jude 9, 
or greater than these presumptuous, self-willed men.t 

From the above explanations it will be seen that the Comparative in 
such cases is not to be explained as "put for the Superlative," or as 
expressing the notions of "too" or "very," but retains its true and 
proper force. 

The Superlative. 

324. The Superlative denotes the highest quality of any kind, 
and may be used when the objects of comparison are not explicitly 

2 Pet. i. 4 : to. jie^io-Ta Ka\ rlfita eVay-yeX/i/ara, the greatest and 
precious promises, or as E.V. happily, "exceeding great and 

In Luke i. 3, we read Kpano-Tc Gf o'^iXf, most excellent Theophilus; 

* Hut her. 

t Winer, Alford, &c. 


but in Acts xxiii. 26, xxiv. 3, the same title is applied to Felix, 
and in xxvi, 25, to Festus. It was simply a designation of rank. 

325. For the Superlative followed by a partitive Genitive, see 
§ 262. An emphatic Superlative is made by the addition of 
irdvTajv, Mark xii. 28, the first eommanclntent of all (not -n-aaoov, as 
received text). 

The particle as (on), with a Superlative, means " in as great a 
degree as possible." Acts xvii. 15: iva ws Tdxitrra eXdcoa-i tt/jos aiirov, 
that tliey would come to him as speedily as possible. 

326. The Superlative irparos, first, may be used where but two 
things are compared. 

Acts i. 1 : Tov fieu irpuTov \6yov eTroirjadfirfv, the first (former) 
treatise I made. So 1 Cor. xiv. 30 ; * Heb. x. 9. 

So the expression irpwros ixov, before me, John i. 15, 30; Trpuros 
v[i.u>v, before you, xv. 18. The Genitive is analogous to the 
Genitive after the Comparative. On Luke ii. 2, see note^ § 319. 

327. In Hebrew there are two principal ways of expressing 
the Superlative; — (i.) by the use of the preposition in, among, after 
the simple adjective, as Pro v. xxv. 30, a lion, strong ainong beasts, 
i.e., the strongest of beasts ; t (ii.) by the repetition of an adjective 
or noun in the Genitive relation, as in the common appellation of 
the lioliest part of the Temple, the holy of holies, and Gen. ix. 25, 
a servant of servants, i.e., utterly enslaved. :[ 

The New Testament has instances of both these idioms, (i.) 
Luke i. 42 : evXo-yque'vi] av iv ^vvai^iv, blessed art thou among women, 

* But perhaps here the mental comparison might be, not simply with the 
second speaker, but with the rest of the assembly. 

t Compare the use of a Hebrew preposition to give the force of the 

X There is yet a third method, i.e., the emphatic use of the adjective with 
the article, as Gen. ix. 24, his son, the young, i.e., his youngest. But perhai>s 
thfeffc u ao example of this in the New Testament, though see Luke s.. 4iJ. 


i.e., most blessed, (ii.) Heb. ix. 3 : &710 kyiMv, the holy of holies. 
Compare 1 Tim. vi. 15; Kev. xix. 16. 

Neither of these constructious is confined to the Hebrew, although 
their occurrence in the New Testament may fairly be assigned to Hebrew 
influence. Other so-called Hebraisms must be rejected.* Thus, Acts 
vii. 20, aa-relos rc^ ©ey, must not be rendered, as in E. V. , "exceeding 
fair," but beautiful be/ore God, in his eyes. Much less must the Divine 
name be taken as giving a simple superlative force in such passages as 
Luke i. 15; 2 Cor. i. 12; Ool. ii. 19; Rev. xv. 2, &c. 


328. Tlie Cardinal els, besides its ordinary use, is employed in 
the following ways. 

i. As an indelinite pronoun, t nearly equal to tis. 

Matt. viii. 19 : ets ypanfiaTevs elnev avTw, a scribe said unto him. 

Matt. xxvi. 09 : Trpoa-rjXdev avrco (A^a naiBia-Kr], there Came to him a 

John vi. 9 : 'da-n naiddpiov ?v Side, tliere is a lad here. 

So Matt, xviii. 24, xix. 10; Mark x. 17, xii. 42; Rev. viii. 1.3, &c. 
Often with a Genitive following, as Matt. xvi. 14 ; Mark v. 22. Some- 
times with (K, as Matt. xxii. 35, xxvii. 48. Occasionally, eh ris combined, 
as Luke xxii. 50. 

ii. For the correlatives, one ... the other, els is sometimes 
employed in both clauses. 

Matt. XX. 21 ; Mark X. 37 : «ts en Be^iuv a-ov, Ka\ els e'^ evuivviiwv 

VGV, one on thy rigid lutnd, and the other on thy left. 

John XX. 12; 1 Cor. iv. 6; Gal. iv. 22; 1 Thess. v. 11. But SaAos, 
fnpos are more frequently used in the second clause, as Matt. vi. 24 ; 
Rev. xvii. 10. 

* See Winer and others. 

f The indefinite article in the European langTiages is but a form of the 
numeral "one." We say "a or an;" we should rather say " an or a,'' the 
longer being the original form, and an =^ Scottish a lie — one. So French, un; 
Geruiau, ein, &c. 


iii. For not one {nv^fis, fiijdftiX tlie ISTew Testament writers, 
following the Hebrew idiom, sometimes say one ...not, combining 
the negative with the predicate. 

Matt. X. 29 : h> i^ airav ov nea-firai, one of them shall not fall, 
i.e., not one of them shall fall. So ch. v. 18 ; Luke xii. 6. 

But the adjective Tray, every, is still more frequently employed 
in such expressions. Thus, "everything is not..." means 
" nothing is." 

liuke i. 37 : ovk dbwaTTjcrei napa tw- Gew irav prjiia, everything is 
not-impossible with God, i.e., nothing is impossible. 

So Matt. xxiv. 22 ; Mark xiii. 20 ; John iii. 15, 16, vi. 39, xii. 46 : 
Eom. iii. 20 ; 1 Cor. i. 29 ; Gal. ii. 16 ; 1 Joliu ii. 21 ; Rev. xviii. 22. 
^'Forget not all his benefits" (Ps. ciii. 2), of course means "forget not 
any." But when ov is connected with ttoj, the meaning is simply not 
all. So Matt. vii. 21, ov Traj Kiyuv ... elae^K^vairat, not every one ... sfiall 
enter. Had the reading been iras \eyeov . . . ovk eheXevaerai, it would have 
meant " no one ... shall enter." (See Matt. xix. 11; 1 Cor. xv. 39; 
Rom. X. 16 : ov irdvres viri]Kov(raLV, not all obeyed. -navTes ovx virriKovcrav 
would have been, "they aU disobeyed." 

iv. Instead of the ordinal npwTos, the cardinal eh is used in the 
designation of the first day of the week (again a Hebraism). 

Matt, xxviii. 1 : els [t-ia-v o-appdrcov, lit., on the day one of the week. 

So Mark xvi. 2 (but ver. 9, Trptorri) ; Luke xxiv. 1 ; John xx. 1, 19 ; 
Acts XX. 7 ; 1 Cor. xvi. 2. In Titus iiL 10 ; Eev. vi. 1, 3, ix. 12, we 
find (me and the second as correlatives. 

329. The particles <os, wo-tC, about, &c., are used with numerals 
adverbially, i.e., without affecting the case. Matt. xiv. 21 ; Mark 
V. 13; Eom. iv. 19, &c. So with €irdva>, above, which in other 
connexions is followed by a Genitive. 

1 Cor. XV. 6 : w^Or] eirdvw -irevraKoo-^ois dSeXcjjois, he VMS seen by 
above five hundred brethren. So Mark xiv. 5 (where the Genitive 
is that of price). 

330. The names of measures and coins may be omitted after 
numeral designations. Acts xix. 19 : dpyupiow jjiupidSas irivn (five 


vajriads), fifty thousands of silver, i.e., Spa^/xcoi/ = denarii. Else- 
where the plural dpYvpia (pieces of silver) is used, as Matt. 
xxvi. 16, &c. 

331. The Greeks used the phrase ^^ himself third," for "he and 
two others," airbs TpiTos. So avlrbs Te'rapTos, he and three others, 
<fec. Sometimes avroi was omitted. This idiom occurs once in the 
New Testament. 2 Pet. ii. 5 : 67800V N«€ ... itpiXa^e, he preserved 
Noah, and seven others. 

The Distributive J^umerals have been sufficiently explained, § 52. 

§ 332.] PRONOUNS — PERSONAL. 303 

Chapter Y.— PRONOUNS. 
The Personal Pronouns. 

332. The rules respecting the cases of nouns, and their 
employment with prepositions, for the most part apply to the 
personal and other substantive Pronouns also. 

For the oblique cases of the third personal 2"»ronoun, in both 
numbers and all genders, forms of the adjective pronoun avro's are 

For the other uses of aurrfs, see § 335. 

The Nominative of the personal pronoun, wlien the 
subject of a verb, is omitted, except where emphasis is 
required. (See § 169.) 

333, The Genitive is very frequently used in a possessive 
sense ; the adjective possessive pronoun being comparatively 
rare. (See § 255.) 

Matt. vi. 9, 10 : IldTep rmdiv 6 eV To^s ovpavoli, ayiaaBfjTa rh Svond 

o-ov, t\6iT(o Tj Ptto-iXtCa o-ov, k.t.X., Om' Father wldch art in heaven, 
hallowed he thy name, &c. 

Matt. vii. 3 : tI Se ^Xtneis to Kdp(pos to iv rc5 6(^dakp.u> tou d8cX<{>ov 
(Tov (personal pronoun), tt]v 8e iv tw o-o) 6<|»0aX|iu (adjective })os- 
sessive) boKov ov KuTavoe'is ', and why seest thou the mote in the eye of 
thy brother, hut discernest not the beam in thine own eye ? 

The only possessive for the third person in the New Testament 
is the Genitive of avrds. 

Conversely, an objective genitive may be expressed by the 
possessive adjective pronoun. 

304 PROXOUNS — PERSOXAL. [^ 333. 

Luke XX ii. 19 j 1 Cor. xi. 25 ; tovto Trou'iTf els ttjv i\>-r\v dvd|ivt](rLv, 
this do for my remembrance, i.e., " for remembrance of me." So 
Rom. xi. 31, " through mercy slioion to yoit, ;" xv. 4 ; 1 Cor. xv. 31, 
"Sy wiy glorying in you ;" xvi. 17, " the lack of you." 

John XV. 9 : [xeiuare iv tt) d^a-n-Ti rfj Ifji^, abide in viy love, has 
sometimes been taken in a similar sense; but it seems better to 
take the pronoun there as a true possessive. (Compai'e § 269.) 

In one striking passage, Eph. iii. 18, there seems the omission 
of a genitive pronoun, " wliat is the breadth V &c., i.e., " of the 
love of Christ."* 

334. Occa.sionally in a lengthened sentence, a seemingly 
redundant personal pronoun is found. 

Matt. viii. 1 : Kara^dvTi Se a.vria ano tov opovs rjKoXovBTjcrav avTui 

6x^01 noXXol, and when he had come down from the mountain, great 
multitudes followed him. 

Acts vii. 21 : tKredevra §€ airhv dvfiXero airhv 17 GvyaTjjp ^apaa, 

and when he was cast out, the daughter of Pharaoh took him up. 

Where the object of a verb is expressed in the nominative absolutely, 
for the sake of emphasis, its place in the sentence is supplied by a pro- 
noun. (See § 242. ) 

Hev. lii. 12 : 6 vikoiv iroiiiaai avrov ariiXov, He that overcometh, I vrill 
make him a x>illar. 

335. As auro? propei'ly means very, self, it is used in apposition 
with nouns of both numbers and of all cases and genders, as well 
as with the personal pronouns of the first and second persons. 
When employed in the nominative for the third person, it is 
always empliatic,+ i.e., not He simply, but He himself, 

Rom. vii. 25 : aires e-yw ... hovkevai, I myself serve , 

John iv. 42 : avrol yap cLKr^Koapev, for we ourselves have heard. 

1 Thess. iv. 9 : avrol yitp vjists 6fo8ibaKToi iare, for ye yourselves 
are taught by God. 

* See Ellicott. t See Winer. 

S o35.] PRONOUNS — avToi. 305 

(1) The reflexive pronoun of the third person may be used foi* 
that of the other persons where no ambiguity would be likely to 

a. Singular (never for ifiavTov). 

John xviii. 34 : a^' lavrov crv tovto Xeyet? ; sayest thou litis of 
thyself i 

So in some other passages where the reading varies ; as in quotations 
of Lev. xix. 18 (ALatt. xix. 19 ; Mark xii. 31 ; Lake x. 27 ; Rom. xiii. 9). 
The approved reading, however, is aeavrdy. 

h. Plural (more frequently). 

2 Cor. iii. 1 : apxojxeBa ttoXiv tavTovs a-vvLaraveiv ; are ive beginninr/ 
again to commend ourselves 1 

2 Cor. xiii. 5: taiirous weipd^ere ... cavrois SoKind^ere, try your- 
selves . . . test yourselves. 

So in the frequent phrase irpocre'xtTs (or /SXeVere) caurois, take heed 
to yourselves. Mark xiii. 9 ; Luke xii. 1, xvii. 3, xxi. 34 ; Acts 
V. 35; 2 John 8. Also Eph. v. 19; James ii. 4: ojie with another. 
For the use of avTos with the Article, see § 222. 

(2) In respect of gender and number, aCros often follows the rule 
of rational concord (synesis). (See § 317, and for a similar usao-e 
with the relative pronoun, compare § 345.) 

a. Gender. 

Matt. XXViu. 19 : jiadriTevaaTe ndvra tu ^9vt|, ^anri^ovTes avTOvs, 
disciple all the nations, baptizing them. 

Col. il. lo : aTreKSva-dfjievos ras Ka\ rds l^ova-ia'S ... Opiafx^cixras 
avToiJs, stripjnng away from himself the 2^'>'i'>^cipalities and the 
poioers ... triumjMng over them. 

Mark v. 41 : KpaTrjcrai rrji x^^P°^ ''''^^ "iraiSiov, Xe'yft avT^, taking the 
child by the hand, lie saith unto her, 

b. Number. 

Matt. 1. 21 : o-coo-et rbv XaJiv avrov diro twv afiapriwv airm, he shall 

save his people from their sins. 

306 PRONOUNS — avTos. [§ 335. 

. 3 Jolin 9 : i'ypoy^d Ti TTJ €KKXi]cria, aXX' 6 (piXoTrptOTeviov avTuv 
AioTpec^j/s, K.r.X., / wrote somewhat to the church, but Diotrephes 
who loves 231'e-eminence over them. 

So in refei'ence to oxXos, rrX^dos, &c. 

(3) This pronoun may also refer to a substantive implied in some 
previous word or phrase. 

Matt. xix. 13 : ol 8e fj.adr]Tai eTrerifjLTjaav avTots, hit the disciples 
rebuked them, i.e., those that brought the children ; Mark x. 13. 

John viii. 44 : ■^eva-rr^'i iarl Ka\ 6 7707-17^ avTou, lie is a liar and 
the father of it, i.e., of lying. 

So Matt. iv. 23; Acts ^^ii. 5; 2 Cor. v. 19, "to them;'' i.e., the 
inhabitants of the world. Rom. ii. 26, the concrete implied in the 
abstract, a.Kpo$uffTia ; Eph. v. 12, "by those ivho ivalk in the darkness," 
or (Ellicott) ''the children of disobedience," ver. 6. 

Possessive Pronouns. 

336, On the possessive use of the Genitive of Personal 
Pronouns, and the employment of the Possessives as equivalent to 
the objective genitive, see § 333. For the Article with posses- 
sive pronouns, see § 223. 

The vai-ious use of the Possessives as Adjectives, epithetic and 
predicative, may be exemplilied by the following phrases : — 

John V. 30 : 17 Kpi'o-ir t| l[i^ SiKat'a i(TTiv, my judgment is just. 
Rom. X. 1 : 1? evboicia Tfis «n^s Kapblas, the desire (goodwill) of my 

Phil. iii. 9 : /xi) e'x'^'' ^H" ScKaLoa-vvrjv ttjv ck vopov, not having a 
righteousness of my oion, viz., that from law. 

John xvii. 10 : ra l|j.d wavTa crd eom, Ka\ rd crd l|Ad, all mine are 
thine, and thine are mine. 

The possessive adjective pronoun appears to have a greater emjihasis 
than the genitive of the personal. Thus (1 John ii. 2), "/te is the pro- 
pitiation for our sins;' ^H-Siv, a general declaration; but in the next clause 
this is thrown into strong antithesis— ?io/! for ours alone, but, &c. ; 
and here, accordingly, the adjective pronoun is employed, oii Trepl ruy 
riixeTfpaiv 5e iJ.6vov. 

§ 336.] PRONOUNS — POSS-ESSIVE. 307 

The genitive of a noun is sometimes found in apposition with 
the genitive notion, in the jjossessive pronoun. 

1 Cor. xvi. 21 : TT] £|xtj ^eipl IlaViXov, by my hand (that is) of me, 
Paul. Col. iv. IS; 2Tliess. iii. 17. 

337. For a possessive pronoun, entirely unemphatic, the 
Article is often employed (see § 215), and on the other hand an 
emphatic possessive is expressed by the Adjective i'Sjo?, own. 

John 1. 42 : evpicrKei ovros irpatTos tov abe\(pov tov lISiov Si'/xcoi/a, this 
m,an findeth first his own hrotlter Simon. 

See also Matt. ix. 1, xxv. 15 ; Luke vi. 44 ; John iv. 44, v. 18: ".mid 

that God irasliis own father f Acts xx. 28; Gal. vi. 9 : " itfs ovm season;" 
also 1 Tim. ii. 6; Titus i. 3; 2 Pet. i. 20, and mauy other passages,* 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

338. The demonstratives ovros, avrrj, roiiro, this (the nearer, 
connected with the second person), and sKelvos, eKfivr], tKelvo, that 
(the more remote, connected with the third person), with the 
correlatives (see § 62), obey the laws of adjective concord). 

For the use of the demonstratives with the article, see § 220. '^Ovtos 
generally precedes its substantive, fKilvos follows j but to this rule there 
are many exceptions. 

Luke xviii. 14 : Kare^r] O'utos SfStKatcojueVos fls TOV oIkov avrov ^ 
€K£ivos, this man (the latter) went down justified to his house rather 
than that (the former). 

339. The demonstrative oSe, this (" this, here," connected with 
the first person), is found only Luke x. 39 ; James iv. 13 ; and in 
the phrase rdSe \(yn; thus (these things) saith, Acts xxi. 11, and 
the beginnings of the letters to the seven churches ; Rev. ii., iii. 

"OSe marks a closer relation than cjZtos. In Greek narrative generally, 
e\e^e ravTa is, he said this that 2)recedes ; eAe^e rahe, he said this that 

* Winer notes the following passages as without emphasis (but query ?) : 
Matt. xxii. 5, xxv. 14 ; Titus ii. 9 ; John i. 42 ; Eph. iv. 22 ; Titus ii. 5 ; 
1 Pet. iii. I, 5. 


There are a few other passages in which the received text has o5e, hut 
. Avhere the best editors adopt other readings, as Acts xv. 23; 2 Cor. 
xii. 19 ; Lidie xvi. 25, where we shoidd read, he is comforted here. 

340. In some passages, ovtoh seems to refer to the remoter 

Acts viii. 26 : avrrj evriv eprjfjLos, it, the road, not the city of 
Gaza, is desert. 

2 John 7 : ovtos iarlv 6 TrXaroy Kal 6 avri)(pi(TTOi, this is tlie deceiver 
and the antidtrist, i.e., he who bears the character desciibed at the 
commencement of the verse. 

So iKfivos may refer to the nearer. 

John vii. 45 : Ka\ dnov avToh €k«ivoi, and tliey (the chief priests 
and Pharisees just mentioned) said to them, the officers spoken of 

'EKftvos is employed as an emphatic demonstrative, and sometimes on 
that acconut seems a])phed to the nearer antecedent. Thus 2 Cor. 
viii. 9 : "Ye knoio the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, that for your sakes 
he became poor, rich as he was, tliat ye, through His {^Ktivoj) poverty might 
he enriched." So Titus iii. 7. Compai-e Acts iii. 13. 

2 Tim. ii. 26 is difficult : e^wyprifj-ivoL vw' avrov, us rb iKeivov OiX-f)p.a. 
The two pronouns can hardly refer to the same subject (compare 
iii. 9) ; and it seems best to connect the clause beginning with els with 
aiav^]\\iui(Tiv, taking t^(jiyp7]fj.ivoi inr' avrov as parenthetical. EUicott : "and 
that they may return to soberness out of the snare of llie devil (though 
holden captive by him) to do His will," i.e., God's. For other explana- 
tions, see Alford, Ellicott, &c. 

341. A Demonstrative often repeats the notion ah'eady 
expressed by a substantive. The pi-onoun thus occasionally seems 
redundant, but perhaps was always intended to convey some 
additional emphasis. 

Matt. xiii. 20-23 : 6 Se ... anapi'is ... ovtos eanv, that which was 
sown . . . this is he, &c. 

So X. 22, xiii. 38, xv. 1 1, xxvi. 23; John vi. 46 ; John i. IS, 33 (e/c€?«/os), 
V. 11, x. 1, &c. 

1 Cor. vi. 4, TovTovs; Horn. vii. 10 : compare Acts i. 22; 1 Cor. v. .0; 
2 Cor. xii. 2. 


The Demonstrative itself may be repeated in a sentence. John vi. 42 : 
ohx oZt6s iariv 'Itjo-oOs o vlhs 'lai(T7i<p  "'is oiiv Xeyei ovtos ; /c.t.\., Js not 
thk Jesus, the son of Josejjh, how then saytth this man ? &c. (See also 
Acts vii. 35-3S.) 

342. The Neuter Demonstrative sometimes stands as equiva- 
lent to a clause. 

Acts xxiv. 14 : o/xoXo-yco de tovto crot, 6ti, k.t.X,, but this I confess 
to thee, that, i&c. 

So xxvi. 16 ; Eph. iv. 17, &c. 

The neuter plui-al may be employed for a single object of 

John XV. 17 : ravra evrtWofj-ai, iifxiv, tva. 6.-<{ii.Tza.Ti a!hXi\Kov%, thcs I 
command you, that ye love one another. 

3 John 4 : fiei^oTepav tovtuv ovk e^w x^P^") * niore surpassing joy 
than this I have not. Compare 1 Cor. vi. 11 : Kai ravTo. ni/es rjre, 
and such were some of you, oi', " such were you in some degree." 
(See § 352, iii.) 

In Heb. xL 12, the phrase koI raina, k.t.A., must be rendered, and 
that, too, when he was as (jood as dead. Compare 1 Cor. vi. 8, received 

In Eom. xiii. 11 ; 1 Cor. vi. 6 ; Phil. i. 28 ; 3 John, 5 (Lachmaun and 
Tischendorf), fcal tovto is similarly resumptive. 

On Eph. ii. 8, tTj yap ;tapiTi ecxe credaKT/ueVoi 5;a ttiVtccos, ko! tovto ovk 

«! v/xuiv, K.r.\., see § 403, d. 

For the ellipsis of the Demonstrative before the Relative, see § 317. 

The Relative Pronoun. 

343. The Relative Pronoun agrees with its Antecedent 
in gender, number, and person. This rule is termed the 
Third. Concord. 

The clauhe in which the Relative stands is called the Relative Clause, 
and is Adjectival (see § 190), as qualifying the Antecedent. 

The Case ol the Relative is determined by the structure of its 
own cLnise. 

310 PRONOUNS — RELATIVE. [§ 343. 

Matt. 11. 9 : 6 da-Trjp 8v ddov ev rfj avaroXrj Trporjyev avTovSy the staT 

which they had seen in the East, guided them forward. 

Rom. ii. G : tov Qeov, 8s aTrobuxrn, k.t.X., of God, who will recom- 
pense, &c. 

344. A clause, or clauses, may form a neuter antecedent to the 
Relative. So with the Demonstrative {see § 342). 

Acts. xi. 29, 30 : apia-av fKao-ros avraiv «is SiaKOviav ire'fjuj/ai TOis Karot- 
Kovo-tv €v TTj To\)8aia d8€X<j)ois" 8 Kai inoLTja-av, they determined, each of 
them, to send to the brethren dwelling in Jerusalem for their relief; 
which they also did. 

See also Gal. ii. 10; Col. i. 29; Heb. v. 11, &c. ; aud with plural 
relative, Acts xxiv. 18 (eV oh), xxvi. 12; Col. ii. 22. 

345. Synesis, or rational concord, is veiy frequent with the 
Relative. (See § 317.) 

a. Gender. 

Acts XV. 17 : Tvavra tA 'i^\n\ «<}>' ois, k.t.\., all the Gentiles, upon 
whom, tfec. So xxvi. 17 ; Gal. iv. 19 ; 2 John 1; 2 Pet. iii. 16. 

b. Number. 

Phil. ii. 15 : -yeveas a-Kokia^ koX biea-Tpaixpevqs, h> ols (palvea-de, k.t.\., 
of a crooked and perverted generation, among whom ye ajjpear, &c. 

A plural may be implied in a singular phrase ; hence sometimes a 
plural relative with a singular antecedent. Acts xv. 36 : kut^ iraaav 
Tr6\iv, iv ais, through every city, in which {cities). So 2 Peter iii. 1. 

On the contrary, a singular may be implied in a plural phrase. Acts 
xxiv. 1 1 : rjjxipai liKoSvo &<j>'' ris, twelve days from that on which ; Phil, 
iii. 20: ovpavo7s ... e^ ou. But here e'l ov may be adverbially taken, 

In John i. 42, S agrees with ovofia, name, implied. 

346. The Relative is often drawn, or " attracted," out of 
its proper gender or case by some other word. 

Attraction is of two kinds. 
a. Attraction of the Relative to the Predicate. — The Relative 

§ 346.] PRONOUNS — RELATIVE. 311 

Subject may take the gender of its own Predicate rather than that 
of the Antecedent. 

Mark xv. 16 : eo-to rijs avXfjs 8 eari irpaiTupiov, within the hall 
which is the Prcetorium. 

1 Cor. iii. 17 : o vabs tov Qeov uyios ea-nv, o1!tiv£S eare vixels, tlie 
tmnple of God is holy, which (temple) ye are. 

Gal. iii. 16 : tu <n7«pfuiT£ crov 8s eort Xpi(rT<5s, " to thy seed" which 
is Christ. 

Col. i. 27 : TOV p,VO-TT)plOV TOVTOV . . . 8s efTTI, XpKTTCIS 61' ijUV, K.T.X., 

of this 7)iystery . . . which is Christ in you, &c. This text explains 
the meaning of 1 Tim. iii. 16, provided the reading of most 
modern editions be adopted. " Confessedly great is the mystery of 
Godliness, 8s «(|)av€pci0Ti ev o-apKC, /c.r.X., who was manifested in the 
flesh, i.e., the Mystery is Christ. 

b. Attraction of the Relative to the Antecedent. — A Relative 
which would properly, by the i-ules of .its own clause, be in the 
Accusative case, conforms to a Genitive or Dative Antecedent. 

Luke ii. 20 : eVi irao-iv ols IJKova-av, for all things which they heard. 

Luke iii. 19 : irepX irdvTwv «v fnoiTjo-e novTjpojv, for all the evil things 
which he had done. 

John iv. 14 : eK tov vSutos oiu iyoi ficocra) avra, of the water which 
I will give to him. 

Acts 1. 1 : nepl irdvTWV wv Tjp^aro 6 Irjcrovs iroielv re Koi StSdcrKeij', 
concerning all things which Jesus began both to do and to teach. 

Acts ii. 22 : 8vvdp.€<ri koi T^pao-t Ka\ o-r)p.etois, ols iirvlrjae, k.t.X., by 
mighty deeds and wonders, and signs ivhich (God) wrought, «fec. 

So in a great number of passages. The Relative is occasionally 
"atti'acted" out of other cases than the Accusative. See Acts 
i. 22 ; 2 Cor. i. 4. 

Sometimes the Antecedent is put in the case of the Relative. 
This is called inverse attraction. 

In other words, the noun to which the Relative belongs is understood 
in the antecedent clause, and expressed in the relative, iu stead of being 
(as usual) exjjressed in the former and understood in the latter. 

312 PRONOUNS — RELATIVE. [§ 34b 

Mark vi. 1 6 : 8v eyw direKf<pa\i(Ta 'IwoLvvtjv, ovtos fjyfpdr], this John 
whom I beheaded arose, instead of tv ... ovtos *la>dvvi}s. 

Koni. VI. 17 : vTrr]Kova-aT€ ... ds 8v TrapeBodrjTe TUirov SiSaj^^y, 'i/e 

oheyed the form of doctrine into which ye were delivered, for vnrjK ... 

Tea TVTTOi ... fls ov. 

t I 

See also Luke xii. 48 ; Acts xxi. 16, xxvi. 7 ; 1 Cor. x. 16, &c. ; and 
the repeated quotation from Ps. cxviii. 22. KiQov tv atrfSoKifjiacrav ... ovtos 
tyivhe-n, K.T.K., Matt. xxi. 42; Mark xii. 10; Luke xx. 17 ; 1 Pet. ii. 7 
(in this last passage Lachmann has Ki6os). 

347. Wlien the Antecedent would be a demonstrative pronoun, 
it is very often omitted, being implied in tbe Relative. 

So in English, for "he gave me that which I asked for," we say " he 
gave me Wia< I asked for;" the relative form "what" implying both 
words. But in Greek the same form is used whether the demonstrative 
antecedent is expressed or implied. 

Matt. X. 27 : 8 Xeyw vplv ev Trj aKoria ... /cat 8 els to ovs aKovfTf, 
what I say to you in the darkness ... and what ye hear (into, § 298) 
in the ear. 

The Relative and the implied Antecedent may be in different 

Luke vii. 47 : w Se okiyou acpCfTM, okiyov dyaira, {he) to whom 

little isfm-given, loveth little. 

John iv. 18 : 8v ex^is ovk ea-n (tov dvrjp, (lie) whom thou now hast 
is not thy husband. 

Heb. V. 8 : epadev d(p' «v enade tt]v inraKofjv, he learned his 
obedience from those things which lie suffered. 

348. The pronoun avros is occasionally inserted in apposition 
■with the Relative, as a kind of complement to it. 

This is a Hebrew idiom ; the relative in that language being inde- 
clinable, aud requiring to be complemented by a pronoim. 

Matt. iii. 12 : ov t6 tttvop eV rfj x^i'Pi' o-^tov, whose fan is in his 

§ 348.] PRONOUNS — RELATIVE. 313 

Mark vii. 25 : r\S elx^e to Bvyarpiov avri]? Trvevjia aKadaprov, whose 
little daughter had an imclean spirit. 

Acts XV. 17 : €0' ovis 'iTTLKeKXijTai TO ovofid fiov In avTois, upon 

whom my name has been called; LXX. ; Amos Lx. 12. 

So also Mark i. 7 ; Luke iii. 16 ; 1 Pet. ii. 24 (not Lachmann), &c. 

349. The Compound Relative, Soms, is strictly indefinite. 
Thus TTos 8s oKovei, every one who hears, would denote " every one 
who is now hearing ;" but ttcs ficms dKovet, as Matt. vii. 21, is 
" every one, whoever he be that hears." 

Matt. v. 39 : Scms paTria-ei ... Scrris ayyapevaei, whosoever shall 
smite . . . whosoever sh<dl impress. 

Luke X. 35 : 8, n av Trpoa-SaTravrjajjs, whatsoever thou shalt have 
spent more. John ii. 5, xiv. 13, xv. 16, &c.* 

From the indefinite meaning of oo-tis arises a suggestion of 
character, kind, reason, as marking the class to which this Relative 
is applied. 

For example, oaris, and not os, is used in the following pas- 
sages : — 

Matt. vii. 15 : " beware of false prophets, who come to you," 
i.e., such as come. 

Matt. vii. 24, 26 : "a wise man who built his house upon the 
rock, a foolish man who built his house upon the sand ;" in each 
case the kind of man who did what is described. 

Matt. XXV. 1 : " ten virgins who took their lamps and went 
forth to meet the bridegi'oom," i.e., who acted in accordance with 
their function. 

In this way the compound Relative acquires a kind of logical 
force. Romans vi. 2 : "we who died to sin, how shall we longer 
live therein," i.e., inasmuch as we died. Compare Phil. iv. 3. 

* The instances of 8, ti, neuter, are very few ; and there is much varia- 
tion of reading, oti, conj., being often preferred (as, e.g., in 2 Cor. iv. 14). 


With proper names, oans is frequently preferred to os. See Luke ii. 4, 
ix. 30, xxiii. 19 ; John. viii. 53 ; Acts viii. 15, xvi. 12 (on the attraction, 
see § 346), xvii. 10, xxviii. 18 ; Eom. xvi. 6, 12 ; Gal. iv. 26 ; 2 Tim. 
ii. 18. In aU these passages there is an impHed reference to character, 
position, calling. 

Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns. 

350. The interrogative pronoun m; ri ; is used in various 

i. Simply, witli or without a Substantive — 

Nominative. Matt. iii. 7 : ris iwfdet^ev iyHv ; who warned you ? 

Genitive. Matt, xxii 20 : ti'vos jj etKwi/ avrrj kuX fj eVtypa^i? ; 
whose is this image and superscription ? 

Dative. Luke xii. 20 : a 6e fjTolfiaa-as t^vi tarai ; the riches 
which thou didst amass, for whom shall they be ? 

Accusative. Matt. v. 46, 47 : Tiva fjna-Bov ex^re ; ... rl irf piaaov 
TToifire ; what reward have ye? ... what do ye over and above ? 

With Prepositions. Matt. v. 13 : €v tivi aXio-^jjo-erat j wherevjith 
shall it be salted 1 

Matt. ix. 11 : Siart (pia rl) fUTo. rav t(\covwv koI afiapraiKav ea-BUi ; 
wherefore eateth he with the publicans and sinners ? So Matt, 
xiv. 31 ; Mark xiv. 4 ; John xiii. 28. 

ii. Ellii)tically, with tva, tJiat (" that what may happen 1 " or 
wherefore ?) — 

Matt. ix. 4 : Ua tC eV(9v/xeTo-^e iromjpi ; wherefore are ye irmgining 
malignant things ? 

1 Cor. X. 29 : I'va ti yap ij eXtvOepla /xov Kplverat ; for wherefore is 
my liberty judged ? 

In quotations from the Old Testament, written tVart; Matt. xx\'ii. 40; 
Acts iv. 25, vii. 26. 

iii. Adverbially, neuter, ri ; vjhy ? (or as an exclamation, How !) 
ri oTi ; how (is it) tluit ? — 


Matt. vi. 28 : Trepl evdvuaros rC [xepifivaTe ; wh^ are ye anxious 
about raiment 1 

Sovii. 3, viii. 26, xvi. 8, &c. 

Matt. vii. 14 (Lachmann, &c.) : ti o-rei/i) ^ ttvXj; ! how na/rrovo is 
the gate ! But this rendering is doubtful, as well as the reading 

Luke ii. 49 : tC ort efi^retre yxe ; how is it that ye were seeking me ? 
See also Acts v. 4, 9. 

iv. In alternative questions, where the classical idiom requires 
TTorepos, a, ov; wJiether of the two 1 the New Testament employs rl^. 

Matt. ix. 5 : rf yap l(Trw evKonaTepov, for which is easier 1 (of the 

Matt. XXI. 31 : rfs eV Tmv 8vo eTToirja-e To dekrjfia rov iraTpos; which 
of the two did the will of his father i 

So xxiii 17, 19, xxvii. 17, 21 ; 1 Cor. iv. 21 ; PhiL i. 22 (see § 382). 

351. The simple interrogative, tU, tI, is also used in indirect 
questions, and after verbs of knowing, thinking, &c., in objective 

See § 382. The classic Greek idiom requires Sffris, o, ti, though not 
without exceptions. 

Matt. XX. 22 : oIk oidare ti ahela-de, ye hnow not what ye ask. 

Luke vi. 47 : iiroSei^co Tivt ia-Tiv o/xoios, I wiU shew you to 
whom he is like. 

John xviil. 21 : eparr^u-ov Tovs aKTjKooTas Tt e'KciKTjcra airols, ask tJwse 
who have heard what I said to them. 

So in many other passages. 

352. The transition from the interrogative to the indefinite 
pronoun can easily be traced. It comes to almost the same thing 
whether we say, " Wliat man is there among you who will give his 
child a stone for bread?" or, "Is there any man among you who 


So the only difference between the forms of the two is in accent 
and the position in the sentence. 

The indefinite, ns, ri, may be used (i.) simply, with or without 
Substantive expressed — 

Nom. Matt. xii. 47 : fine be ns avra, and one said unto him. 

Luke i. 5 : eyevero . . . Upevs Tis, there was ... a certain priest. So 
very often, dvOpwiros tis, a certain man. 

Gen. Luke xxii. 35 : fXTj nvos va-reprja-aTe ; did ye lack anything ? 

Dat. Mark viii. 26 : [xrjbe etnus nvl eV rrj kw/li,^, 7ior speak to any 
one in the village. 

Ace. Acts iii. 5 : irpoa-boKwv ti rrap' avTav Xa^e'iv, expecting to 
receive something from them. 

Jjnke xvii. 12 : ela-epxopevov avTov eXs Tiva KMfxrjv, as he wos entering 
into a certain village. 

Acts XV. 36 : p^era be Tivas fip.epas, And after certain days. 

Phil. iii. 15: koX et n ere pas ^povelre, and if in anything ye he 
otherwise minded (for Ace, see § 283). So Ppaxv ti, for some 
short time, Acts v. 34 ; Heb. ii. 7 j pe'pos ti, in some part, partly, 
1 Cor. xi. 18. 

"With a Genitive following — 

1 Cor. vi. 1 : ToX^ici tus vpav ; Bares any of you ? 

Acts iv. 32 : tv rav virapxavrcov avra, any of Ms goods. 

So v. 15, &c. With air6, Luke xvi. 30 ; with «(c, Heb. iii. 13. 

(ii.) Emphatically ; " somebody important," " something great,' 
" anything " — 

Acts V. 36 : Xeycaj/ fimi Tiva fdvrov, saying that he was somebody. 
Compare viii. 9. 

Gal vi. 3 : el yap boK(7 TIS elval ti, pr^bev S)v^ (ppevanaTO. eavTov, for if 

any one thinks he is anything, being nothing, he deceives himself. 

See also 1 Cor. iii. 7 ; Gal. ii. 6 and (of things) 1 Cor. x. 19 ; Gal. vi 15. 
Compare Heb. x. 7. 


(iii.) "A kind of"— 

James i. 18: els ro eivai ^fias atrapx^v Tiva, that we might he a hind 
of first fruits. 

See also Rom. i. 11, 13; aud in tlie opiuiou of some interpreters, 
1 Cor. vi. 11, "such in some degree were you." * But see § 342. 

(iv.) With numbers, " some," approximately (or perhaps simply- 
redundant) — 

Lute vii. 1 9 : TTpoaKaXfadnevos bvo Ttvas tw^ fxa6r]TU)v, having called 
some two of his disciples. 

Acts Xxiii. 23 : irpoa-KaXea-dfievos 8vo TivcLs rav eKarovapxa^v, having 
called some two of the centurions. 

These are the only instances ; for the construction in Acts xix. 14 is 
different. For eTs, one, instead of tis, and in conjunction with it, 
see § 328, i. 

(v.) In alternative expressions we find both nves ... nvf^ and 
Tis ... ertpos — 

Phil. i. 15 : nvh pev koL bia (f)66vov ... rivh be koi 8t' evboKiav, some 

indeed even from envy ... but others also from goodwill. 
Compare Luke ix. 7, 8 ; 1 Tim. v, 24, 

1 Cor, iii. 4 : Srav yap \eyi] Tis ... 2T€pos be, for when one saith ... 
and another. 

(vi.) The negatives of rt? are ov8«is, firiSei's, no one. For their 
construction, and for the Hebraistic negative, ov nds, see § 328, iii. 

The compounds, odrts, /^■fins, are not found in the New Testament 
For interrogative wtjti, see § 370, 

* WaW, 

3.13 THE VERB VOICE. j_§ 35 

Chapter YI.— THE VERB. 

353. The distinction of "voices," in respect oi form (Active, 
Middle, and Passive), belongs to Etymology. The Verb in Syntax 
is considered as transitive, intransitive, reflexive, or passive. 

Transitive verbs may be of Active or Middle form. A transitive 
Active verb may in its middle voice retain the transitive meaning 
■with certain modifications, or may become intransitive or reflexive. 
The passive sense is conveyed by the Passive form. 

Intransitive, or "neuter" verbs, in like manner, may be Active 
or Middle in foi'm. 

The Active Yoice. 

354. An intransitive Active verb sometimes takes a transitive 

Matt. V. 45 : tov rjXiov airov dvareXXti, he causes his sun to arise ; 
avar^XXw being propeiiy to arise, as 2 Pet. i. 19, &c.* 

Matt, xxvii. 57 : €|ia6'qT€V(r€ is intransitive, he was a disciple. 
Some editors, howevei", read «|AaeT]T£v0T] ; and elsewhere the verb is 
transitive, ch. xiii. 52, xxviii. 19 ; Acts xiv. 21. 

Av|dv«, to grovj, is generally intransitive. Matt. vi. 28 ; but in 
\ Cor. iii. 6, 7, 2 Cor. ix. 10, is transitive. The English verb is 
similarly used (" wheat grows •" " he grows wheat "). So of many 

* In this change of intransitive to transitive, we mark the influence of 
the Hebrew, which language attaches to neuter verbs a causative conjugation 
(Hiphil). In the LXX., both the neuter and the Hiphil are often rendered 
by the simple verb. So 1 Kings i. 4,3, iPa(jl\fv(Te, he made (Solomon) king : 
although ^aaiKiio) properly means to be a king. 


2tp^{{>w, to turn, generally intransitive in the Middle, but some- 
times in the Active also. Compare Matt. v. 39 with Acts vii. 42. 

Some verbs vary between the transitive and intransitive meaning 
according to form. Thus, la-TTjfjn, a regularly transitive or causative 
verb, has (with some few others) an inti'ansitive sense in the Per- 
fect (with Pluperfect) and the Second Aorist. (See § 108, 3.) 
47C1), to lead, has imperative, fi^e, go ; subjunctive, a7<o|iev, let us go. 
The intransitive imperative only occurs in the New Testament 
inter) ectionally, go to I (James iv. 13, v. 1). 

The verb ^w, to have, becomes neuter before an adverb, through 
the ellipsis of a pronominal object, " to have one's self in such 
a manner;" hence "to be so," the adverb being often translated 
as an adjective. Matt. iv. 24 : rovs KaKtos ?x°'''''°'S (those having 
themselves evilly), those who were ill; Mark v. 23 : dvydrpiou fiov 
4<rxaT<os ^x*'') ^^2/ ^^^^^<^ daughter is at an extremity. So Acts xv. 36 : 
nas 'i\pviri, how they do. (See also John xi. 17 ; Acts vii. 1 ; 
1 Pet. iv. 5, (fee.) So in the participle, to vvv ^ov, the present time 
(that which has itself now). 

For variations in other verbs, see Vocabulary. 

The Middle Voice. 

355. As compared with the Active Voice, the JMiddle gene- 
rally expresses one of three things : — 

1. Action upon one's self: the reflexive sense. 

2. Action for one's self : the appropriative sense. 

3. Action, as caused or permitted : the causative sense.* 

1. The reflexive sense of the Middle is comparatively rare; 
reflexive pronouns being generally employed with the Active. 

Act. Matt. viii. 25 : ^yupav avrov, they aroused him. 
Mid. Matt. xxvi. 46 : kyiCpio-Qe, aycoiiev, rise, let ws be going. 

* Dr. Donaldson, § 432. (1) May be called the Accusative middle; (2) the 
Dative middle. (See 2.) 


Act. 1 Pet. iii. 10 (LXX.) : iravo-arw ttjv ykmaaav dwo kokov, let 
him refrain his tongue from evil. 

Mid. 1 Cor. xiii. 8 : eire yXwo-crat, irauo-ovrai, whetlier (there be) 
tongues they shall cease. 

See also Matt, xxvii. 5 ; Mark vii. 4 ; Luke xiii. 29 ; 1 Pet, iv. 1. 
In this sense the Active is transitive, the Middle intransitive. 

2. As the reflexive sense is equivalent to the Active with the 
immediate (Ace.) pronominal Object, so the appropriative sense 
corresponds with the Active and the remote (Dat.) Object. Thus, 
Luke xvi. 9, iroiTJo-are lavrois might have been fully expressed by 
the one word, iroi^o-ao-Ge. 

Act. John xvi. 24 : alrtiTc Ka\ Xrjylreade, ask, and ye shall 

Mid. Matt, xx, 22 : ovk o'lSare tI alreto-Ge, ye know not what ye 
ask (for yourselves). 

Act. Acts xxii. 20 : <j)DX<i(ror«v ra Ifiaria, watching the clothes (of 
Stephen's mui'derers). 

Mid. 2 Tim. iv. 15 : ov koL av <j>\iXd<r(rov, o/ tvhom do thou also 
beware, i.e., watch him with a view to thy own safety. 

Act. and Mid. 2 Pet. i. 10 : o-TrovbdaaTe jBe^alav vfj.a)V ttjv kXtjctiv 
KoX eKXoyfjv iroieto-Oai • ravra yap -iroiovvres, k.t.X., give diligence to make 
your calling and election sure for yourselves ; for if ye do these 
things, &c. 

For other instances of the Middle of iroUu, see Luke v. 33, xiii. 22; 
Acts i. 1, XX. 24, XXV. 17, xxvii. 18; Rom. i. 9, xiiL 14, xv. 26; Eph. 
iv. 16 ; Phil. i. 4 ; Heb. i. 3, and a few other passages. 

In this sense, the Middle is transitive, retaining the direct Object 
of the verb. Hence the diflSculty of always distiuguishing between 
the Active and the Middle signification ; as to perform an action, 
and to perform, it for one^s self, are notions that may approach so 
as almost coincide. Compare, for instance, i.-apeixe (Acts xvi. 16) 
with irap€ix«To (xix. 24). The same object, ipyaa-iav, gain, follows 
in both cases. Demetrius had undoubtedly a more direct interest 
in his gains than the damsel in hers. 

§ 355.] THE \t:rb — middle voicb. 321 

It is doubtful whether the Middle is ever to be taken as simply con- 
veying an intensive force. Compare John i. 5, the darkness comprehended 
it not (act., KmiKa&ev), with Eph. iii. 18, that ye may comprehend (mid., 
KaTdKa^iodai) ivith all saints, what is the breadth, &c. The appropriative 
sense is here very decided. The careful student may note the middle 
verbs in Matt. xxi. 16 (LXX.) ; John xiii. 10 (compared with the rest 
of the passage) ; Matt. vi. 17 ; Luke x. 42 ; Acts ii. 39, v. 2, ix. 39 
(iTTiBfiKvvyiivai) ; Eom. iii. 25 ; Acts xx. 28 ; GaL iv. 10 ; Eph. v. 16 ; 
Phil. i. 22 ; 2 Thess. iii. 14, and many other passages. In 1 Tim. iii. 13, 
the dative pronoun is redundant. 

3. The causative Middle expresses the interest of the Subject in 
the result, aud yet implies a mediate agency ; " to allow a thing to 
be done," " to have it done," " to provide for its being done." Here 
the Middle partakes more nearly of the nature of the Passive.* 

Luke ii. 5 : diro-ypaij/ao-Gai avv Mapiafj., to get enrolled vnth Mary. 

So Mid., 1 Cor. x. 2 : ipairrio-avTo, they got baptized. Compare 
Mark vii. 4, and especially Acts xxii. 16. 

Hence, too, in some words a change of signification ; both voices 
taking the accusative Object. diroSiStop.!,, to give off, or away ; ano- 
bibofiai, mid., to sell, i.e., give off or away for one^s self, i.e., to get 
money by the act. Compare Matt, xviii. 26—34 with Acts v. 8, 
vii. 9. 8av«i?(o, to borrow ; bavfl^, to lend, Matt. v. 42; Luke 
vi. 34, 35. 

The causative meaning in some cases becomes reciprocal : " to do 
... and cause others to do." 

John ix. 22 : a-vvfriQtivro ot 'lovbaloi, the Jews had agreed amongst 

See also Matt. v. 40 and 1 Cor. vi. 1 : KplvedBai, to contend at law , 
Rom. iii. 4 : koI viKriaris iv r^ KplyeaBal a€, and that thou mayest overcotae 
when thou comest into trial, i.e., with the children of men; the image 
being that of two' parties to a suit — not, wJten thou judcjest, as E.V., 
Ps. Ii. 4, nor wlien thou art judged, as in the New Testament quotation. 

For the special meanings of different verbs, the Vocabulary must be 
consulted. The threefold division now given covers most of the relations 
of the Middle with the Active. 

* Lat curare; Qterm., aichlasaen. So Winer, xxxviii. 3. 



The Passive Toicb. 

356. As in other languages, the direct Object of the Active 
verb becomes the Subject of the Passive. 

But in Greek, the remoter Object of the Active may also 
become the Subject of the Passive. 

Genitive. Acts xxii. 30 : KaTrj-yoptiTai irnpa rmv 'Jov8aicov, he is 
accused by the Jews (for the gen. with Karrjyopeat, see § 250). 

Dative. Pom. iii. 2 : itria-TivBr\a-av ra \6yia tov Oeov, they were 
entrusted with the oracles of God. 

So 1 Cor. ix. 17 ; Gal. ii. 7 ; 1 Thess. ii. 4, &c. 

Heb. xi. 2 : €|iapTupT|0i]<rav oi TTpea^vTepoi, the elders obtained a 
good report (lit., -were attested to). 

So Acts xvi. 2, xxii. 12, &c. 

Heb. viii. 5 : Ka^aJs KexpiitiaTurrai Mcoo-^r, according as Moses has 
been divinely commanded. 

For the dative after the Active of such verbs, see § 278. 

Where the Active governs two Accusatives (person and thing), 
or a Dative of the person and an Accusative of the thing, the 
Passive may take also the Accusative of the thing. (See § 284.) 

2 Thess. ii. 15 : Kparflre ras Trapaboafis &$ eStSdxOilTe, hold fast the 
traditions which ye were taught. 

See also Mark xvi. 5; Acts xviii. 25, &c., for verbs of the former 

For verbs of the latter class, note Eom. iii. 2, quoted above, with 
the connected passages. 

357. After Passive verbs, the agent is marked by vt:6 with the 
Genitive ; occasionally by other prepositions, as airo, (k, napa, 
npos ; sometimes by the Dative without a preposition. (See 
§§ 280, e, 304.) 

358. As many forms of the Middle and Passive are alike, it is 
sometimes difficult to decide which is intended. In considering 

§ 358.] THE VERB — PASSIVE VOICE. 323 

this question, regard must cMefly be had to the usage of the parti- 
cular verbs, and to the general construction of the sentence. 
The following is a selection of instances : — 

Matt. xi. 5 : Tn-wp^ol €va7Y€X£?ovTai, poor men preach the Gospel, or 
have the Gospel preached to them. The verb may be middle or 
passive,* but the sense of the passage seems decisively for the latter. 

Rom. iii. 9 : rt ovv ; irpo€xo|A«9a ; What then, are we superior ? 
(mid.), or, are we surpassed ? (pass.) The context requires the 
former meaning. Some, however (see Dr. Vaughan), prefer the 
passive, but render are we preferred ? a sense without authority 
elsewhere. For other suggested renderings, see Alford's note. 

1 Cor. 1. 2 : avv nacri toIs €iriKaXov|i«voi.s to ovojia roii Kvpiov, with 
all who call \ipon the name of the Lord, or who are called by tlie 
name. The usage of the word clearly pronounces for the former. 
Compare Acts vii. 59, ix. 14, 21 ; Rom. x. 13 (Acts ii. 21), com- 
pared with ver. 14; 1 Pet. i. 17, &c. Acts xv. 17 (from LXX., 
Amos ix. 12) is quite different. 

2 Cor. ii. 10 : koi yap ey&) 6 K£xap''0"[Jiai, ei rt K€xapi(r|Aai, hC v\ 
Some render the verb here, / have been forgiven ; but yapl^o^iai 
nowhere else means "to be forgiven," and the ordinary rendering 
gives a sense harmonious with the context. 

Eph. vL 10 : evSwafAoCa-Oe Iv Kvpia. This verb is always passive 
in the New Testament : ^^ be strengthened." (See Ellicott.) 


359. The Indicative Mood is objective, describinj^ that 
which, is; the Subjunctive and Optative are subjective, 
describing that which is conceived to be. Hence the various 
uses of the three Moods in independent and subordinate 
sentences. ^ 

* For the middle, see Luke i. 19, ii. 10, iii. 18, iv. 18, 43, and many other 
passages ; for the passive (with a personal subject), Heb. iv. 2, 6. The 
passive is also found, Luke xvi. 16; Gal. i. 11 ; 1 Pet. i 25, iv. 6, the subject 
being that which was preached. 

324 the verb — moods and tenses. [§ 359. 

The Indicative. 

The Indicative !BIood is used in declarationf whether affirmative 
or negative, and in interrogation. 

360. As the force of the Tenses will be best seen in the first 
instance by their use in the Indicative, an account of them is here 

See the Table of Tenses, § 65. Let it be remembered that 
Tense expresses both time and state. Time is present, past, and 
future ; state is imperfect, perfect, and indefinite. 

The Tenses to be considered are — 

1. The present imperfect, or " Present." 

2. The past imperfect, or " Imperfect." 

3. The future indefinite, or " Future." 

4. The past indefinite, or " Aorist." 

5. The present perfect, or " Perfect." 

6. The past perfect, or " Phiperfect." 

The future imperfect, the present indefinite, and the future per- 
fect, are expressed in other ways. 

The three past tenses are termed " historical," the others " prin- 

The Present Tense. 

361. a. The Present expresses a state or action as now exist- 
ing ; as Xe'-yw Ifuv, I say unto you. 

Matt. iii. 10 : ^ a^lvr] np6s rrjv piCav rav 8iv8pcov Kilrai, the axe is 
lying at the foot of the trees, i.e., it is already there. 

John ili. 36 : 6 TriaTevcov els Tov v'lov 'i.\i\- C'^tji alaviov, he tmit 
believeth on the Son hath life eternal. 

Matt. XXV. 8 : al XapTraBes rjpmv o-pevvvvrai, our lavips are going 
out ; not " are gone out," as E. Y. 

Gal. 1 6 : Bavpa^oi on oCrw Tax(<^s |j.£TaTi6e<r6e, / marvel that ye are 
so soon changing. 

§ 361.] TIIE TENSES — PRESENT. 325 

h. It is also used to denote an habitual or usual act. 
Matt. vi. 2 : aa-nep 01 vTroKpiToi iroiov<ri,v, as the hypocrites do. 

Matt. vii. 8 : nas 6 alrSv Xafj.pdv€i, kuI 6 ^■qrav €vpio-Kei, every one 
who asks receives, and he who seeks finds. 

c. In vivid narration, the Present is employed of past time (the 
Historic Present). 

Matt. iii. 1 : iv be rals fjnepais eKelvais irapa-yCveTai ^la)avvr]s, and in 
those days cometh John. 

John i. 29 : rfj enavpiov pXeVti tov 'irjcrovu ... Koi Xe'vei, On the next 
day he seeth Jesus, and saith. 

Sometimes the Historic Present is used with Aorists in the 
same narration. 

Mark v. 14, 15 : ?<j>v7ov koI aTr^yyeiXav . . . koi ^X0ov ... koI 'ipxovrai . . . 
Koi Gewpovo-i ... Kat i^opriQr\<rav, they fled, and related ... and came ... 
and they come ... and behold ... and they feared. 

Variations may liere be noted in the comparison of different evan- 
gelists in the same narrative. Thus, Matt. xxi. 23, xxii. 23, we read, 
irpo(T7\\eav, they came to Mm; Mark xi. 27, xii. 18, tpxovjai, they come.* 
Compare also Matt. xxiv. 40 ; Luke xvii. 34 

d. The Present is employed to express cei'tain futurity, as when 
we say, " To-morrow is Sunday." 

Matt. XXVI. 2: pfra bvo rj/xepas to Trdaxa yCvirai ... koI 6 vlos tov 
dvdpwnov -irapaSiSoTai, after two days is the passover, and the Son of 
man is betrayed. 

Luke xix. 8 : to fjp.iarj pov tcov VTvapxovTUV Kvpie tois 7rra);^otj 8i8ft)[J.i, 
the half of my goods, Lord, I give to the poor ; not "I am in the 
habit of giving" now ; but " I will give," immediately. 

John XX. 17 : dvapaCvw, I ascend. Compare xvi. 16. 

John xxi. 23 : oti 6 padrjTfjs fKelvos ovk a.TToQv{]trKii., that that 
disciple dieth iiot, i.e., " is now and will be exempt from death." 

* As a rule, the narrations of Mark are more vivid than ihose of the other 

326 THE TEMSES — PRESENT. [§ 361. 

1 Cor. XV. 25 : eaxnTOS exdpos KaxapYetrai 6 ddvaros, death the last 
enemy is destroyed, or more lit., is being destroyed. In this case, 
and in some others, the notion of futurity is perhaps associated 
with that of the process now being conducted. 

The verb tpxa/J-ai, because of its meaning, carries with the present 
tense a future reference. So in Enghsh, "/ a7n coming." (See Luke 
xii. 54; 1 Cor. xiii. 11.) So Matt. xvu. 11 : 'H\las epx^ruL, EHjah iscoming; 
and especially John xiv. 3 : iraMv epx^/""' '^"^ irapaXii^o^LM ii^as, I am 
coming again, and will receive you. 1 Cor. xvn. 5 : UaKi^ovlav SUpxofiai 
must be rendered, / (am about to) pass through Macedonia, not " I am 
passing through," which would be contrary to fact. The participle of 
this verb, 6 ipxifJ-evos, the Coming one, is a frequent title of the Messiah 
(see § 210), and in the Revelation denotes the eternal self-existence of 
Deity, ''who wast, and art, and art to come," lit., "who comest." 

On the other hand, the verb 7i«a), in the present, has a perfect signi- 
fication : / am come. Luke xv. 27 : ^ aSeAcfx^s aov IJ/cet, thy brother is 
come! John u. 4; Heb. x. 9 (not simply " Lo, I come," but Lo, I am 
come !) ; 1 John v. 2 ' , 

The Imperfect Tense. 

362. a. The Imperfect expresses what was in progress at a 
past time ; as iK-r\pva-<ri to evayyeXiov, he was 2^reachi7ig the gospel ; 
spairritovTo, they were being bajJtized. 

b. Hence the Imperfect may refer to an action not continuous, 
but statedly repeated ; also to anything customary. 

Acts iii. 2 : ov IrCeow Ka6' ^fiipav, whom they used to lay day by 

Mark xv. 6 ; koto, de foprrjv aviXviV avrols eva 8ecr[iiov, and at each 
passover he used to release to them one prisoner. 
See also 1 Cor. xiu. 11. 

c. The Imperfect should carefully be distinguished from the 
Aorist, or simple Past, although our translators have generally 
rendered the two tenses alike. 

So Luke xxiv. 32 : " while lie was talking with us by the way, 
and oj)ening to us the Scriptures." 

Matt. ii. 4 : Herod was enquiring of the priests and scribes, not 

§ 362.] THE TENSES — IMPERFECT. 327 

once for all, but repeatedly ; and when tliey had replied, be 
ascertained (Aorist, one act) of the Magi what they had seen. 

Matt. ix. 35 : Jesus was traversing all the cities and villages : 
and on one occasion, being touched, he said (ver. 36), the harvest 
is great, &c. 

Luke vi. 19: the whole multitude were seeking to touch him, for 
power was going forth from him, and was healing all. 

Luke xiv. 7 : how they were selecting the chief seats, 

John v. 16 ; the Jews loere persecuting Jesus, and were seeking 
to kill him, because he was doing (used to do) these things. 

Acts xvi. 4 : as they were going through the cities they were 
delivering the decrees to the churches. 

The al)ove are but a few instances, and the reader should always note 
the special force of the tense. Probably the Imj)erfect is never really 
equivalent to the Aorist, or used for it j though, undoubtedly, the dis- 
tinction is often slight. In such cases as the following, where both 
tenses are used, the difference is very marked. The Aorist, it will be 
seen, often marks a single occurrence ; the Imperfect its continuous 

Matt. iv. 11 : ayyikoi irpoo-i^XGov Ka\ 8n]Kovovv avTu>, angels came 
and were ministering to him. 

Matt. xiii. 8 : otlier seed fell (?ir£<r«v) upon the good ground, and 
vjas yielding {ihlhov) fruit. 

Matt. XXV. 5 : they all fell asleep (€vvcrTa|av), and were slumbering 

Mark vii. 35 : his ears were opened (8iT)vo(x^T)crav), and the bond 
of his tongue was loosed {tKiQr\), and he was speaking (eXdXei) 

Luke viii. 23 : a whirlwind came down {Ka.ri^y\), and they were 
filling (o-vv€irX.T|powTo) and were in danger (eKivSiivevov). 

1 Cor. iii. 6 : / planted, Apollos watered, God was giving the 
increase. The transitory acts of human teachers are expressed by 
Aorists, the continual bestowal of Divine grace by the Imperfect. 
So 1 Pet. ii. 23, 2i, we have three Imperfects to denote continual 

a a 

328 THE TENSES — IMPERFECT. [§ 362. 

and repeated acts ; but an Aorist to denote an act ("he bai-e our 
sina") once for all."* 

See further, Matt. xxi. 8-11; Mark xi. 18; John vii. 14, xi. l.>, 
XX. .3-5 ; Acts xi. 6 ; 1 Coi-. x. 3, 4, xi. 23 (the )iight on which he wcm 
being betrayed) ; Gal. ii. 12 ; James ii. 22, aud many other passages. 

In parallel passages we occasionally find different tenses (compare 
Matt. xix. 13 and Mark x. 13). From the latter passage we might 
gather that the incident was a repeated one. In such cases, the con- 
ceptions of the two writers are slightly different : one regarding the 
action as momentary, the other as continuous, "f But in narrative some 
common verbs, as Ae'yw, are generally used in the Imperfect rather than 
in the Aorist. 

d. The Imperfect sometimes denotes an inchoative act, i.e., one 
begun, but not carried out. 

Matt. iii. 14 : SicKuXvev avrov, he was hindering him, i.e., was 
doing so until checked by our Lord's words. 

Luke i. 59 : koI IkoXowv avrb ... Zaxapiav, and they began to call 
him Zacharias. 

Luke V. 6 : Siepprj-yvvTo Se to b'lKTvov avTcov, and their net was 
breaking, began to give way. 

Luke xxiv. 27 : 8fiip|XTiv€tJ6v, began to iiiterpr-et, entered upon the 
explanation, rather than "expounded" all, as E.V. 

Heb. XL 17 : t6v jiovoyevrj irpoo-€(j)€p€v, he was offering up his only 
begotten, when the angel's voice arrested him.Jl 

e. A compound (or "resolved") Imperfect (imperf. of elul, and 
pres. part, of the verb) throws emphasis on the continuity of the 

Matt. vii. 29 : ■^v yap SiSdo-Kwv avrovs,for lie vjas teaching tlieni. 

Matt. xix. 22; Mark i. 39; Luke i. 10, 21, ii. 23; John iii. 23; 
Acts i. 10, X. 24 ; Gal. i. 23 ; Phil. ii. 26, &c. (See § 394, i. 1.) 
For the Im^jerfect in conditional expressions, see § 383. 

* Webster. 

t See Jelf's "Kuhrer," § 401 ; Winer, xl. .3, d, note. 

X Winer objects to the inchoative sense in this passage. The offering was 
already completed in will. But had this been meant, the Aorist worJd hava 
been needed. 

§ 363.] the tenses— future. 329 

The Future Tense. 

363. a. The Future expresses, in general, indefinite futurity ; 
as 8«(r«, / will give ; and is employed in prophecies, promises, (fee. 

Matt. V. 5 : avrol iropaKXT]9Tio-ovTai. So in all the Beatitudes, 
save vers. 3, 10. 

Phil. iii. 21 ; o? lAerao^rniaTio-ei to crai^a r^y TaneivixTfcos T)fia)V, who 
will transform the body of our humiliation. 

Rom. vi. 14 : afiapTia yap vfj-ibv ov Kvpttvcrti, for sin sJtall not 
have dominion over you. Not a command, but a promise. 

2 John 3 : 'i(rra.i ^leS" iifxcov x^P*^5 grace shall be with you, as 
marg., E.V. 

In Matt. xxTO. 4, 24, Acts xviii. 1.5, the second person future has the 
force of a threat : "you shall see to tliat." But compare next paragraph. 

b. Commands are often expressed by the Future second person 
(by the third, if speaking of the person commanded). 

Matt. i. 21 : KaX^o-eis to 6vop.a aiirov 'Irjaovv, thou shalt call his 
name Jesiis. Luke i. 13, 31. 

So Matt. V. 48, xxii. 37, 39 (and parallels, as Rom. xiii. 9; Gal. 
V. 14); 1 Cor. v. 13, rec. text; but Lachmann, Tischendorf, &c., read 

In 1 Tim. vi. 8, the expression of a resolution as to the future is 
indirectly a command : tovtois a.pKea6Tj(T6iiida, we will he content with these 

Especially in prohibitions (from Old Testament, but not only so). 

Matt. vL 5 : ovk ^o-eo-Ge wanep oi vnoKpiTai, ye shall not be as the 

So ch. iv. 7, V. 21, 27, 33 ; Acts xxiii. 5 ; Rom. vii. 7, &c.* 

c. The Future sometimes denotes what is usual, and is employed 
in maxims, expi-essions of general truths, and the like (" ethical 

* The difference between this and the classic idiom is, that in the latter 
the future, with oh, is the mildest form of prohibition. In Hebrew, and so 
in New Testament Greek, it is the special language of legislative authority. 
So Winer. 

330 THE TENSES — FUTURE. [§ 363. 

Eph. V. 31 : KaraXeixj/ei uvOpionos narepa Koi firjTepa, K.r.X., a man 
shall leave father and mother, &c. 

Gal. vi. 5 : enaa-ros yap i'Stoi/ (poprlov fiatTTaaei, for each man shall 

hear his own load. 

So with a negative. Rom. iii. 20 : ej epycev ySfwv oh SiKcuadfia-eTai iraaa 
adp^, by works of law will no flesh he justified. 

d. A strong negative is expressed by the Future witli the double 
negative ov pfj. The Subjunctive, however, is more generally 
employed ; and the idiom will be found explained, § 377. 

Instances with the Future are, Matt. xvi. 22 : this shall never 
be ! Mark xiv. 31 : / will never deny thee 1 Ltike x. 19 : nothing 
shall ever harm you. 

e. A Future impeifect ("resolved future") is formed by the 
Future of the verb to be with the Present participle. 

Luke i. 20 : 'ia-r\ o-iwirciv, thou shall be silent. 

So Matt. X. 22, xxiv. 9; Mark xiii. 25; Luke v. 10, x^tI, 35; 
1 Cor. xiv. 9. (See § 394, 1.) 

The Future Perfect has beau sufficiently explained, § 101, i. 

f. Auxiliary Future Verbs are |w'W«, to be about to ; and 6Q«o, to 
will. The former, which is scarcely ever represented in the E.Y., 
gives emphasis to the notion that the thing is to happen, and 
hence is often used of fixed and appointed pi;rpose.* The reader 
may study the following passages in which ptXXco occurs — 

Matt. ii. 13, xvii. 12, 22, xx. 22, xxiv. 6; Mark xiii. 4; Luke 
vii. 2 (was at the point of death), ix. 31, 44, x. 1 ; John vi. 6, 
xiv. 22, xviii. 32; Acts v. 35 (what are we to do?), xvii. 31 ; 
Rom. viii. 13 {you are sure to die); 1 Thess. iii. 4; Heb. xi. 8 
{which he was to receive), and many other passages, to ptWop, 
I)art. neut., is the future. Once the verb is used in the sense of 
delay, ti [xtWeis; why tarriest thou ? Acts xxii. 16. 

Still more important is it to mark the use of eeX«, as implying 
con.scious volition. The English auxiliary, will, ought here to be 
read as emphatic. 

* See Ellicott on 1 Thess. iii. 4. 

§ 363.] THE TENSES — FUTURE. 331 

Matt. V. 40 {if any man wills to do so), xi. 14, xvi. 24, 25 : "if 
any man wills to come after m,e ...for whosoever wills to save his 
life will (future) lose it ... hut whosoever shall lose his life for my 
sake will find it (simple futurity). So exactly Mark viii. 34, 35 ; 
Luke ix. 23, 24 ; John v. 6, 40, vii. 17 : if any man wills to do 
his will, he shall know of the doctrine ; viii. 44 : tlie lusts of your 
father ye choose to do ; Acts xvii. 18 : what does this babbler vjant 
to say ? Rom. xiii. 3 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 35 : if they wish to, or, as in 
other jjassages, if they would learn anything ; 1 Tim. v. 11: 
they want to marry ; James ii. 20 : wiliest thou to knovj ? 
3 John 13, (fee. 

The Aorist Tenses. 

364. a. The Aorist denotes what is absolutely past, and answers 
to the English Preterite, as^-i\ els to 6pos, lie wervt up into the 

The First and Second Aorists have precisely the same meaning, excejit 
in the few cases specified, §§ 100, 108, 3. 

The distinction between the Aorist and the Imperfect is noted, 
§ 362, c ; between the Aorist and the Perfect, § 365, h. 

When the 'past time is not strongly marked, the English idiom often 
includes a past act in a period reaching to the present time, and hence 
uses the Perfect, where in Greek the Aorist is the usual tense. 

Luke i. 1 : enetbriTrep ttoXXoI kTT€Xltlpi](rav ... ?8o|€ Kafxol, forasmuch 
as many undertook, it seemed good also to me (" have undertaken," 
" it has seemed good)." 

Luke i. 19 : direcrTdXTjv \a\rj(Tai npos (re, I (Gabriel) was sent to 
speak unto thee (" have been sent"). 

Luke ii. 48 : TiKvov, tI en-oiTjo-as ijfxiu ovras ', child, why didst thou, 
thu^ deal with u^ ? (" hast thou dealt "). 

Matt, xxiii. 2 : the Scribes and the Pharisees seated themselves 
in the chair of Moses (not " sit," simply). " They found the seat 
virtually empty, and occupied it."* 

* T. S. Green. 

332 THE TENSES AORISTS. [§ 364. 

1 John iv. 8 : he who loves not, never got a knowledge of (^iyvm) 

God ; experimentally, by having at any time known what love is."* 

See also Luke xiv. 18, 19; John viii. 29, xvii. 4; Eom. iii. 23, all 
sinned, and so are coming short, &c. ; 1 Cor. vi. 11. 

2 Cor. v. 15 : ci eiy vTrep Tvavrav dir^9av«v tipa o'l -rravres aTr^9avov, if 

one died for all, then they all died. Compare 2 Tim. ii. 11. 

Phil. iii. 8 : / suffered the loss of all things, i.e., at the crisis of 
his life, A^er. 12. James i. 11 (a vivid, descriptive delineation). 
So ver. 24 (a Perfect interposed). 

2 Pet. i. 14 : knowing that I must shortly put off this ni'i 
tabernacle, even as the Lord Jesus Christ showed unto me. By 
the hath showed me (of E.V.) we lose altogether the special 
allusion to an historic moment in the Apostle's life, to John xxi. 
18, 19, which would at once come out if tSifiXwop^ ^loi had been 
rendered "showed me."t 

h. In narration, an Aorist that starts from a time already past 
may be translated by the Pluperfect. 

]Matt. xxviii. 2 : o-etcr/ios k-^ivero fieyas, there had been a great 

Luke ii. 39 : ws lrQ\.ia-o.v anavra, when they had accom2)lislied all 

See also Matt. xiv. 3 ; Jolin vi. 22, xi. 30, xviii. 24, &c. 

c. The Epistolary Aorist, so called (as ?"ypa\|;a), takes the reader's 
point of view, in which the writing of the letter is viewed as past. 
Our idiom requires us to take the writer's point of view, "/ have 

Rom. XV. 15; 1 Pet. v. 12 (referring to the whole letter); 
1 Cor. ix. 15 ; 1 John ii. 21, and perhaps 1 Cor. v. 9, referring to 
a part of \t.\ Gal. vi. 11, referring either to the whole or to part, 
according to the interpretation adopted. 

* Other passages in which X-yvuv has been regarded as standing for the 
Present may be explained in a similar way. 

t Archbishop Trench on the Authorized Version of the New Testament, 
p. 146. 

X See Ellicott on GaL vi. 11. 

§ 364.] THE TENSES AORISTS. 333 

But ^ypa^a has, in other cases, its ordinarj' Aorist force, referring to 
a former letter, "/ wrote," 2 Cor. ii. 3, 4, 9, vii. 12 ; probably 3 John 9; 
and perhajjs 1 Cor. v. 9. 

The word ?ir€|x4/a also exemplifies the Epistolary Aorist, " / have 
sent," 1 Cor. iv. 17; 2 Cor. ix. 3; Eph. vi. 22; Rev. xxii. 16. 

d. In classical Greek, the Aorist is ft-equeutly used to describe 
an act which has taken place in time past, and may take place at 
any time again. Here in English the Present is the usual tense. 
Accordingly, in the New Testament there are a few passages where 
the Aorist may best be translated by the Present. 

Matt. iii. 17 : eV J tiSoKiio-a, in whojn I am well pleased, i.e., 
" I was, and am." So in parallel passages. 

Rom. viii. .30: €KclX«a-€ ... ISiKaicao-e ... IStigacre, he calls ... j ustijies 
...glorifies; "he did, and does."* 

e. The completeness of an act is occasionally marked by the 
A orist. 

John xiii. 31 : vZv €8o|d(r9i] 6 vJor tov avdpi>Trov, now is the Son of 
man glorified ; the whole series of events being brought to a crisis. 

1 Cor. vii. 28 : thou didst not, she did not commit a sin. 

So in several of the parables : to|ioico0ii, is likened (Matt. xiii. 24, 
xviii. 23, xxii. 2), "as if the mould had already received its shape, 
though the cast was yet to issue. "t 

Compare Luke i. 51-53 ; John viii. 29. 

The Perfect and Pluperfect Tenses. 

365. a. The Perfect denotes an action or event as now com- 
plete ; its point of view is, therefore, in the present, as 6 7e'Ypa<J)a, 
■y€7pa<f>a, what I have written, I have written. It denotes also a 
past act whose consequences remain, as veYpairrai, "it has been 
written, and abides ;" " it is written.''^ 

* Alford interprets differently. See his note. 

t T. S. Green. 

I Luther, steM geschricben. 

334 THE TENSES PERFECT. [§ 365. 

b. The distinction between the Aorist and Perfect is thus very 
marked : T€0vTiKa<ri (Matt. ii. 20), they are dead. ^0avov (avedavov) 
would have been, they died. Compare Mark xv. 44. Even where 
either tense would be suitable, the proper force must be given to 
the one employed. 

Matt. ix. 13 : ov yap T)\.0ov Kakea-ai. biKaiovs, for I came not to call 
righteous persons. 

Luke V. 32 : ovk eXrjXvOa Kokeaai Bikolovs, I avi 7iot come, ifec. 

In the following passages, among many othei's, the distinction of 
tenses is strikingly apparent : — 

Mark iii. 26 : el 6 ^aravas<m] e0' fdvTov, koi p.e[i€pKrTai, for if 
Satan rose up against himself, and has become divided. 

Acts xxi. 28 : ^e brought (elo-rj-yaYev) Greeks into the temple, and 
has profaned (kskoCvwk^) this holy 2)l(ice ; the single act, the abiding 

1 Cor. XV. 4 : Acai on €Td<}>Ti, /cat on kii\-^i.^<x\., and that he was 
buried, and that he is risen again. So all through this chapter. 
The simple historical fact is announced by the aorist, "nY^pOt], 
Matt, xxviii. 6, 7 ; Mark xvi. 6 ; Luke xxiv. 6, 34 (John xxi. 14) ; 
Rom. vi. 4, &c. For the perf. part., see 2 Tim. ii. 8, compared 
with the aor. part., 2 Cor. v. 15. 

Col. 1. 16 : oTi €v avTCd «KTfer9t] ra Travra... to. TTcivra St' avrov Kal 
els avTov ?KTio-Tai, because in him were all things created . . . all things 
have been created by him and for him. 

Col. iii. 3 : direOdvere yap Kal r/ ^(orj vfxSiV K^KpvirTai ... for ye died, 
and your life remains hidden. 

Rev. V. 7 : ^XOe Ka\ €l'Xi]<J)e, he came, and he hath taken the book 
(which he still retains, as Lord of human destiny). 

See also Luke iv. IS ; John viii. 40 ; Heb. ii. 14 ; 1 John i. 1. 

366. The Pluperfect, or Past Perfect, is but rarely used in the 
New Testament. It denotes that which was completed at some 

§ 366.] THE TENSES rERFECT. 335 

past time ; as, t€0€}1€Xi«to eVt ttjv neTpay, it had been founded on the 

Acts xiv. 23 : irapiQevTO avTovs rw Kvpim els ov Tre-TrioTevKeicrav, tliey 
commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed, 

367. The Perfects of many verbs are used as Presents ; and 
correspondingly the Pluperfect takes a Past signification. This 
arises in each case from the simple meaning of the verb, as coming 
into a state ; Perf , being in (having come into) that state. 

So KTiofxai, to gain ; Ke/crrjyuai, to possess, which does not, however, 
occur in the New Testament. See Luke xviii. 12 : irivra '6aa Kxa-juai, not 
of all that I possess, but of all that I gain — the income, not the capitak 
So xxi. 19, " win your souls." 

For example, Ka6it«, KaS^nai. Mark xi. 7 : €Kd9io-€v, he mounted. 
Luke xviii. 35, &c. : €Kd0TiTo, he was sitting. Koijidoiiai, / Jcdl 
asleep; KiKoC\i.r^\iai, I am asleep. 1 Cor. xi. 30 : KoijxwvTai Ikovoi, 
many are falling asleep. John xi. 11 : Aa^apos ... KeKoijiTjrai, 
Lazarus sleepeth. OlBa, I have seen; hence I know. (See § 1C3.) 

"loTTiiJii and its compounds especially exhibit this " Present Per- 
fect." "Eo-TTjKa, / stand, as Acts xxvi. 6. So ive<rr7]Ki, is imminent 
2 ii. 2; av6i(rrr]Ki (trans.), resisteth. Pom. ix. 19, xiii. 2; 
l<j)€<rr»iK€, is at hand, 2 Tim. iv. 6. From ea-rrjKa comes a new 
Present (intrans.), <rTif]K«, Rom. xiv. 4, &c. 

For other words used in a similar sense, see Vocabulary. 

Interrogative Forms. 

368. The several tenses of the Indicative are employed inter- 
rogatively, each with its proper force. The interrogative may be 
indicated by the appropriate pronouns or j^articles, or simply by 
the order of the words, or the general sense of the passage. 

a. With interrogative words — 

Matt. XXV. 37 : irSn ere fi8op.ev ntivuivTa ; when saw we thee 
hungry ? 

John i. 19 : av n's el ; who art tlwzi ? 


John V. 47 : irws roiy e/Liois prjfjLacTL iriarevcTeTe ; how will ye believe 
viy words ? 

John xi. 34 : irov TedeUare avrov ; where have ye laid him ? 

Acts vxii. 30 : apd yi yivaxTKds a dvaytvaaKeis, understandest thou 
tJien what thou readest ? 

Luke xviii. 8 ; Gal. ii. 17. 

b. Without interrogative words — 

Matt. IX. 28 : iria-revfTf on dvpafxai tovto Troirjcrai j believe ye that 
I am able to do this ? 

Horn. vii. 7 : 6 vofios afxaprla ] is the law sin ? 

So John xiii. 6 ; Acts xxi. 37 ; Rom. ii. 21-23. 

Hence arises occasional ambiguity. 

1 Cor. i. 13 : fiffiepiiTTat 6 Xptaros ; is Christ divided? Lachmann reads 
this as an assertion : Christ is divided, i.e., by your dissensions, which 
rend asunder his body. 

Kom. viii. 33, 34. Many critics read this as a series of questions, not 
question and answer, as E.V. "Who shall lay anything to the charge 
of God's elect ? Shall God who justifieth ? Who is he that condemneth ? 
Is it Christ who died ?" &e. (See Alford's note on the passage.) 

An elliptic question is made by the use of the jiarticle ft, if, 
some such phrase as, Say, or Tell us, being understood. In this 
case the sentence is really dependent. (See § 383.) 

Matt. xii. 10 : A e^eori rols (Tul3^a<n Oepaneveiv ^ is it lawful to 
Iteal upon the sabbath 1 (tell us if — ). 

Acts xix. 2 ; el TLviv\i.a " Kyiov ikd^ere TncmvuavTes ', received ye tlie 
Holy GJwst when ye believed ? 

So Acts vii. 1 ; xxi. 37 ; xxii. 25. 

369. An affirmative answer is given, in three passages, by the 
formula o-v 'kiyt\.<s, thou sayest, with or without addition : Matt. 
xxvii. 11; Luke xxii. 70; John xviii. 37. «rv tliras, thou didst 
say, is similarly used^ Matt. xxvi. 25, 64. 

370. Negative questions are framed according to the answer 


a. ov pi-esumes an affirmative reply. 

Matt. vii. 22 : ov rw a-ca ovofiari 7rpot(f)r]Tfvaafi(v ; did we not pro- 
phesy in thy name ? 

1 Cor. ix. 1 ; ovk elfju eXevdepoi ; ovk elpi dnooToXos '^ k.t.X., am I 
not free ? am I not an apostle 1 &c. 

Acts xiii. 10: ov ■nav^tj hiaarpi^wv ; Wilt thou not cease from 
perverting 1 the affirmative answer being intimated as that which 
ought to be siven. So Mark xiv. 60 : dost thou not ans^ner 
anything ? 

Once ovKovv is found. John xviii. 37 : thou art not then a king, 
art thou 1 

b. [!.■(] expects a negative answer. 

Matt. vii. 9 : fi.if| Xidov eVtScoffei avra, will he give him a stone ? 

Kom. ix. 14 : |i^ ddiKia irapa rw ©ew, is there unrighteousness 
with God 1  

c. lA-^Ti suggests an emphatic negative. 

Matt. vii. 16 : P-t|TI a-vXKeyova-iv dno aKavdoiv ara(pvXds, ij dnb 

Tpi^oKmv (TVKa ; men do not gaf,her grape-clusters of thorns, or figs of 
thistles, do they ? 

Matt. xxvi. 22, 25 : |i^ti eya dpi, Kvpie ; (from the disciples), |i-^Ti 
c'yui elpi, pal3[3L ; (from Judas), it is not I, is it, Lord ? — is it, Eabbi 1 

See also Mark iv. 21 ; John xviii. 35 (" 7 a Jew ! ") 
It would sometimes appear as though dawning conviction would fortify 
resistance by a strong negative. So Matt. xii. 23 may be understooti : 
juTJTt oZj6s iartv o vlhs Aaj8i5 ; 2'his is never the Son of David? 

The Imperative Mood. 
371. The Imperative is used for command or entreaty. 
Matt. V. 44 ; d7airaT€ tovs e;^^poi;r vpuv, love your enemies. 
Matt. viii. 25 : Kvpie o-wo-ov, diroWvpfda, save, Lord, we jjerish t 
The negative with imperative forms is always juij. 
John vi. 20 : eyw e«/xi • |A^ <|)op€L<rO€, it is I, he not afraid. 


372. The form of command is sometimes employed where 
simple permission is intended.* 

Matt. xxvi. 45 : KaOevSere to Xonrov koi dvairaveo-Ot, sleep on now, 
and take your rest.f 

See also 1 Cor. vii. 15, xiv. 38. "Rev. xxii. 11 is a summons (.4 wjfor- 
derung) : 'the fate of all is as good as already determined.' " f 

373. Of the Imperative tenses, the Present expresses a com- 
mand generally, or implies continuance or repetition. 

The Aorist implies that the action is instantaneous, or complete. 

The Perfect (very rare) refers to an action complete in itself, yet 
continuous in its effect. Its meaning coincides with that of the 
Present in verbs where the Perfect indicative has a Present 

a. The Present. 

Matt. vii. 1 : ^^ KpLven, judge not. 

1 Cor. ix. 24 : ovt(o r^y^in Iva KaTaXdpijre, so run that ye may 

1 Thess. V. 16-22: Travrore xalpere, abLoXeinTcos trpou-ivxitrBi, eV 
navrl evxapio-Tetre, k.t.X , rejoice evermore; pray without ceasing; 
in everything give thanks, &c. 

b. The Aorist. 

Matt. VI. 6 : eio-cXOe ds to Taynflov a-ov koi . . . irpdcrtvtai, e7iter into 
thy chamber . . . and pray. 

Matt. vi. 9-11 : in the Lord's prayer, aYiao-OtJTw ... -ytvTjOiiTw ... 
8ds . . . &4>€s. 

John xi. 44 : Xva-an avTov, /cat &<}>eT€ avTov virdyfiv, loose him, and 
let him go. 

c. The Perfect. 

Mark iv. 39 : a-iwTra ! ir€<j)C|iW(ro ! peace ! be still ! 

* "Winer, xliii. 1. 

t Bengel. "Sleep, if you feel at liberty to do so;" not in irony, not 
(as some) a question. 

§ 37j3.] the imperative mood. 339 

The contrasted force of the Present and Aorist is stown where 
both are used in the same passage. 

John V. 8 : dpov t6v Kpafi^arov aov koL irepiirdT«i, fake up thy bed 
and walk. 

Rom. vi. 13 : /njySf rrapurra.ven ra /zeX?; ifxchv oTrXa dSiKiai rfj aixapria, 
dWa irapao-TTia-aTe eavrovs rw Qeco, yield not your members (as the 
habit of your lives) as instruTnenfs of unrighteousness, unto sin, but 
yield yourselves (a single act, once for all) unto God. 

For the employment of the Futiure Indicative in commands and pro- 
hibitions, see § .363, b. 

For the similar use of the Subjunctive, especially in prohibitions, 
see § 375. 

The Infinitive may also be emploj-ed. (See § 392. ) 

In many instances, the force of the Aorist and that of the 
Pi-esent seem nearly identical. The former is the more vigorous 
expression, " set about it at once." 

Matt. V. 16 : ovTO) Xajiij/ciTw to (fiws iiicov, k.t.X. Here the Present 
might have been employed : — "let your light beam continuously." 
The Aorist means, let your light shine forth at once. 

John xiv. 15 : iav dyanare jLte, ra? ivTokas ras ep-cis T^qpTJcraTe, if ye 
love me, keep my commandments: adopt this as the law of your 

Komans xv. 11 : alvetre tov Kvpiou iravra ra tdvT] Koi siraivecrdTwo-av 
avTov irdvres ol 'Kaoi, praise the Lord, all the nations : and let all the 
peoples burst into a song ofj^raise to him. 

See also John ii. 8, 16 ; 1 Cor. xv. 34. 

The consideration of such examples wiU bring to light many subtle 
beauties of expression, which no translation, perhaps, could accurately 

The Suujunctive Mood. 

374. The Subjunctive, strictly speaking, cannot stand in an 
independent sentence. Where it appears to do so, thei-e is in 
reality an ellipsis. Thus 'iaipev, let us go, is really a final clause 
(jLva understood) dependent on some implied verb or phrase. In 

340 THE SUBJUN(mVE MOOD. [^ 374. 

such cases as the following, however, this distinction may l>e 
disregarded, and the sentences taken as to all intents and purposes 

The tenses in the Subjunctive and Optative are distinguished as in 
§ 373. Compare also § 386. The Present impHes continuity, the 
Aorist completion. 

375. The Subjunctive is used as a hortatory Imperative of the 
first person. 

John xix. 24 : [it| <rx£o-»|*€v avrov, aXKa Xdxw|, let US not rend it, 
hut let us cast lots. 

Rom. V. 1 (according to many) : * flprjvrjv 'ixb)[Liv -irpbs rov Oew, 
let Its have peace with God ; and ver. 2, 3 : Kavx^K"*^**-) ^^^ *** yl^'^'y- 
So 1 Cor. XV. 32 ; 1 Thess. v. 6. 

The Subjunctive Aorist is used instead of the Imperative in 
prohibitions, t 

Matt, i 20 : ^^ (JjojJtjGtjs, fear not. 

Matt. v. 17 : y-^ voiiCo-rjre, think not. 

Matt. vi. 2 : p-fi o-a\iri(rT]s, sound not a trumpet. 

This usage also depends upon the ellipsis of some phrase like " see," 
"take heed," &c., with "va. In a few instances, a positive command is 
expressed by ha with the subjunctive (Mark v. 23; 2 Cor. viii. 7; 

* The MS. evidence for this reading is very strong ; indeed, in any ordi- 
nary case would be overwhelming. On internal grounds, however, Tischen- 
dorf and others prefer the rec. text, we have peace. In such a case, even the 
testimony of MSS. must be taken with great caution ; as it seems to have been 
a practice with some ancient transcribers to make Scripture, as they thought, 
more emphatic by turning a declaration or a promise into an exhortation. 
It could easily be done, as nothing more was needed than to change the o of 
the indicative into the w of the subjunctive. So John iv. 42, "let us 
believe;" Rom. v. 10, "let us be saved;" Rom. vi. 8, "let us believe;" 
1 Cor. xiv. 15, "let me pray ;" I Cor. xv. 49, " let us bear the image of the 
heavenly" (so Lachmann) ; Heb. vi. 3, " this let us do ;" James iv. 13, "let 
us go," &c., and many similar passages. (See Alford's note on Rom. v. 1.) 
Mr. Westcott adopts the reading, exoo/J-ei', 

t This is the regular classical idiom. 

§ 375.] THE suBJUNcrnvE mood. 341 

Eph. V. 33). For the complete phrase, see I Cor. xvi. 10 ; and with 
ellipsis of 'iva. Matt. viii. 4. 

But the third person of the Aor. Imp. may be used with (jii\ (Matt. 
vi. 3 ; Mark xiii. 16). 

376. The Subjunctive is used in questions expressive of 
deliberation or doubt; tbus, ri wottotAev; (John vi. 28) what are loe 
to do ? but Ti iroiovp.€v ; (John xi. 47) what are we doing 1 " what 
are we about f and rt woiTicrei ; (Matt. xxi. 40) what will he do i 

Mark xii. 1 4 : 8<Sfj.€v »} /xj) 8(U|j.6v ; are we to give, or not to give 1 

Matt. xxvi. 54 : ttw? ovv irXTjpwGwo-iv at ypacjiaL, how then should 
the ScrijUures he fulfilled ? 

1 Cor. xi. 22 : rl ellirw vjxiv ; eiraiveVw vfxas ; what am I to say to 
you 1 Am I to praise you ? 

The second of these verbs might be the fut. indie, the connexion 
only showing it to be aor. subj. As the two tenses are alike in the 
first pers. sing., it is often doubtful which is meant. So in the pres. of 
contracted verbs, ti iroiw ; 

377. A strong denial is expressed by the Subjunctive Aorist 
with ov [XT], as ov |XTJ o-e avw, ovb' ov |atj ae lYKaTaXiirto (Heb. xiii. 5), 
/ will assuredly not leave thee, nor will I at all forsake thee. 

This idiom arises from a combination of two phrases : jui7, with the 
subjunctive elliptical, "fear lest" (see § 384); preceded by oh, with 
the word (understood) on which /*'? depends. ' ' There is not any fear 
or possibility lest I should." 

Matt. V. 18 : toira li/ i) iJ.ia Kipaia ov (X-f| irapeXOT], one iota (tlie 
smallest letter of the alphabet), or one tittle (the fragment of a 
letter*) shall by no means pass. 

Matt. V. 20 : ov (ii*) da-{kOr\Te,ye shall in no wise enter. 

Mark xiv. 25 : ouxeVt ov ^^ iria, never will I drink at all.f 

See also Matt. xxiv. 2, xxvi. 35; Mark ix. 41 ; Luke vi. 37 (twice), 
xviiL 17, xxii. 67, 68; John vi. 37, viii. 51, x. 28, xiii. 8; Acts 

* As, for instance, that which distinguishes A from A, or in Hebrew 
n from n. 

t The additional negative adds strength to the negation. 


xxviii. 26 (twice, from the LXX. ; so elsewhere) ; 1 Cor. viii. 13 ; 
1 Thcss. iv. 15 {shaU by no means precede), v. 3 ; Heb. viii. 11, 12 
(LXX.); 2 Pet. i. 10; Kev. xviii. 21-23; with many other passages. 
The study of these emphatic negatives of Scripture is fraught with 

In the following passages only (in the best MSS. and edd. ), the future 
is found (see § 363, d) :--Matt. xvi. 22, xxvi. 35; Mark xiv. 31 ; Luke 
X. 19 ; John iv. 14, x. 5, xx. 25 (qy?)* 

For the Aorist Subjunctive in a Futiire-perfect sense, see 
§ 383, ^. 

The Optative Mood. 

378. a. The Optative is used in independent sentences to 
express a wish, as 2 Pet. i. 2 : xap'f ^M'*' ^al dpr]vr^ T:\-r\ivv^iLy\, grace 
and peace he multiplied unto you ! 

As stated with regard to the Subjunctive (§ 374), the independence 
of the sentence is seeming only, a verbal notion on which the Optative 
depends being implied, as desire, pray. The Optative is in fact only 
another form of the Subjective mood, " the Subjunctive of the historical 
tenses. " But this characteristic is almost lost in the New Testament, 
where the Optative is comparatively rare. 

Rom. XV. 5 : 6 bi Qeos . . . Sut) vfxiv, now may God grant unto you ! 

Philemon 20 : mi, dSeX0€, e'yco aov 6vai|XTjv eV Kvpia, yea, brother, 
let me have joy of thee in the Lord ! 

So Acts viii. 20; 1 Thess. iii. 11, 12 ; 2 Thess. iii. 5, &c. 
So with the negative, ^ij. 

Mark xi. 14 : iatjk^ti e'/c a-oij ... (iiiSels Kapnov (Jxi-yoi, let no one ever 
eat fruit of thee. 

2 Tim. iv. IG : ja^ avro'is Xoyio-Gsitj, may it not be laid to their 
charge ! 

The formula ij.t| ^e'voiro ! may it not come to pass ! rendered in 
E.V. "God forbid!" illustrates the same usage. Luke xx. 16; 
Eom. vi. 2, 15, vii. 13 &c. 

* The future indie, with ov fxii has no perceptible difference of meaning 
from that of the aor. subj. — Madvig, § 124, a, 3. 


But a ■wish respecting something past is sometimes expressed by 
i(j>i\ov (really representing an old Second Aorist of a verb, I ought, 
and in classic Greek followed by an infinitive) used in the New Testa- 
ment as a particle with the Indicative. 1 Cor. iv. 8; 2 Cor. xi. 1 ; 
Gal. V. 12 ; Kev. iii. 15. 

h. The particle dv gives a potential sense to the Optative, l>oth 
in affirmations and in questions. 

Acts xxvi. 29 : €v|ai[XT]v &v rw 9f(5, I could wish to God. 

Acts viii. 31 : 7ra>s yap &v 8wai(iT]v ; nay, for Jiow could 1 1 

The Moods in Dependent Clauses. 

379. A Compound Sentence (see § 187) consists of co-oi'dinate 
clauses, or of a principal clause with subordinate ones. 

Subordinate clauses may be infinitive or participial, or they may 
Ije connected with the principal sentence by relatives or con- 

For the Infinitive and Participle, see §§ 385-.397. For the Relative, 
see §§ 343-349. For the Conjunctions uniting co-ordinate clauses, see 
§§ 403-407. 

380. As a general rule, the moods and tenses in subordinate 
clauses are used as in principal ones. 

It must be especially noted that relatives or conjunctions, with 
av {(dv), the hypothetical particle, generally take the Subjunctive. 

Matt. V. 19 : 8s kav ovv X.iJ<rTl, whosoever therefore shall break. 

Matt. V. 20 : lav {el av) jxT] Trepia-o-eicTT), {fit shall not surpass. 

Matt. vi. 2 : orav (ore av) iroifjs (Ke-qjiocrvvriv, whcil thou cloest alms. 
For ore with Indicative, see ch. vii. 28. 

Matt. xvi. 28 : i'ws fl.v i8w<ri, until they shall have seen. 

So with many other passages. 

But the Imperfect Indicative is occasionally found when a 
matter of fact is spoken of. Mark vi. 5Q ; Acts ii. 45, iv, 35 
1 Cor. xii. 2. 

The use of the moods in object-sentences, in conditional exprea 
sions, and in intentional clauses, demands sepax-ate consideration. 




381. When the dependent clause expresses the object of any 
of the senses, or the matter of knowledge, thought, belief, &c.,* it 
is often introduced by Sri with the Indicative; although the 
Infinitive is more usual. 

Luke xvii. 15 ; tSoji^ 8ti ld9»], seeing that he was healed. 

Matt. ix. 28 : Tna-TfCere on Svvajxai tovto iroirjo-ai j believe ye that 
I am able to do this ? 

Mark v. 29 : eyi/co ... on I'arai, she perceived that she is healed. 
So John xi. 13, xx. 14. 

When the verb in the principal clause is in past time, the subordinate 
verb is either ]mt in present time (Indicative), or else in the Ojitative. 

382. a. In the New Testament, quotation is generally direct, 
and is introduced without any conjunctive particle. 

Matt. viii. 3 : rj^aro avrov, Xe'yoi/ Ge'Xw, Ka9apCo-0i]n, he touched 
him, saying, "/ toill, be thou clean." 

The i)article on, however, is often used to introduce the quoted 
words, and is not to be translated, as it answers exactly to our 
inverted commas ( " " ). 

Matt. VH. 23 : o/xoXoyiyo-co avTo'is, 8n ovbeTTore fyvcov Vfias, I will 
avow unto the^n, " / never knew you." 

iiUke Vlll. -49 : epx^fral ns Traph tov apxKTVvaywyov . .. Xeycov avro), 
on redfrjKev 17 dvydrrjp crou, fj.i) (TKvXXe tov bibdcTKaXov, then Cometh one 
from the house of the ruler of the synagogue, saying unto him, 
'' Thy daughter is dead, trouble not the Master.''' 

b. In indirect quotation {pratio obliqua) the substance of the 
speech is given, not the words. Here, also, the Indicative is 
generally employed. 

Mark iii. 21 : eXeyov yap 8n €^eo-TT], for they said that he was 
beside himself. It is, however, possible that the verb here is a 
direct quotation (Aorisv,, see § 364), as E.V., they said, " he is mad." 

* "Verba sentiendi et declarandL" 


Of the Optative in tlie oratio oWiqua, so common in Greek classics, 
there is no example in the New Testament excei)t in indirect inter- 
rogatives, as in the following paragraph, c, y. 

c. ludirect interrogations, another form of the oratio obliqua, 
may be connected with the principal clause by interrogative pro- 
nouns or adverbs, or by the particle «l, i/, whether. 

In such clauses, (a) the Indicative shows that the inquiry con- 
cerns matter of fact ; (/3) the Subjunctive expresses objective 
possibility — what may or should take place — and always has 
respect to pi-esent or to futux-e time ; (y) the Optative denotes 
subjective possibility — that which may be conceived to exist — and 
refers especially to the past. 

a. Mark xv. 44 : kQav^iadiv el ^'Sj; Te9vTjK€, he wondered whether he 
were already dead. 

Acts Xll. 18 : r]v rdpaxos ovk oX/yos eV Toty (rrparicorat? Ti dpa 6 
rierpos kyiviTo, there was no small stir among the soldiers — whatever 
had become of Peter. 

Acts X. 18 (Pres. after Imperf ) : lirvvGdvovro ft ^.ijioav ... ivQate 
|€viS«Tai, they were ashing whether Simon . . . lodges here. 

Luke xxiii. 6 (Pres. after Aor.) : eirepwTrio-ev d 6 civdpconos TaXiXaios 
to-Ti, Ae asked if the man is a Galilean. 

For the Future in the dependent clause, see Mark iii. 2 ; 1 Cor. 
vii. 16; Phil. i. 22. 

/3. Matt. vi. 25 : (jltj fiepipvare ... tL 4>0'YT]T€ koX tL "iriT]T€, be not 

anxious . . . ichat you are to eat and wluit you are to drink. Com- 
pare Luke xii. 22. 

liuke xix. 48 : ou;^ evpia-Kov TO tC iroiiia-wo-iv, they found not wliat 
they should do. Compare Mark xv. 24. 

In Rom. viii. 26, the reading varies between irpoo-«D|w(j.£ea (rec, 
Lachmann) and irpoo-£v|o|X€6a (Tischendorf). 

y. Luke i. 29 : biikoyl^ero iroTairbs el'i] 6 da-Traap.6i ovtos, she WOS 

discussing with herself of what kind this salutation migJd be. 


Acts xvii. 11 : avaKpivomes ras ypacpds, d ^oi ravra ovrooi, searching 
the Scriptures if these things were so. 

Acts xvii. 27 : (rirtlv rov Qeov, tl fipa -yt tJrqXa^TJo-eiav avrov Ka\ 

€vpoi€v, to seek God* if hy any chance they might feel after him 
and find him. 

The Indicative and Optative constnictions are combined in Acts 
xxi. 33 : eniifdavero tis &v dy\ Kal rl kcrri ireiroiTjKcos, he asked who he 
might be, and what he had done. He must have done something, 
this was clear; but who he was seemed altogether uncertain. 

d. After verbs of perceiving, knowing, declaring, and the like, 
both an object and an objective sentence are often found. 

Luke xix. 3 : eCv'^et Idelv Tov 'lTi<rovv, tis km, he wos seeking to see 
Jesus, who he was (is). 

1 Cor. iii. 20 : Kvpios yivao-Kei. tous SiaXoYwrjiois twv (To(f)Q}v 8ti elcrl 
lidxaioi (LXX.), Jehovah knoioeth the reasonings of the wise, that 
they are vain. 

See also Mark xi. 32, xii. 34 ; John iv. 35, v. 42, vii. 27 ; Acts iii. 10, 
XV. 36 ; 2 Cor. xii. 3, 4, xiii. 5 ; 1 Thess. ii. 1, &c. Compare 1 Cor. xv. 12. 

A similar construction is occasionally found with "intentional" 
clauses, as Col. iv. 17 ; Gal. iv. 11. 

Conditional Sentences. 

383. A conditional or "hypothetical" sentence contains two 
clauses, often called "protasis," or condition, and "apodosis," or 
consequence. The former expresses the condition ; the latter, tlie 
thing conditioned. Of these two the protasis is really the depen- 
dent sentence, though the apodosis contains the dependent /ac<. 

PiioTASis {condition). Apodosis (consequence), 

a. If he speaks, I always listen. 

/3. If he speak, I will listen. 

y. If he should speak, I should listen. 

(■ If he spoke, I would listen. 

' I If he had spoken, I would have listened. 

* Unquestionably the true reading, not rhu Kvpiov, as rec 


These four sentences illustrate four kinds of hypothesis — 

a. The supposition of a fact. 

/3. „ „ of a possibility. 

■y. „ „ of uncertainty. 

8. „ „ of something unfulfilled. 

Hence arise four distinct forms — 

a. The conditional particle et, if, with the Indicative, in the 
protasis, assumes the hypothesis as a fact. The apodosis may have 
the Indicative or Imperative. [So the Subjunctive with ov fi^, 
equivalent to future Indicative ; or in exhortations, equivalent to 

Matt. iv. 3 ; el vl6s et rov Geor", Ave, k.t.\., if thou art the Son of 
God, command, &c., i.e., assuming that thou art. 

Acts xix. 39 : el Se Trepairefja brilrYrelTt, e'v rrj ivvofica fKK\r}(Tia 
€TriXv0Tio-eTat, but if ye enquire further, it shall be determined in the 
legal assembly. 

1 Cor. XV. 16 : el yap veKpoX ovK e7eipovTai, oibe Xpiaros ev^^eprai, 
for if the dead arise not, neitlier has Christ arisen. 

Romans iv. 2 : el k^pahfi e^ epyav e8iKaiw6i] 'iyuii Kavxnp-a, if 
Abraliam was justified by works (assuming that he was so), he hath 
a ground of boasting. 

See also many other passages, e.g.. Matt. xix. 17 ; John vii. 4 
(present, condition; imperative, consequence); Rom. viii. 25; 1 Cor. 
vi. 2 (pres. pres.) ; John v. 47 (pres. fut.) ; 2 Pet. ii. 20 (pres. perf.) : 
Matt. xii. 26 (pres. aor.) ; Matt. xxvL 33 (fut. fut.); Acts xvi. 15 
(perf. imperf. ); 2 Cor. v. 16 (perf. pres.) ; John xi. 12; Pkom. vi. 5 
(perf. fut.); 2 Cor. ii. 5 (perf. perf.), vii. 14 (perf. aor.); Rom. 
xL 17, 18 (acr. imper.); 1 John iv. 11 (aor. pres.); John xv. 20 
(aor. fut.) ; Rom. v. 15 (aor. aor.) [1 Cor. viii. 13, has pres. and aor. 
subj. with ov fi'ii ; Gal. v. 2.5, pres. incL, pres. subj.] 

j3. Possibility, or uncertainty with the prospect of decision, is 
expressed by fdu — el av (very rarely by el alone *) with the Sub- 

* See 1 Cor. xiv. 5; Phil. iii. 12 (Luke ix. 13), and a few -var. readings, 
as Rev. xi. 5. 


j.unctive in the conditional clause, and tlie Indicative or Imperative 
in the apodosis. 

The condition hence refers to future time. The Suhj. Aor., with tav, 
may be rendered in most cases by the Future Perfect. 

Matt. xvii. 20 : lav ^T)Te tt'kttlv w? kokkov a-ivdnfcos, epe'iTe, k.t.X., if 
ye have faith as a grp,in of mustard-seed, ye shall say, ckc. 

Joan iii. 3, 5 : eav Y.i\ tis YCVViiOtj twaQev, ov bivarai I8e7v rrji/ 
^aaiXelav toO Qenv, excejiting One shall have been horn from above, 
he cannot see the kingdovi of God. 

2 Tim. il. 5 : tav Se koI dOXfj rty, ov tTTecpavovTai €av \i.i\ vofiincos 
a6XT|o-Ti, and if any one strive in a contest, he is not crowned except 
he shall have striven according to the rules of the game. 

y. The Optative in a conditional sentence expresses entire un- 
certainty — a supposed case. Here the particle et is always used. 

1 Cor. xiv. 10 : €l tvxoi, if it should chance. So xv. .37. 

1 Pet. iii. 14 : si koI Trdo-xoiTg Sm ^iKaio(Tvvr)\', noKapiot, if ye even 
should suffer for righteousness'' sake, happy (are ye). See ver. 17. 

Acts xxiv. 19, xxvii. 39 : tl SvvaivTo, if {hj any possibility) they 

d. When the condition is spoken of as unfulfilled, the Indicative 
is used in both clauses, with the particle d in the protasis, and av 
in the apodosis. 

1. The Imperfect (in the apodosis) with av points to present 
time, "If this were so now" (which it is not). 

2. The Aoi'ist with av points to the past, " If this bad been so 
then" (which it was not). Sometimes the Pluperfect is used, more 
emphatically, in the same sense. 

1. Luke vii. 39 : oZto's, tl ^v Trpo(prjTT]s, iyivoa-K^v &v rls Ka\ nornnrj 
T] yvvT], this man, if he were a prophet, would know who and v)hat 
the wovnan is. 

John V. 46 : el yap eirio-Tevere Mwa-rj, i-mtrrtviTi fi,v e'/xoi, for if ye 
believed Moses, ye would believe me. 


Heb. iv. 8 : A yap avrovs 'irjcrovf KaTs'iravo-ev, ouk dv vrepX iiWr]s 
tXdXet, for if Joshua had given them rest, he would not speak of 
another day. 

So (with Impf. in the protasis) John viii. 42, ix. 41 ; Acts xviii. 14 ; 
1 Cor. xi. 31 ; Heb. xi. 15 (with Aor. in the protasis) ; Gal. iii. 21, &o. 
Sometimes &v is omitted. See John ix. .33, xv. 22, &c. 

2. Jobn xiv. 28 : el Tj^aTraTe /ne, tx^PTre &v, if ye loved me, ye 
xoould have rejoiced. "Ye would rejoice" would bave been 
expressed by ixai-p^re. 

So with the Impf. in protasis : Luke xii. 39 ; John xviii. 30 ; Acts 
xviii. 14. 

1 Cor. ii. 8 : el yap ?-yvwo-av, ovk fi.v rov Kvpiov rjjr So^?;? la-ravptoo-av, 
for had they known, they would not have crucified the Lord of 

So with the Aor. in protasis : Matt. xi. 21 ; Mark xiii. 20 ; Romans 
ix. 29 (Matt. xii. 7 has phip.) 

John xi. 21 : Kupte, A tjs woe, ovk civ 6 dSeXt/jo's p.ov eTeOvTiKti, Lord, 
if thou hadst been here, my brother woidd not have been dead. 
Mary, ver. 32, uses the Aorisfc. 

See 1 John ii. 19. 
John xiv. 7 : A l^vtoKeire p,(, koX tuv narepa juow lyvdiKnrs 4v, tf ye 
had known me, ye wotdd have known my Father also. 

Intentional Clauses. 

384. Intentional clauses are those which express a purpose or 
desicfn, following the particles "iva., to the end that (with emphasis 
on result) ; S-ir<os, in order that (emphasis on method) ; ^i\, {that) not 
or lest. 

a. (1) In intentional clauses, the Subjunctive is employed in its 
general meaning, to signify objective possibility or intention. 

Matt. xix. 1-3: T7pnar]V€)(0T]a-av ... ^va riis x^'P^'^ eiriGrj avTois Kal 
irpo<r«v^T]Tai, they were brought . . . that he might i^ut his hands upon 
them and pray. 


Luke vi. 34 : 8avel(ova-i,v Ua diroXdpwo-iv, they lend that they m,ay 
receive hack. 

Matt. ii. 8 : aTray-yetXare \x.oi, Sirws Kayii eX6a>v irpotTKvvri<r<Oj bring 
me back word, that I also may come and worship. 

Matt. vi. 16 : a^avi^ovai ... <5itws (Jjavtoo-i, they disjigv/re ... that 
they may appear. 

So in a great number of passages. 

The final intentional clause with a particle of design must be distin- 
guished from the objective clause with on. So Ae'7a> v^iv on, I say to 
you that, introduces the matter of the communication ; but elire 'Iva 
(Matt. iv. 3), say lliat, specifies the purpose of what is said, and there- 
fore implies command. Now, after verbs expressive of desire, prayer, 
and the like, where the matter is coincident with the purpose, the final 
and the objective particles seem equally appropriate. As a matter of 
fact, however, it will be found that while hope has '6ti, prayer has "va, 
oirus. 'EAttiCco oti, I hope that, i.e., "such is the object presented to my 
hope ;" ivxofJ^ai 'iva, I pray that, i. e. , " such is the purpose to be secured 
by my prayer" (2 Cor. i. 13 ; Philemon 22 ; Phil. i. 9 ; 2 Thess. iii. 1, &c.) 
In 2 Thess. i. 11, 12, 'tva mai-ks the primary, and ottou the secondary 
result.. In 1 Cor. xiv. 13, it is not meant that the disciple is to pray 
for the power to inter^jret, but that his gift of 2>rayor is to be so exer- 
cised as to involve the power of interpretation. Again, 2 Cor. xiii. 7, 
the matter of the prayer is expressed by an infinitive clause ; the 
intention by two clauses with 'Iva. 

The Evangelist John often (with, occasionally, others of the New 
Testament writers) seems to employ 'iva simply as explanatory. Thus, 
ch. xvii. 3: "this is life eternal, that they should know thee," &c. 
So XV. 8 ; 1 John iv. 17, v. 3, &c. (often epexegetic of olros) ; but in 
other passages the usual meaning of the particle may be taken, as 
1 John iii. 1. 

Compare Matt. x. 25; Luke xvii. 2; even Phil. ii. 2. ("FOlupmy 
joy by being of the same mind." — T. S.' Green.) 

(2) It has been a question with grammarians whether tva ever 
means merely so that, expressing eveoit without any reference to 
purpose. The former presumed use of the particle has been called 
its eventual (or ecbatic) sense, the latter its final (or telic*). 
Most, howevei-, now agree that the final significance is generally, 

* "iva iKfiaTiKSv (from iK^aivio, to issue from) ; 'iva t(\ik6i' (from rt\os, end). 


if not always, discernible. Mr. Webster quotes 1 Tbess. v. 4, as a 
passage in which. " the notion of finality seems lost in the eventual 
sense : " Ye are not in darkness, that the day should overtake you 
as a thief. But it would seem appropriate enough to represent it 
as the intention of darkness that those surrounded with it should 
be suddenly surprised. Again, in John xii. 23, xvi. 2, 32, Meyer 
justly remai'ks, "that which shall happen in the copa is regarded as 
the object of its coming." On Galatians v. 17, Professor Lightfoot 
says, "I'va here seems to denote simply the result, whei'eas in 
classical writers it always expresses the purpose." But surely 
this is unnecessary. Bishop Ellicott renders, " ' to the end that ye 
may not^ not ' so that ye cannot^ Auth. ; but with the usual and 
proper telic force of ilva. The object and end of the to avTiKiiaSai 
(the antagonism) on the part of each principle is to prevent a man 
doing what the other principle would lead him to." 

For other passages in which the final sense has been questioned, but 
where Winer and most modern critics maintain it, see Luke ix. 45 
(purposely hidden, as a part of the Divine plan) ; John iv. 36, vii. 23, 
ix. 2, xi. 15 ; Romans ix. 11, xi. 31 ; 2 Cor. i. 9, v. 4; Eph. ii. 9, iii. 10. 
In these, and in many similar texts, sound criticism seems to require 
the meaning, not so that it was, but in order that it might he. * 

The importance of the discussion is chiefly seen, in relation to 
the passages which speak of a Divine purpose, in proi^hecy or 
otherwise. For instance, the words of Old Testament prediction, 
Isa. vi. 10, are quoted, Matt. xiii. 14; Mark iv. 12; Luke 
A iii. 10; John xii. 40; Acts xxviii. 27 (Matt, and Acts have 
from the LXX. |A^iroT€, the rest, Kva. . . . htj). Is the passage to be 
read, in order that seeing they may not see, &c., or, so that seeing 
they see not, or even, because seeing they see not .? We believe 
that the former interpretation is the only one admissible. The 
blindness was judicial — a punishment inflicted by God on dis- 
obedience and hardness of heart. 

Again, in the phrase, tva (ottw?) ttXtjpwGt), that it (the Old 

* Undoubtedly in the later forms of the language the ecbatic sense became 
established. Thus, m modern Greek the Infinitive itself has become super- 
seded by a form of the verb with the particle vd for iVo. 

8j2 intentiojtal clauses. [§ 384. 

Testament prophecy) might he fidfilled (Matt. i. 22, ii. 15, 23, 
iv. 14, viii. 17, xii. 17, xiii. 35, xxi. 4, xxvi. 5Q ; Mark xiv. 49 ; 
John xiii. 18, xv. 25, xvii. 12, xviii. 9, xix. 24, 36), are we to 
understand the statement to be that so the v)ords were fulfilled, 
sometimes, as it wonkl seem, by an accommodation of their mean- 
ing, or that the occurrence took place in order that they might be 
fulfilled 1 To answer this question fully, would lead into a discus- 
sion of the whole scope and meaning of prophecy. Bat, as a point 
of grammar, there seems every reason why the usual meaning of 
the tolic particles should be retained. It is the expositor's business 
to translate in order to interpret ; not to interpret in order to 
translate. In some cases, at least, the words quoted could not 
primarily have had the meaning attached to them in the New 
Testament ; but in their original acceptation they fell into the 
line of the "increasing purpose" which runs thi'ough the ages, 
and so revealed their highest significance in Messiali's day. The 
true key to the passage is not to be found in a perverted use of 
the jJartide, but in an accurate comprehension of the verb* 
See, especially, the transaction recorded John xix. 28-30. 

Acts iii. 19 : ixeravorjcraTe ovv Ka\ enia-rpe^aTe, us to (^a\ei<p6TJvai 
vfiaiv Tas afiaprias, Sirws Slv 'iKQwcri Knipol dva\l/v^€(x>s, K.r.X., can only be 
translated, repent then, and be converted, that your sins may he 
blotted out, in order that seasons of refreshment may come, &c. 
The meaning when, as E.V., cannot be sustained. Whatever be 
the special reference of KaipoX ava-^v^ems, they are set forth as the 
purposed result of the people's repentance, and denote in some 
way the blessings of Messiah's kingdom. 

(3) As a negative final particle, standing alone after verbs ex- 
pressing fear, caution, anxiety, ^i\ has the force of I'va [atj, oirws (at|. 

Matt, xviii. 10 : opare ^t\ KaTa4>povTi(rr,T€ evos ra>v fiiKpchu tovtwv, 

see that ye do not despise one of these little ones. 
So 2 Cor. viii. 20 ; Gal. vi. 1 ; Heb. xii. 15, 16. 

* See Olshausen on Matt. i. 22. Grotius, and those who have followed 
hia criticisms, attach to the verb some such meaning as consummated. 


After verbs of fearing, firj may be translated lest, or that. 

2 Cor. xii. 20, 21 : (pol^ovfiai yap, \i.-f\ irws iXffcbv ovx otovi 0t\ai 
(vpa vfias, K. T. X ., j'or I fear that when I come I shall not find you 
such as I desire, &c. 

Acts xxiii. 10, xxvii. 17. 

b. A particle of intention may be followed by an Indicative 
Fntui'e (never with ottw?. In Mark v. 23, read Cwu)- 

The instances of this idiom are few, and most of them are 
contested readings. The Future, where admitted, must be taken 
as conveying tlie idea of duration more vividly than the Aorist 

Gal. ii. 4 : iva fjnas KaraSovXtoo-ovo-iv, that they should enslave us. 

Rev. xxii. 1 4 : fxaKapioi ol ifKvvovTfs ras crroKas avTchv, '(va, ^crrai 17 
(^ova-la avToiv, k.t.\., blessed are they who ivash their robes,* that 
theirs may be the access, &c. John xvii. 2 ; 1 Cor. xiii. 3 ; 
1 Pet. iii. 1 ; Rev. iii. 9, xiv. 13. In all these cases the received 
text has Subjunctive Aorist. 

(xirj (nore) is found with the Indicative Future, Heb. iii. 12 : 
^"Senere, d8e\(poi, JIt] iroTe ^o-rai ev tlvi vpcov Kapbia irovqpa aniaTia^, take 
heed, brethren, lest there should (shall) be in any one of- you, an evil 
heart of unbelief 

Col. ii. 8. 

The Indicative present or perfect after /u); shows the ellipsis, not of 
%va., but of oTi ; i.e., the sentence is not intentional, bub ohjictive. Luke 
xi. 35: "lest the light is darkness." Gal. iv. 11 : "lest I have laboured." 

There are three passages in which the Indicative present seems to be 
used in intentional clauses : — 

1 Cor. iv. 6 : '(va fj.^ fTs vwip iyhs (pvaioiiade Kara rov krepov, that ye he. 
not pvffed up one for another against yet another. 

Col. iv. 17 : 7ra avr^y irX-qpols, that thou fulfil it (the ministry). 

Gal. iv. 17: 'lya avrovs C'jAoCre, in order that ije may zealously affect tliew. 

It will, however, be noted that all these verbs are of the contracted 
conjugation in -cJw ; and it is easier to suppose them examples of an 
irregularly formed Subjunctive than of a syntax so anomalous as an 
Indicative would be. 

* Note here the various reading, accepted by the best critics. 

354 THE IXFINITIVE. [§ 385, 

The K'finitive. 

385. a. Tlie Infinitive Mood is a Yerbal Substantive, and 
expresses the abstract notion of the verb. 

Like the verh in other moods, it admits the modifications of tense 
and voice. It may have a subject, or may govern an object, near or 
remote ; and it is qualified by adverbs. Like a substantive, it may be 
the subject or object of a verb ; it is often defined by the article, and is 
employed in the difi"erent cases. 

h. The Negative Adverb with the Infinitive may be ol or yuTj. 

Since oh denies as matter of fact, ft-i) as matter of thought, and since 
the Infinitive generally dejiends on some verb or clause implying 
thought, will, design, the latter wdl generally be the appropriate 

Matt. ii. 12 : ;^p7/^aTtcr^eW€r ... |i^ dvaKafixj/ai npos 'Hpudrjv, being 
divinely warned not to return to Herod. 

]\Iatt. V. 34 : Xeym v/iif jiTj 6p,6(rai oXws, / enjoin you not to swear 
at all. 

So viii. 28, and many other passages. Where oh is found, it may 
generally be connected with the principal verb. (See John xxi. 25.) 

c. The Infinitive governs the same case as the other jmrts of 
the verb. 

Matt. vii. 11 : ot'Sare Sdjiara d-ya0a SiSdvai rots TtKvois viiu>v, ye 
know how to give good gijts unto your cldldren. 

Luke XX. 35 : ol 8e nara^LcodevTes tov alwvos eKeivov TV)^elv, koI ttjs 
dvao-Tacrecos r^y €k veKpcov, they who are deemed worthy to obtain that 
life and the resurrection from the dead. 

Compare the rules on the use of the cases after verbs. 

386. The distinction between the Tenses of the Infinitive is 
analogous to that in the Imperative and Subjunctive. The 
Present marks continuity ; the Aorist, a single act; the Future 
(very rare in the New Testament), intention ov futurity ; and the 
Perfect, a completed act. 

§ 386.] THE INFINITIVE. 355 

Matt. xiv. 23: fjvdyKaa-e tovs iJ.n6r]Tas efiP^vat ... kol irpod^eiv avrov, 
he made the discqjles embark (a single act), and go be/ore him 

Acts xxvii. 10.: ixeWeiv ?o-ecr0ai tov TrXovp, that the voyage is 
going to be. 

Acts xxvi. 32 : diroXsXvo-Oai eSwaro 6 twdpconos ovtos, this man 
could have been set at liberty. 

The Present Infinitive might more properly be called the Imperfect, 
referring, like the Perfect, to date rather than to time. The time is 
tixed by the principal verb. 

387. The Subject of the Infinitive, when expressed, is 
always in the Accusative case. 

For the explanation of this rule, with examples, see § 285. 

But the Subject of the Infinitive, when the same with that of 
the preceding verb, is generally omitted, words agreeing with it 
being in the nominative. 

Rom. XV. 24 : iXiri^a) Siairopeudnevos Geda-airdai i/xas, / hope to see 
you (in) passing through. 

2 Cor. X. 2 : fic'o/xat 8e, to /xfj irapwv, but I pray that I may not 
(when) present be bold. 

388. The Infinitive, with or without the Article, may form 
the Subject of a sentence. 

Rom. vii. 18 : to yap 9eXeiv TrapaKeiral pot, to Se KaTep-ydtecrOai to 
KaXou ov, for to will is p>i'esent with me, but to accoinpUsh the good 
is not. 

Gal. vi. 14 : ip.Q\ be fifj yevoiTo Kavxdcreai, but far be it from me to 
glory ! 

Eph. V. 12 : aldxpov ea-Ti koi. Xiynv, even to mention... is dis- 

A peculiar kind of extended subject is formed by the Infinitive with 
iyfvfTo, it came to pass that... Thus, Acts ix. .3: iyevero aiirhy iy^i^eiv 
Tf AafiacTK^, it came io pass that he was approaching Damascus, lit., '"HLs 

356 THE IXFIKITIVE. [§ 388. 

approach to Damascus occurred." So Mark ii. 23; Luke vi. 1, 6; 
Acts iv. 5, xvi. 16, &c. Acts xxii. 17 has a combiuatiou of construction: 
It happened to me when I had returned {fj-ot viroffTp^ipavTi) to Jerusalem, 
and (IS I ivas prai/hifj {■Kpoaevxo/J.ivov jiov, geu. abs.) in the temple that 
I was (yfveadai fie) in an ecstasy, &c. 

The Subject lufiuitive may have its ovvn Accusative Subject. 

Matt. xvii. 4 : Ka\6v ia-nv Ti(Aas S)8e ctvai, it is good for us to be here. 

1 Cor. XI. 13 : Ttptnov earl ^vvaiKa aKaTaKaXviTTOv ru> Qeu> npoafv- 
XfcrQai, it is becoming for a woman to pray to God uncovered. 

Matt, xviii. 8 : koKov aoi iariv eiaeXdilv us ttjv ^(ofjv \wXov i^ 
KuWov, it is good for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, the 
pronoun cri being understood from aoi before elaeXOilv. 

S89. a. The lufiuitive regularly stands as the Object of verbs 
denoting a mental faculty, impression, or act — such as to be able, 
to hear, see, believe, know, wish, hojje, endeavour, &c. ; and an 
assertion of thought or will, as to say, announce, proclaim, com- 
mand, forbid, &c.* 

In this connection also the Infinitive may have its own Subject, and 
may take or omit the Article. 

Matt. vi. 24 : olbth Svvarai bva-\ Kvpiots SovXivnv, no man is able 
to serve tioo masters. 

Rom. i. 22 : <}>d<rKovT€s clvoi ao(f)ol encdpavdrja-au, professing to be 
wise they became fools. 

Phil, ii. 6 : ovx apiraYjxbv i[yr\a-a.To to tlvai 'laa 6e(u, he esteemed not 
his being on an equality with God a prize to, be seized on. 

Here the object Infinitive is defined by the article ; iaa 0- is the pre- 
dicate of the Infinitive in apposition with the subject (tcra is adverbial) ; 
and apirayfj.6v is in predicative apposition with the Infinitive itself. 

b. The Infinitive may be employed, for the expression of inten- 
tion or result, as an adjunct (1) to a verbal predicate. 

Matt. ii. 2 : IjXGonev irpoo-Kwrjo-ai aira, we came to worship) him. 
Matt. XX. 28 ; 1 Cor. i. 17 ; Eev. xvi. 9, &c. 

* "Verba seutiendi vei declarandi," &c. 

^ 389.] THE INFINITIVE. 357 

(2) Au Iiitinitive in this sense may depend upon a Substantive, 
as in the frequent phrase 6 ^x"" '^'^* a^oiieiv, he that luith ears to 
hear. So Acts xiv. 5 ; Heb. xi. 15, <fec. 

(3) It may depend upon an Adjective, as Lnke xv. 19 : oi/ctVt 
ti/ii &^ios KXtie'ivai v'l6s aov, I am no longer worthy to be called tlcy 

So with SwGTos, Acts ii. 24 ; 2 Tim. i. 12 ; iKavos, Mark i. 7 ; 
€Xev9«pos, 1 Cor. vii. 39 ; '€toi[j.os, Luke xxii. 33, &c. Once with 
dSiKos, Heb. vi. 10, " 6-W is not unjust to/orget." 

390. The Infinitive with the oblique cases of the Article 
(substantivized, §§ 201, 204) is employed as follows : — 

a. Genitive. 

1. Dependent upon nouns — 

Luke X. 19 : 8tSco/^tt v/iiv Tf|v £|o\)criav toO iraretv, k.t.\., I give io 
you the power of treading, &c. 

Acts XX. 3 : eyeviTo "yvioiit] tov ii'7ro(rTp6ij)eiv, he had an intention of 

Acts xxvii. 20 : ■naaa eXiris tov o-tC^tcSai w^-s, all hope, of our 
being saved. 

Acts xiv. 9; 2 Cor. viii. 11; Phil. iii. 21, &c. So with words signi- 
fyiug time (time for), Luke i. 57, ii. 6, 21, xxi. 22 ; 1 Pet. iv. 17 ; 
Hev. xiv. 15. 

2. Dependent upon verbs that usually take a genitive — 

Tjuke i. 9 : tXax* toO evjiidorai, lie had obtained the lot of sacri- 

2 Cor. i. 8 : &TTf llaircptjefjvai 7]ijias kul tov ?fjv, so that we 
despaired eveii of life. 

1 Pet. iii. 10 (LXX.) So after adjectives, Luke xxiv. 25; Acts 
xxiii. 15. Especially, with verbs siguifyicg hindiauce, Luke iv. 42; 
Kom. XV. 22. 

3. Expressive of design, like Iva with Subjunctive, or heKa with 
Genitive — 

358 THE INFINITIVE. [§ i^&O. 

Matt. ii. 13 : fieKXei yap 'Hpa>8i]s ^rjrelv to Traiblov rov ttiroX«<roi avrn, 
for Herod will seek the young child to destroy it. 

So Matt. iii. 13, xxi. .32, xxiv. 45; Luke xxiv. 29; Acts xiii. 47 
(LXX.) ; Heb. x. 7 (LXX.), &c. 

But sometimes the notion of design seems almost or entirely- 
lost in that of result. See also under Iva (§ 384). 

Acts VU. 19 : ovTos ... eKaKcocrev tovs Trarepas fjfxdv toO iroitiv Ta 

^pe(pr] eKdera avrcbv, this man ... ill-treated our Jlithers, so that they 
caused their babes to be exposed. 

Compare Acts iii. 12 ; Eom. i. 24, vii. 3. 

h. Dative. 

The Dative of Cause. (See § 280 c.) 

2 Cor. ii. 13: ovk ea-xr^Ka aveaiv . . . tu \t.i\ €vpetv pe Tltov tov aBe\(fi6v 

uov, I had no rest through my not having found Titus my brother. 

In 1 Thess. iii. 3, rip, rec, should be t6. The above instance is ths 
only one. 

c. The Genitive, Dative, or Accusative, with Prepositions. 

A few illustrations of this usage will be sufficient, as the pre- 
positions are taken in their ordinary meaning. (See §§ 288-307). 

8ia, with Genitive, "through." 

Heb. ii. 15 : 8ia Trauros tov If^v, through all their lifetime. 

8id, with Accusative, " on account of." 

Matt. xiii. 5 : 8ia rb [at^ ^€iv ^ddos ... 8ia to p.^ ?x^iv plC^iv, on 
account of its having no depth ...on account of its having no root. 

So, with ace. subject, Matt. xxiv. 12 ; Mark v. 4 ; Luke ii. 4, 
xi. 8, &c. 

€ls, "to the end that." 

Matt. XX. 19 : els TO l{j.irai|ai, koI ^amySxrai koi <rravpu>a-o.t,, to 
mock and scourge and crucify. 

So Mark xiv. 55 ; Luke v.. 17, with subject, &,c. Both ds and irp6$ 
expi-ess purpose, but irpSs the more emphatically. 

§ 390.] TllE INFINITIVE. 359 

ev, "in, during," especially of time. 

Matt. xiii. 25 : ^v 8e KaBivSnv rovs dudpanovs, and while men slept. 

So also Matfc. xxvii. 12 ; Mark ii. 15 ; Luke i. 21, &c. 
[ierd, with Accusative, " after." 
Matt. xxvi. 32 : iiem 8e to e7€p9fjvai fie, but after I have risen. 

So Luke xii. 5, xxii. 20 ; Acts i. 3, &c. 

irpo, "before," opposed to fiera. 

Matt. vi. 8 : irpj) tov vfias alTijo-ai avrov, before ye ask him. 
So Luke ii. 21, xxii. 15 ; John L 49, &c. 

irp(5s, witli Accusative, "in order to." 

Matt. \d. 1 : ■n-pbs to GeaGi^vai avroh, in order to be gazed at by 

So Matt. xiii. 30, xxvi. 12 ; Mark xiiL 22, &c. Once, in reference to, 
Luke xviii. 1. 

Once avrC is found, James iv. 1 5, instead of your saying ; and 
?v€Ko, 2 Cor. vii. 1 3, for the sake of your zeal being made mani- 
fest. "Ews, " until," occurs with Gen. inf., Acts viii. 40, until he 

391. To express result, the particle wo-t€ is often prefixed to 
the Infinitive. It should be noted that wo-t* is properly ecbatic, as 
distinguished from telic particles. Compare § -384. 

Matt. viii. 24 : (reiaiJios fieyas iyevero . . . <3(rT€ to n'Ko'iov KaX-uirreo^ai, 
tJiere arose a great storm, so that the vessel was being covered. 

Matt. xiii. 32 : wotc IXOetv to. neTeivd, so tliat the birds came. 

Luke viii. 52 : cSorTe cToijAdo-ai avrm, so as to make ready for him. 

Acts xvi. 26 : wo-t€ o-aXevSfjvai to. 6e)XiKi.a, SO that the foundations 
were shaken. 

So in a great number of passages. Twice only (Scrre is found in 
this meaning with the Indicative. 

John 111. 16 : ovras ydp T]ydTn](rei> 6 Qeos tov Koapov u<rre rov vloy 

c c 

•SoO THE INFINITIVE. [t^ 391. 

avTov TOP fiovoytuTj ^SwKev, k.t.X., God SO loved the world that lie gave 
his only-begotten Son, &c. 

So also Gal. ii. 13. 

The proj^er clistiaction between the Infinitive and Indicative in this 
connection is, that the former expresses the result as the natural and 
logical consequence of what has been previously enunciated the latter 
states it simply as a fact which occurs or has occurred. * 

392. In Phil. iii. 16, we find the Infinitive employed for the 
Imperative : els 6 €(f)6da-afiei>, tco auVw crroixeiv, whereto we have 
attained, in the same direction walk ye onward.^ 

The use of x^'^P*'-'' i^ salutation is similar, "greeting," Acts 
xv. 23, xxiii. 26 ; James i. 1 (2 John 10, 11, suggests an ellipsis 
here). This habitual plirase reappears as a more decided Inipera- 
ti ve. Rom. xii. 15, with an antithetic verb : xa.(.pt\.v neru p^atpdircoi', 
KXaCeiv fxera kKmoptcov, rejoice with the rejoicing, weep with the 


393. The Participles " partake " the nature of Yerbs and 
of Adjectives. 

Like verbis, they have the modifications of Voice and Tense ; and 
may have an object, immediate or remote. Like adjectives, they agree 
with substantives, expressed or understood ; and are sulsject to the 
excei^tional constructions of Synesis, or "rational concord." 

On these points, therefore, nothing need be added to the rules already 
given . 

The tenses of the Participle conform in meaning to those of the 
Indicative. Their various use w^ill be seen in the examples given 
under the following sections. 

The negatives used with Participles follow the general law. 
Thus, ovK etSorej, "not knowing," as a matter of fact ; iitj dboTfs, 
" not knowing," as a matter of supposition, such ignorance being 
presumed as the ground of any further assertion respecting them. 

* See Bishop Ellicott on Gal. ii. 13. He adds, " The distinction is not 
always observed." 

\ Ellicott. The rest of the verse (rec. ) is omitted by the best critics. 

§ 393.] PAKTICIPLES. _ 3tJl 

Compare Gal. iv. 8, with 1 Thess. iv. 5 ; 2 Thess. i. 8. As, 
however, the Participle is generally expressive of some condition, 
the negative employed is in most cases |itj. 

When a Participle has a Subject of its own in a separate clause, 
the construction is the Genitive Absolute, for which see § 275 
The following rules give the use of Participles referring to th 
Subject or Object of another verb, 

394. Participles are predicative or attributive. Their pre 
dicative uses may be classified as follows : — 

1. After the forms of the substantive verb, a Participle may be 
used as a simple or "primary" predicate. 

This construction is confined to the present and perfect Participles, 
With the latter, certain parts of the verb to be make regidar compound 
tense- forms, as the third person phir., perf. and plup. Passive. (See 
Paradigms.) The usage is extended, however, to the singular number 
and to other persons. Luke iv. 16 : ou ■fiv redpanixcpos, where he had been 
brought up. John iii. 28 : a-KunaXfjiivos el^l, I have been sent. With 
the present Participle, the substantive verb gives a continuous sense, 
forming what are called the "resolved tenses." (See §§ 362, e, 363, e.) 

The resolved tense must be distinguished from the use of the Parti- 
ciple as secondary predicate. For example, 2 Cor. v. 19 is not to be 
read, God was reconciling the world in Christ, but as E.V., God was in 
Christ reconciling, &c. 

Luke xxiv. 32 : ovxl 17 Kaphia ij/nwi' KO-w^ivr^ rjv iv ri^lv ; was not 
our heart burning within tts ?■ 

Sometimes this construction appears very nearly equivalent to the 
simple verb, as Mark xiii. 25 (compare Matt. xxiv. 2y. ) So Acts ii. 2 ; 
James i. 17, iii. 15. In other cases, there is a greater stress upon the 
notion of state or duration: Pres., Acts xxv. 10; Eev. i. 18; Matt. 
X. 26; Luke vi. 43; 2 Cor. ix. 12; Gal. iv. 24 (not "which things 
are an allegory," but are allegorized, i.e., susceptible of allegorical 
application; aTiva being used, not a, see § 349.) ; Col. ii. 23; 1 Cor. 
XV. 19; 2 Cor. ii. 17; Impf., Matt. \ni. 29, xix. 22; Mark i. 39; 
Luke L 22, xv. 1, xxiii. 8 ; Acts xxi. 3 ; GaL i. 22, 23 ; Put. , Matt. x. 22 ; 
Luke i. 20, v. 10, xxi. 24. 

In Luke iii. 23, ah-rhs ^u 6 'Irjo-oDs uxrd eVaJi/ TptaKovTa apxS/xefos, we 
must understand, Jesus himself was commencing (his ministry) at about 
the age of thirty (for gen., see § 266), not " began to be about thirty." 


2. Certain verbs, expressive of perception, or the conditions of 
an action, are complemented by a Participle, instead of an 

Tf the verb is neuter or passive, the Participle agi-ees with the Subject; 
if active, with the Object. 

Such verbs in the New Testament are (1) neuter ; iravonai, rikiio 
(iiaXdvu, iyKaKiu), all variously signifying desistence from a thing ; 
<J>aCvo|jLai., to be manifest, and XavGdvw, to be secret, in doing anything 
(2) active ; dKovw, -yivwo-KW, opdw, pXe'irw, &c. 

Luke V. 4 : (US eiravo-aro XtiXwv, when he ceased speaking. 

Acts V. 42, vi. 13, xiii. 10, xx. 31, xxi. 32; Eph. i. 16; CoL i. 9; 
Heb. X. 2. 

Matt. vi. 18 : fifj 4>avf|S ro'ts avOpatrois vt)o-t€v«v, that thou appear 
not to men as fasting ; ver. 16. 

Matt. xi. 1 : ore €T€X€o-€v . . . Siardo-o-wv, ivhen he made an end of 
commanding . 

Luke vii. 45 ; Gal. vi. 9 ; Matt. i. 18 (pass.) 

Heb. xiii. 2 : ^aGdv rtj/es gevio-avres ayyiXovs, sovie unawares 
entertained (were secret in entertaining) angels* 

Luke iv. 23 : oa-a TiKovo-ajitv 7€vd|jieva eV tt] Kairepvaovii, whatever 
things we heard of as done in Capernaum. 

Mark xiv. 58; Acts ii. 11, A^i. 12; 2 Thess. iii. 11, &c. 

Heb. xiii. 23 : yivtocncere Tov d86X4)bv Tip-oBiov diroXeXtipevov, Jcnow 
that our brother Timothy has been liberated. 

Acts viii. 23 ; Heb. x. 25. 

Some of these verbs may also be followed by an inf or by a 
finite verb with oti,. Thus compare 2 Thess. iii. 11, with 
John xii. 18 and 34. 

When the predicative Participle is used, the real Object of the verb is 
in the noun. In the infinitive construction, the Infinitive contains tlie 
Object, and '6ti reduces the thing heard to the form of a proposition. 

* A very common classic idiom. 


So 3 Jolin 4 : olkovo) ra i/xa rfKva eV a\T)deia TrepitraTovvra is / hear of 
my ddldren, that they loalk in truth. 

icepiTvaTitv would have been, "I hear of the conduct of my children, 
that they walk," &c. 

'6ti wepnraTovcnv would have meant, The tidings brought to me are 
these, that, &c. 

Again : 1 John iv. 2 : o/jLoXoyei 'Itiffovv Xpurrhv eV crapKi e\r}\v6oTa, con- 
fesses Jesus Christ come in the flesh (not luho came, which would have 
required rhv i\...). fKrjXvdevai would have signified, that Jesus Christ 
has come. (Comp. 2 John 7. ) 

So with neuter verbs : Sttcos (pavtUffi tois aydpunrois vrj(TTfvouTes, that they 
may api^ear unto men fasting, i.e., the fasting was real, miureiieii' would 
have implied that the fasting was only ap2Mrent. On the contrary, 
iiroLiruv aiaxwofiat, Luke xvi. 3, means / am ashamed to beg; iiraniuv 
woiild have meant, I am ashamed of begging. * 

3. A Partici])le without the Article, and in grammatical concord 
with the Subject of the verb, may stand as adjunct to the verbal 

These adjuncts may be of various kinds, as — 

a. Modal, setting forth the manner in which the given action 
•was performed. 

Matt. V. 2 : iblbaa-Kev avTovs Xt'^wv, he taught them, saying. 

Matt. xix. 22 : airrfkBe XvirotiiAtvos, lie went away sorrovjful. 

Matt. xi. 25, &c. : diroKpiOels elirev, lie said, having addressed 
himself to re-ply, " he answered and said." 

Matt, xxviii. 19 ; Acts iii. 8, xiii. 45 ; 1 Tim. i. 13. For the aor. Part, 
marking the commencement of the action, see Acts i. 24 ; Rom. iv. 20. 

h. Temporal, denoting (i) a contemporaneous, (ii) preceding, or 
(iii) consequent fact. 

(i) Pres. Acts v. 4 : ovp^i (leVov (jo\ e/xei/e j vihile it remained did 
it not remain thine ? 

Matt. vi. 7 ; Acts xxL 28 ; 1 Tim. i. 3, when I was on my way ; f 

* See Eev. T. S. Green's "Greek Testament Grammar," p. 183. 

t There is here a strong argument for an apostolic journey after Paul's 
Roman imprisonment, as no part of the history in the Acts corresponds 
with this mission of Timothy. 


Heb. xi. 21 ; Rom. xv. 25 (ministering ; he had already entered on his 
errand of ministry) ; 1 Pet. i. 8, 9 {while ye see not ...yet believe ... while 
(also) ye receive). 

(ii) Aor. Acts ix. 39 : dvao-rds Se JJerpos (TvvTjXdfv avrols, and 
Peter having arisen went with them, i.e., " arose and went with 
them," as E.V. 

This use of the Aor. Part, is one of the most common idioms in the 
New Testament, and may be continually reja-esented in translation by 
two verl)S — the action of the one (the Participle) preceding that of the 
other. Or we may render by some such preposition as aftei; upon, with 
the verbal noun ; or by a temporal clause with w/ien. 

Acts iii. 3 : 6s I8uv ... ripwra, who saw ... and asked; or, on 
seeing . . . asked ; or, when he saw . . . asked. 

So ver. 4, 7, 12, iv. 7, 8, 13 [while beholding (pres.) and having ascer- 
tained), 15, 18, 19, 21, 23, 36, 37, &c. In fact, there is scarcely any 
usage more common in the New Testament. 

(iii) Fut. Acts viii. 27 : os iXrjXvdfi irpoorKvviqo-wv fls 'Upova-aXrjii, 
who had come to Jerusalem to worship. 

This idiom (the Fut. Part, to express a purpose) is rare in the New 
Testament. (See Acts xxiv. 11.) 

c. A Participle often expresses some relation of cause, condition, 
etc., to the principal verb. This relation the general sense of the 
passage will show. 

Causal. Acts iv. 21 : a-rvekva-av avrovi, iitjS^v €vpC<rKovT€s, k.t.X., 
they released them, as they found nothing, &c. 

Concessive. Horn. l. 32 : oirives t6 SiKalcofia rod Qeov €Tri-yvoVT€S ... 
avTo. iToiovaiv, k.t.X., who, though made aware of the righteous 
decree of God ... do these things, &,g. 

Conditional. Eom. ii. 27 : koI Kpivtl t) €k (pvaeods aKpo^va-rla rhv 
vopov reXovira,, k.t.X., and (shall not) that lohich naturally is uncir- 
caincision, if it fulfil the law, judge thee, &c. 

Matt. vi. 27 {by anxious care) ; Rom. viii. 23 ; 2 Cor. v. 2 
(because we desire). 

d. Intensive, a Hehrsiisva. (Compare § 280, 5.) Like the cognate 
dative noun, a Participle of the same verb may be employed. 


Heb. vi. 14: ivXoy&v evXc-yrjo-w a-e, Koi irXtiGvvcov irXT]9vvco ere, blessing 
I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply thee. (LXX. ; 
Gen. xxii. 17.) 

So Matt. xiii. 14 ; Acts vii. 34. 

A predicative Participle may be qualified by tos, o,s, as if, 
declarinor the alleged ground of an assertion. 

Luke xvi. 1 : biftSXrjdr] ... cos Siao-Kopiri^wv, k.t.X., he was accused, 
as though toasting, &c. 

Luke xxiii. 14 : irpocrr^viyKaTe fioi rbu audpanvov tovtov ws dirooTpl- 
<|>ovTa Tov \a6v, ye brought before me this man on the charge of 
perverting the people. 

1 Cor. vii. 25. 

In like manner, the particles Kaiirep, Kairot, although, may be em- 

Heb. V. 8 : Kaiirep wv vUs, although he was a son. 

So Heb. iv. 3, with gen. abs. ; vii. 5, 4^€\7]\v86Tas, in apposition with 
obj. ; 2 Pet. i. 12. 

395. Participles as epithets are used like adjectives. 

Acts xxi. 26 : rf) Ix.oP'fVTl 'HH^s'p'?', on the next day. 

1 Tim. i. 10 : e'l n erepov ttj v-yiaivovo-j] SiSacrKaXCa avTiKiirai, if 
anything else is opposed to the healthful teaching (of the faith). 
For other instances of this participle, see vi. 3 ; 2 Tim. i. 1 3, 
iv. 3 ; Titus i. 9, ii. 1. 

396. With the Article, the Partici^lle is equivalent to the 
relative with the finite verb. 

It may thus stand in apposition with a noun in any relation to the 
sentence, or may be used alone, the substantive being understood. 

Matt. i. 16 : \r](Tovi 6 X€70|i€vos Y^pkttos, Jesus who is called 

Mark vi. 2 : ij (jo<^ia r\ 8o8€io-a avVo), the wisdom which is given 
unto him. 


Luke xxi. 37 : r6 opos to Ka\oij}j,€vov 'EXaicov, to tlie mount that is 
called " of Olives." 

1 Cor. ii. 7 : XaXov/xe;' Qeov crocpiav ... Ti'iv dTroK€Kpup.p.e'vT]Vj we spect/c 
the wisdom of God . . . that hath been hidden. 

1 Thess. iii. 15 : rav koI tov Kvpiov diroKTeivdvTwv ... kol y'jpas 
cK8i(o^dvTci>v Kai Qea \>-i] dpeq-KovTwv, (of the Jews) who both slew the 
Lord . . . and drove us out, and do not 2}lease God. 

By a comparison of examples, the distinction between the use of the 
Participle with and without the Article will be clearly seen. 6 SiSdaKocv 
U he who teaches; 6 SiSd|as, he who taught; whereas ^iMcrKuv alone 
would mean while he was teaching, and 5i5a|a$, luhen he had taught. 

The Participle and Article often form a substantive phrase. See 
§§ 200, 204 : 6 o-n-eCpwv, he who sows, a sower. 

In some cases the substantivized participle appears to have lost 
all temporal reference. 

Eph. iv. 28 : 6 KXiirrwv ht]K€ti KXeirreTa), let him that stealeth, steal 
no more. Here 6 Kke-^as, he who stole (once), would be too weak 
in meaning, while 6 KXenTtjs would be too strong.* 

So Heb. xi. 28. With an Object we find the same construction. 

Gal. i. 23 : 6 ^uLkuv rjnas irore, our former persecutor. 

1 Thess. i. 10 : 'ly)(Tovv rhv pvofjuvov vi^us, Jesus our deliverer. 

Winer quotes also Matt, xxvii. 40; John xii. 20; Acts iii. 2; Gal. ii. 2; 
Romans v. 17 ; 1 Thess. v. 24; 1 Pet. i. 17. But in some of these pas- 
sages there may well be a special reference to the time then present. 
So John xiii. 11 : He knew rhv irapaSiSoura ahrSv, the man then betraying 
him, i.e., who was then at work for that purpose. 

The Present may occasionally be explained according to § 361 {d). 
Matt. xxvi. 28 : tovt6 ean TO aifid fiov TTtpl rroWcbv kK\vv6\i.ivov, 
this is my blood which is being shed {i.e., to be shed) /or many. So 
8i86|i€vov, being given, Luke xxii. 19 ; KX(6p,€vov, 1 Cor. xi. 24. 

In other cases, the ordinary meaning of the Present is to be 
taken. Acts ii. 47 : " the Lord was adding daily to the church," 
Tois «r«toiJi€vovs, those who were being saved, i.e., in the course or 

Stier, Ellicott, Alford. 


■way of salvation. 2 Cor. ii. 15 : " we are of Christ a sweet savour 
unto God, in those who are being saved, and in the perishing " (tois 
<rw5o(ievois koX ev rots diroXXvfievois). 2 Cor. iii. 13: "so tliat the 
children of Israel could not look to the end of that lohich was 
vanishing away" (tov KaTap-yoTj(i,£'vov), viz., the glory on the counte- 
nance of Moses. 

397. In some cases, a participle seems to stand alone, the verb 
to which it is an adjunct being at a distance from it, or the con- 
struction of the sentence being broken.* 

Horn. V. 11 : Kavxw|J.€voi must be connected with o-w9t]<ro|j,e0a, 
ver. 9, we shall he saved — and not only that, but saved with joyful 
consciousness of the blessing. 

1 Pet. ii. 18-iii. 7 : xnroTao-o-oiievoi, {nroTacro-d|x«vai, ctYaOoiroiovo-ai, 
|x^ <|)oPovp.€vai, o-vvoiKovvres, are not for imperatives, as has been 
supposed, but are adjuncts to TifiTJo-art, ii. 17 : render due honour to 
all ... ye servants by subjection wives by subjection, well-doing, 

fearlessness, ye husbands by dwelling with them, &c. 

2 Pet. i. 20 : Yivwo-Kovres continues the thought of irpoo-exovrts, 
dependent on KaXws iroitire, ver. 19, ye do well in taking heed, 
knowing this first. So ch. iii. 3 j read with |j.vTio-9f)vat, ver. 2. 

Instances of broken structure (anacoloutlion) may be found in Acts 
xxiv. 5: having found this man, &c., v)ho also endeavoured to profane 
the temple, whom also we laid hold of, instead of "we laid hold of him." 
2 Cor. V. 6, 8 : being confident — yea, we are confident and tvell pleased ; 
the sentence, but for the parenthesis of ver. 7, being evidently intended 
as "we, being confident, are well pleased." 2 Cor. vii. 5: where 
6\i06fievoi is really in apposition with the ri/iels impKed in f) aap^ rj/xwf. 
Heb. viii. 10, where Kal interrupts the structure of the sentence : Eph, 
iv. l-o ; Col. iii. 16, &c. 

* See Winer's collection and explanation of instances, § 45, 6. 

368 Am-ERBs. [§ 398. 

Chapter YIL— ADVERBS. 

398. Adverbs qualify verbs and adjectives as in other 

The rules for the formation of derivative Adverbs, with lists of the 
Adverbs most in use, are given, §§ 126-134. 

The use of Adverbs with the Article is shown, § 198. 

399. Adverbial phrases are veiy frequent in the New Testa- 
ment, and are of various kinds. 

a. A substantive, with or without a preposition, may be adver- 
bially used. (Compare § 126.) The modal dative is adverbial 
(§ 280, a). So sometimes the accusative, as ttiv dpxTiv, John viii. 25, 
essentially (Alford). Many phrases with Kara, are adverbial (see 
§ 300, 6). Special adverbial combinations are : a-nh fiefiovs, par- 
tially, Rom. xi. 25; 2 Cor. i. 14, ii. 5. Ik (Jie'povs, individually, 
1 Cor. xii. 27; partially, 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 10, 12. Kara Y.ipov<s, par- 
ticidarly, Heb. ix. 5. dirJ) jAids (yva>fj.r]s), " with one consent," 
unanimously, Luke xiv. 18. els to iravTeXe's, "in any wise," Luke 
xiii. 11; "to the uttermost," Heb. vii. 2.5 ; utterly. kv 6.\r\<id^, 
"in truth," truly, Matt. xxii. 16, &c. Iv SiKaioo-vvT), righteously, 
Acts xvii. 31. kv «KT€V£ia, instantly, "in earnestness," Acts xxvi. 7. 
€7r' dXT]9£(as, "of a truth," truly, Luke xxii. 59. 

For the force of these and similar phrases, see under the 
respective prepositions. 

James iv. 5 : npbs (pOSvov iTrmoBet rh irvevfia f> KarwKtcyev (Lachniann) iv 
^fuv. This difBcult passage should probably be rendered. Jealously does 
tJie Spirit which he placed in us desire (us for his own, Alford). This 
adverbial force of the substantive with irpSs is common in classical 
Greek, though elsewhere without parallel in the New Testament. 

b. For the adjective used adverbially, see § 319. 

§ 399.] ADVERBS. 3G9 

c. For adverbial notions conveyed by means of particijiles, see 
§ 394, 3. 

d. An adverbial phrase is sometimes formed by a combination 
of two verbs. So in the Old Testament often, " He added and 
spake," or, " He added to speak," for " He spake again," an idiom 
copied by the LXX. from the Hebrew. 

Lnke xx. 11, 12: irpoo-eGero irep-ij/ai, he added to send ; where 
Mark xii. 4, reads ir«x\iv direo-reiXt, he sent again. Acts xii. 3 : 
•jrpotreOeTo cruXXapeiv, lie proceeded to apprehend, or, " furtlier appre- 
hended." But Luke xix. 11, irpoo-Gevs ct-n-ev is the participial con- 
struction, he added and spaJce. 

Some expositors have unnecessarily interpreted other verbal com- 
binations as adverbial ; e. g., Luke vi. 48 : ^<TKw\ie koX i^dOwe, ' ' he 
digged deep," E. Y., but rather, he dug and deepened, the second verb 
being an advance upon the first. So Rom. x. 20 : Isaiah is very bold, 
and saith, not " very boldly saith ;" CoL ii. 5 : rejoicing (over you) and 
seeing, not "seeing with joy" (comp. Ellicott's note); James iv. 2: ye 
murder ami envy, not "envy murderously," or "murder enviovisly" 
(see Alford). So in many other passages. 

400. For a list of the Adverbs used as prepositions governing 
cases, see § 133. These may enter into combination with other 
adverbs, as Matt. xi. 12 : ?ws fipn, until now. So John ii. 10, 
V. 17, &c. Matt. xvii. 17: ?«s irdre ; how long? lit., "until 
wheni" So Mark ix. 19; Luke ix. 41; John x. 24: how long 
dost thou Tceep our minds iii suspense ? (Alford). Matt, xviii. 
21, 22 : y«s eirraKis, /c.r.X., until seven times, &c. See also Matt. 
xxiv. 21 (art.), xxvii. 8 (art.) Mark xiv. 54 : ?«s ^o-w. Luke 
xxiii. 5 : ?«s «8e. Acts xxi. 5 : ?a>s ^|w, &lc. So Rom. L 13 : &.x?'- 
Tov Sevpo, until now, lit., " until the (time) hitherto," viii. 22 ; 
1 Cor. iii. 14 ; Phil. i. 5. 

The use of the Article with the latter Adverb, however, renders it 
simply equivalent to a Substantive. 

401. Repeated reference has already been made to the distinc- 
tion between the negative Adverbs ov and htj. Generally speaking, 

370 ADVERBS. [§ 401. 

oi) denies as matter of fact, nrj as matter of thought, supposition, «fec. 
The former, therefore, is the usual negative with the Indicative 
mood, the latter the usual negative with the other parts of the 
verb. Deviations from this rule are to be explained by the 
primary sense of the two adverbs. Thus, John iii. 18:6 maTeiiaiv 
els axiTov oi Kpivfrai, he that believeth on him is not condemned [ihe 
statement of a fact) ; 6 Se p.'fi Tna-rfvcov, but he that believeth not 
(whoever he may be) has already been condemned ; on ^^ Tvem- 
artvKev, k.t.X., because he hath not believed (according to the suppo- 
sition made). 

The same distinction applies to the compounds of oh and ;urj, as oi/Se, 
/t^^Se, oiiKeri, fir]KeTt, &c. 

Two, or even three, negatives in the same clause do not con- 
tradict one another,* but serve to strengthen the negation. 

Luke iv. 2 : ovk ecfjayev ovSev, he ate not anything. 

Luke xxiii. 53 : ov ovk tjv ovSels oiJirw Keifievos, where no one at all 
had yet ever lain. 

For special forms of strengthened negation, see §§ 363, 377. For the 
use of negatives in interrogations, see § 369. 

When one of two contrasted statements is intended to qualify 
the other, it is sometimes forcibly expressed as an actual denial. 

Thus, in Hosea vi. 6, the Hebrew reads, " I will have mercy and 
not sacrifice." The LXX. translates eXco? 6i\u> '^ Bvalav, "I will 
have mercy rather than sacrifice," so conveying the general 
meaning. Matt. ix. 13, in quoting the passage, returns to the 
Hebrew expression, Kal ov dvcriau. Compare Jeremiah vii. 22. 

In this idiom, the negatived thought, though not absolutely contra- 
dicted, is exckided from view, that its antithesis may make its full 
impression. Compare Matt. x. 20; Mark ix. 37; Luke x. 20 (omit 
fiaAhov) ; John yH. 16, t xii. 44; Acts v. 4; 1 Thess. iv. 8, &c. 

* The usage is thus directly opposed to the English and Latin, where 
" two negatives make an affirmative." 

t Winer holds, as it would appear without sufficient reason, that this 
passage and Matt. ix. 13 above intend absolute contradiction. 



Only the context in such cases will show whether the negative is abso- 
lute or comparative. lu some instances, where an exposition similar to 
the above has been adopted, the meaning of particular words has been 
mistaken. Thus, in John vi. 27, ipyd^eade fj.T) ttiv ^pwaiv tV airo\\v/j4v7}y, 
K.T.\., " labour not for the meat that perisheth," &c., the verb ipy. does 
not mean " labour" generally, but busy yourselves, referring to the pre- 
sent excitement of the peojile. 1 Tim. v. 23; t^-qniri vSpoirdrei is not 
"drink no longer water," but be no longer a water-drinker, the verb not 
being precisely equal to vSwp wive, but pointing to the regular habit.* 

* Ellicott. 

372 CONJUNCTIONS. [_§ 402. 


402. For a classified list of the Conjunctions, see Etymology, 

Conjunctions are, with respect to their place in the sentence, either 
prepositive, i.e., placed at the beginning of the clause, as Kai, oAAa, '6ti, 
or postpositive, i.e., placed after some other word or words, as 5e, ■y6.p. 

Words connected by Conjunctions are in the same gram- 
matical regimen. 

A clause connected with another by a Conjunction is either co- 
ordinate or subordinate. The rules for the chief kinds of subor- 
dinate clauses have been given, §§ 379-384. The following rules, 
therefore, imply Co-ordination. 

Conjunctions of Annexation, KaC, re. 

» 403. The proper copulative Conjunction, employed as in other 
languages, is Kai, and. 

Of the special uses of the Conjunction, the following may be 

a. Sometimes it appears to convey a kind of rhetorical emphasis. 
Matt. iii. 14 : Kai av epxj] irpos fie ; and comest thou unto me ? 

Matt. vi. 26 : Kai 6 Trar^jp vfxwv, K.T.X., and (yet) your heavenly 
Father feedeth them I 

John i. 10 : Kai 6 KoVjaof avrhv ovk eyva, and {yet) the world Jcnew 
him not. 

See Bruder's Concordance, p. 453, for an interesting collection of 
instances. The logical connection of the clauses being strongly appa- 
rent in their signification, it is sufficient to place the simple copulative 
between them, the reader's mind supplying the additional links. 


h. In the enumeration of particulars, both . . . and may be ex- 
pressed by Kal ... KOI, by tlie postpositive t« with Kal, or (rarely) by 

T€ . . . T€. 

Acts ii. 29 : Kal eVeXevrjjo-c Kal eVae/)??, he both died and was buried. 

Matt. xxii. 10 : a-wriyayov ... novrjpoiis t€ Kal dyadovs, they collected 
. . . both bad and good. 

Acts i. 1 : ov Tj'p^aTO 'lr](Tovs ttouIv T€ Kal 8ida<rKeiv, which JeSUJS 

began both to do arid to teach. 

Acts xvii. 4 : tu>v T€ atlBoixevaiv EX\i]va>v ttXiJ^os ttoKv ywaiKoov t€ 

Tcbv nparatv ovk oXlyai, both a great multitude of the devout Greeks, 
and not a few of the chief women. 

John iv. 11 : oiire avr'krjfj.a e)(ets Kal to (ppeap earl ^a6v, thou both 
luist nothing to draw with, and the well is deep. So 3 John 10. 

The difference* between Kai and re is that Kai unites things strictly co- 
ordinate ; re annexes, often with imphed relation or distinction. Hence it 
may sometimes be read as 'implying "and this as well as the other," with 
asceimve force, although generally it adds a less important particular. 

c. The points of transition in a narrative are frequently marked 
by Kai, rendered into English, for rhetorical variety, by then, now, &c. 

Luke X. 29 : and tvho is my neighbour ? Luke xviii. 26 : and 
who can be saved ? John ix. 36 (Tischendorf) : and who is he. 
Lord, that I should believe ? KaC dramatically connects the ques- 
tion with what has just been said. 

Matt. viii. 8. (See Mark iii. 13-26, viii. 10-18, and many other passages. ) 

d. This conjunction has also an explanatory or '' epexegetic" use, 
repeating (in thought, or by the aid of a pronoun) something that 
has been said, in order to introduce some additional particular. 

Luke viii. 41 (pronoun and vei"b in the epexegetic clause), 
xxiii. 41; John i. 16 (neither verb nor pronoun); 1 Cor. i. 2, 
ii. 2, vi. 8 (read tovto). 

Eph. ii. 8 : r// yap xapiri eare crfcraxTpeuoi 8ia ttjs irlaTecoi Kal tovto 
OVK. e'l vpcbvf Qeoi) to dupov, for by grace ye are saved throiigh faith, 

* Winer. "Kol conjungit, re adjungit." — Hermann, 


and tills not of yourselves, it (i.e., your being saved, is) the gift of 
(xod. "You must not suppose, because your salvation was con- 
ditioned by your faith, that thei'efore you saved yourselves." * 

e. Without direct connective force, kuC often takes the meaning 
of also, even. 

Matt. v. 39 : a-Tpiy\rov avra Kal ri]v liWrjv, turn to him also the 
other cheek. 

Mark i. 27 : Kal rol? irvfiinnai roly uKaBaproLs eVtrao-o-et, he lays his 
command even upon the unclean spirits. 

It is evident tliat the emphasis in such passages arises from the tacit 
connection and comparison with other objects of thought. The con- 
junction, therefore, is virtually still copulative. 

This use of KaC is frequent in comparisons. 

Matt. vi. 10 : y€vrj6r]T(o TO 6ekrj[j.d aov ws eV ovpava. Kal cttI y^s, thy 

will he done as in heaven so also upon earth. 

John vi. 57 : KaGws aTreo-TfiXe pe 6 ^wv iraTrjp, k.t.X., as the living 
Faiher sent me, &c. There are two following clauses with Kai, 
either of which might supply the second member of comparison : 
'■^ so I live ... and,", or (as E.V.) '^ and I live ... so." 

Gal. i. 9 : ws TrpoeipriKapev Kal apTt naXiv Xeyco, as we have said 
before, so now also I say again. 

Hence the use of koI to introduce the apodosis after hypothetical and 
temporal clauses. Luke ii. 21 : the7i also his name was called Jesiis ; 
2 Cor. ii. 2 : for if I grieve you, then who is he that gladdens me ? often 
with iSou, then behold! as Matt, xxviii. 9 ; Acts i. 10, &c. 

In the rising climax, ov jaovov is generally found in the former 
clause, aXXa KaC in the latter. 

Acts xxi. 13 : eyai yap ov |a^vov 8e6jjvai dXXa Kal aTroSave'iv ... 
eroipas e'xo), for I am ready not only to he hound, hut also to die. 

Rom. xiii. 5 : ov p-dvov bia ttjv opyr'jv dXXd Kal 8ia rfjv avveibrjiTiv, 
not only on account of the wrath, hut also on account of conscience. 
For the combination /col yap, see § 407, d. 

* Some still refer toOto to iriaTews (quite allowable on the score of gender, 
by synesis) ; but this seems against the Apostle's argument. (See EUicott, 
Eadie, AKord.) 

§ 404.J coNJUNCTIo^'s of anthhesis. 375 

Conjunctions of Antithesis, dXXd, Se. 

404. i. 'AX\d, hut (emphatic as contrasted with Se), is used to 
mark opposition, interruptio7i, transition. 

a. Opposition, simply. John xvi. 20 : vfieis Be Xvnrjo-fade, dXX' 17 
\vTrrj vfxoov (h ;^apaj/ yevqcrerai, ye shall grieve, but your grief shall he 
turned into joy. 

Frequently after negatives — 

Matt. V. 17 : ovk r'jXOuv Karakvaai, dXXd TirXrjpaxTai, I came not tO 

destroy, hut to fulfil. 

Rom. iii. 31 : /x^ yivoiro' dXXd vofiov i<jTu>\iev, assuredly not; hut 
we establish law. 

b. Interruption. When a train of thought is broken, by some 
limitation, modification, correction. 

John Xll. 27 : Ilarep, aaxrou fxe iK r^s wpas TavTr]s ' dXXd Sia tovto, 

K.T.X , Father, save me frotn this hour ! but for this cause came I 
unto this hour. 

Often in such connections the conjunction carries with it the force of 
Nay, especially after questions (Matt. xi. 8, 9 ; Luke vii. 25). 

c. Transition : the point of contrast being that the succeeding 
phrase is a new subject, or the same in a different asj^ect ; like 
our Well, then; Moreover; Luke vi. 27, xi. 42; GaL ii. 14, &c. 

Special uses of this conjunction are (1) to throw emphasis on 
the following clause. 

John xvi. 2 : aTroa-wayayovs 7roii](Tovaiv vfias ' dXX.' fp^erai copa, k.t.X., 

they shall cast you out of the synagogues — yea, the hour cometh, &c. 
So with a negative — 

Luke xxiii. 15 : ovSev evpov eV to dudpcunm ... dXX' oufie 'HpciSi^y, 

I found no blame in the man . . . no, nor yet Herod. 

(2) In a conditional sentence, dWd may stand in the apodosia 
with the meaning, yet, nevertheless. 



1 Cor. IX. 2 : el ciWois ovk elfu aTTOcrToXos, ciXXd -ye vuli' fJ/xi, if I 
am not an apostle to others, yet at least I am so to you. So Rom. 
vi. 5, &c. 

(3) After the interrogative, dXX' 7 means other than, except. 

1 Cor. iii. 5 : ris ovv ean HavXos, rCs Be 'AttoWws, dXX' i) hiaKovoi, 
K.T.X., who then is Paul, and who Apollos, hut 7/iinisters, Sec. 

In 2 Cor. i. 13 we find the combination, &\?m ... aW' ij, other tilings, — 

ii. A^ (postpositive) is also most properly adversative, though less 
emphatic than aWa. It is to be carefully distinguished, on the 
other hand, from the copulatives km, re, with the latter of which it 
is, however, often interchanged in MSS. 

Thus, the frequent phrase, hi!i> %\ Xiya v^uv, marks either a 
contrast with what has been said before, or an addition to it ; the 
antithesis lying in the thought, " the foregoing is not all, hut I 
add," &c. 

It is generally difficult to exhibit the exact adversative force of 
this conjunction, and in translation it is often taken as a mere 
adjunctive. Thus, in the English version it is veiy frequently 
rendered and, or then (Matt. xix. 23), noio (xxi. 18), so (xx. 8), or 
left entirely untranslated (xxviii. 1). The "^e resumptive" is 
especially, perhaps unavoidably, so treated. 

A close attention to this particle in the innumerable instances of its 
occurreuce will repay the student, who will often by its means mark 
an otherwise concealed antithesis. The following illustrations are from 
Winer : — 

Matt. xxi. 3 : lut he will straightway send them, i.e., not caAil or 
hesitate, but — . 

Acts xxiv. 17 : hut I pass on to another part of my history. 

1 Cor. xiv. 1 : yet desire spiritual gifts, notwithstanding the supremacy 
of love. 

2 Cor. ii. 12 : lut tohen I came to Troas ; Se resumptive, from ver. 4. 
1 Cor. xi. 2 : hut I praise you, even while I exhort, as ver. 1. 

Eom. iv. 3: hut Abraham believed God, so far was he from being 
justified by works (James ii. 23). 

§ 404.] CONJUNCTIONS or antithesis. 377 

Kal...8€, together imply yea ... moreover, assuming what has 
been said, and passing on to something more.* 

Matt. X. 18, xvi. 18 {and not only so, but I say unto thee)-, 
John vi. 51, viii. 16, 17, xv. 27 j Acts iii. 24, xxii. 29; 2 Pet. i. 5 ; 
1 John i. 3. 

The full form of antithesis with ^iv and Se is frequent in the 
New Testament.t Compare § 136, b, 4. 

Matt. ix. 37 : 6 ^\v depia-fjLos ttoXvs, oi 8^ epyaTac oXt'yot, the harvest 
is plenteous, but the labourers are few. 

Matt. xvi. 3, XX. 23, xxii. 8, xxiii. 27, 28, xxvi. 41, &c. 

Sometimes fie'v is followed by the emphatic adversative dXXd : 
Mark ix. 12; Acts iv. 16; Rom. xiv. 20; also irXi]v, Luke 
xxii. 22 ; KaC, Acts xxvi. 4, &c. 

In several passages ^iv is found without any antithetic particle. 
This is to be explained by an interrupted construction of the 
sentence, or by virtual antithesis. According to Winer, these 
cases may be classed in a threefold way : — 

1. The suppressed parallel member of the antithesis is implied 
in the clause with ^iv. Rom. x. 1 ; Col. ii. 23. 

2. It is plainly indicated under another turn of exj^'ression. 
Rom. xi. 13. 

3. The construction is entirely broken, and the parallel clause is 
to be supplied by the general sense of the sequel. Acts i. 1 ; 
Rom. i. 8; ui. 2, vii. 12; 1 Cor. xi. 18, &c. 

The Disjunctives. 

405. The disjunctives are % or (after a comparative, than); 
^ ...^, either ... or ; silre . . . An, whether . . . whether. Once ■iJToi ...% 
whether ...or (there being no other alternative), Rom. vi. 16. 

Matt. V. 17 : yLT] voiJLLcnjTe on rjKBov KaraXvani tov vofiov ^ rovs 
7rpo(j)rjTas, think not that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. 

* See Alford, Matt. x. 18. 

I Far less frecjuent, however, than in classic Greek. 

378 THE DISJUNCTIVES. [§ 405, 

JVlatt. XII. 33 ; i^ noLrjtraTe to Bevbpoi/ KaXoi/ . .. 9i TroirjcraTe to d(v8pov 

<raiTp6v, K.T.X., eitlier make the tree good... or 7nake the tree cor- 
rupt, &c. 

Liuke XX. 2 : eV iro'ia e^ovcia TavTa ttouIs, ^ tls tcrTiv 6 Sous aoi ttji/ 
i^ovtriav TavTqv ; in wliat authority cloest thou these things, or who is 
he that gave thee this authority ? Matt. xxi. 23, has Kai. Either 
conj imction evidently gives equally good sense. 

1 Cor. XI. 27 : ts av iaBij] tov apTov t[ Trivj] to Ttorrjpiov tov Kvpiov, 
whoever shall eat the bread or drink the cup of the Lord (wliicliever 
he does, not by any means implying that he is not to do both). 
The previous verse has Kai, which is also a var. read. here. 

1 Cor. X. 31 : ellre ovv eaSUTe dn niveTe i'in ti noulTe, whether then 
ye are eating or drinking, or doing anything (at all). 

The combination '^ KaC, or even, occurs Luke xviii. 11 ; Rom. 
ii. 15; 2 Cor. i. 13. 

The "interrogative" % so called, is no more than the disjunctive 
with the former clause understood.* 

Rom. iii. 29 : ^ 'lovBaicov 6 Qebs povov, ovxi Koi i6vwv ] or is he the 
God of Jews only, not of Gentiles also 1 Such, the Apostle sug- 
gests, is the alternative of denying the statement made, ver. 28. 

See Eom. vi. 3, vii. 1, &c. In 1 Cor. xiv. 36, the former ft is not 
correlative with the latter, but refers to the previous train of thought : 
Or, was it that the word of God, &c., as must be supposed if you deny 
my authority in these matters. Dean Stanley renders, What ! went the 
word ? &c. 

Inferential Conjunctions. 

406. The chief particles of inference are oSv, therefore, post- 
positive, and dpa, accordingly, postpositive, or, with emphasis, 

oZv is properly the particle of formal inference, kindred to the parti- 
ciple of iip.1, &V, ov {qucE cum ita sint). &pa, cognate with &pu, to fit, 
marks a correspondence in point of fact {ergo). 

* See Tiger's " Greek Idioms," and Hartuug, Partikellehre, sub voc. ij. 


Matt. iii. 8 : TTOirjanre ovv Kapnov a^iov r^s fieravolas, yield, tJiere- 
J ore, fruit worthy of your repentance. 

Gal. 11. 21 : et yap 8ia vopov SiKaioavvrj, &pa. Xpiarbs bcopeav dnfdavfv, 
for if righteousness is by law, then Christ died in vain. 

Botli these particles, however, are often used with slighter 
meaning, as in our use of the words Then, Well then, in the con- 
tinuance of narrative or speech. ''Apa7€ (Matt. vii. 20, xvii. 26 ; 
Acts xi. 18; xvii. 27) is emphatic. The combination, &pa oSv, is 
found repeatedly in the Epistles of St. Paul, as Rom. v. 18 : So, 
therefore, the ovv marking the logical inference, and the apa 
intimating the harmony between premises and conclusion. 

For Spa interrogative, see 137, h. 

Other inferential particles occasionally found are fwvovvve, yes, 
indeed, but, Luke xi. 28; Rom. ix. 20, x. 18; roi-yapoCv, wherefore 
then, 1 Thess. iv. 8 ; Heb. xii. 1 ; toivw (surely now), therefore, 
Luke XX. lb ; 1 Cor ix. 1^ ; Heb. xiii. 13. 

Causal Conjunctions, especially vdp. 

407. a. The causal conjunctions are devionstrative and relative. 
Of these the latter occur in subordinate clauses, the rules of which 
have already been given. 

The relative causal particles are '6ti, because ; StSn, because (not in the 
Evv. or Rev. ) Similarly used is eTrel (properly temporal, irhen), since, 
with its emphatic compounds erreiSi], since now ; iirelirep (once, Eom, 
iii. 30), since indeed; and eVetSTjirep (only Luke i. 1), forasmuch as. 
(See § 137, a.) 

For the relative phrases, with prepositions, used as conjunctions — 
e.g., i(p' (p, avd' wv — see under the Prepositions, §§ 305, 291. 

b. The demonstrative causal conjunction, ^dp, always postposi- 
tive, is a conti'action of 7* &pa, " verily then ; " hence, in fact, and, 
when the fact is given as a reason or explanation, for. 

Matt. i. 21 ; ii. 2, 5, 6, 13, 20 ; iii. 2, 3, 9, 15, &c. 

Generally, the explanation introduced by yap is also a direct 
reason. But this need not be always the case. See Matt. i. 18 : 


*' Mary, as the fact was, being betrothed." Mark v. 42 : " She 
arose and walked, ybr she was twelve years old ; xvi. 4: "They saw- 
that the stone was rolled away, ybr it was very great" (an explana- 
tion, not of the fact that it was rolled away, but of the necessity 
for this being done). Compare Ps. xxv. 11 : " For thy name's sake, 

Lord, pardon mine iniquity, /or it is great (the reason, not wliy 
pardon is to be iestowed, but why it is sought). 

The student must beware of translating yap by such words as lut, 
although, yet peradventure, &c.* E,omans v. 7 reads, for scarcely on 
behalf of a righteous man will one die ; for on behalf of the good man 
one even dares to die. "The second/or," says Alford, '^i?,' exceptive, and 
answers to 'I do not press this without exception,' understood." The 
good man and the righteous are not contrasted as different classes of 
persons, but the "good" (as the article also shows) are classed under 
the "righteous." 

c. In questions and answers especially, yap is often used in refer- 
ence to tlie words or thought of the other party. 

IMatt. xxvii. 23 : rl •yap KaKov enoirjo-e ; Why, what evil hath he 
done ? 

John vii. 41 ; Acts viii. 31, xix. 35 (Be calm ! for what man 
is there ? &c.) 

John ix. 30 : eV tovtco -yap Oavfiaa-Tov eariv ! Why, herein is a woro- 
derfvl thing ! In 1 Thess. ii. 20, the Apostle thus answers his 
own question : " Yes, ye are our glory and our joy." 

d. In the combination, Kal ^dp, the true connective is generally 
Kai, which resumes in thought the topic of the previous clause ; 
while yap appends the explanation or the reason {etenim). 

Matt. viii. 9 : Kal 7a,p kyio dvOpwirds €i|x.i, k.t.X., and {this I say) for 

1 am a man under authority, &c. 

So Matt. xxvi. 73 ; Mark x. 45 ; Luke vi. 32, 34 ; Jonn iv. 23 (and 
{that,) because the Father, &c.) ; Acts xix. 40 '.and {this advice I j)ress,) 
seeing tJuit, &c.) ; 1 Cor. v. 7, xii. 13, 14 ; 2 Cor. v. 4, xiii. 4 ; 1 Thess. 
iv. 10 ; 2 Thess. iii. 10 ; Heb. v. 12, x. 34, &c. In these cases, Kal ydp 
must generally be rendered simply /or {or for, indeed), except when it is 
desired by paraphrase to bring out its full meaning. 

' * See Whier, § 53, 10, 3. 


But sometimes ^dp is the connective, and km belongs to tlie 
second clause, with the sense of also, even (yap, of course, being 
placed after it as a postpositive conjunction.) (See Ellicott's note 
on 2 Thess. iii. 10). 

Rom. xi. 1 : i<al -yap e'ycb 'l(rpa>yXiTj;s elfii, for I also am an Israelite. 

Rom. XV. 3 : Kal -yap 6 Xpia-ros ovx^ tavra jjpecrev, for even Christ 
pleased not himself. 

So 'perha'ps Heb. xii. 29 : Kal "yap 6 Geoy r]pwv nvp KarapaXlaKoi', 
for even our God is a consuming fire. 


408. The omission of conjunctions, or asyndeton^ often heightens 
the effect of a paragraph. 

a. The copulative may be omitted, as Gal. v. 22 : 6 be Kapnbs tov 

TTvevparos iariv ayanrj, X^P°-^ f'P'?'"?) p^aKpodvpla, xPW'°'''^^i ayadaa-vvrj, 
nta-Tis, ■rrpq.6Tr]s, iyKpareia, But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, 
peace, long-suffering, kindness, goodness, faith, meekness, self-control. 

b. Ka£ epexegetic is sometimes dropped. Col. i. 14 : eV a e^of^^" 

TTjv aiTokvTpuxjiv, rr]v ("(pecriv tSjv apapriiov, in whoiU we hwve the 
redemption, the remission of our sins. 

c. The oinission of the antithetic may be marked in passages like 
1 Cor. XV. 43, 44 :— 

(TTrelpeTai iv (f)dopa, eyfiperai iv d(]idapata. 
(TTTfipiTai. iv dripia, eydpeTM ei> bo^rj. 
(TTrfipeTat iv dadevela, iyeiperat iv dvvdpei. 
(TTTfipeTai (Tu>p.a i^vxiKOV, iyeiperai awpa TTvevfiaTiKOV. 

d. The causal particle is occasionally dropped. Rev. xxii. 10 ; 

ixf] (T(fipayl(TT]v Tovs Xciyovs Trjs Trpo(})TjTeLas tov ^t/3Xt'ou tovtov ' 6 Kaipoi 
iyyvs icrriv, Seal not the words of the propliecy of this book ; tJie time 
is near. (The rec. text supplies 8ti.) 

* 'AavvSeTov, from a, not, and avvSio), to bind together. 



409. a. The Arrangement of words in a sentence indicates the 
order of thought. Hence naturally, the Subject with the words 
connected takes the leading place, then the Predicate with its 
adjuncts. Words connected in sense are mostly kept together. 
The Object usually follows the governing verb ; a Genitive or 
Dative, the word on which it depends ; and an Adjective, the sub- 
stantive with which it asfrees. 

The opposite constructions are emphatic, as (I) when the Predicate 
stands first. See the Beatitudes, Matt. v. 3-11 ; also Matt. vii. 13-15 ; 
John i. 1, iv. 19, 24, vi. 60; Rom. viii. 18, unvwrlhy are the sufftrings ! 
2 Tim. ii. 11 ; (2) the Object before the verb. Luke xvi. 11, the true 
riches who will entrust to you ? Johu ix. 31 ; Rom. xiv. 1, &c. ; (3) an 
obhque case before the governing noun. Rom. xi. 13, of Gentiles an 
apostle ; Rom. xii. 19 (Heb. x. 30) ; 1 Cor. iii. 9 ; Heb. vi. 16 ; 1 Pet. 
iii. 21, &c. ; (4) an Adjective before its noun. Matt. vii. 13, through the 
strait gate (the emjihasis being on the narrowness) ; 1 Tim. vi. 12, 14, 
where good (Ka\6s) is repeatedly and strikingly emphatic ; James iii. 5. 

The usual arrangement of Adverbs, Prepositions, and the Particles 
generally, has already beei sufficiently illustrated. 

b. Since, in an inflected language like the Greek, it is unneces- 
sary to indicate the grammatical dependence of words by their 
order, the arrangement of a sentence may be indefinitely varied 
for purposes of emphasis ; and there is, perhaps, not a paragraph in 
the New Testament in vv'hich the collocation of words does not 
indicate some subtle meaning or shade of thought, scarcely to be 
rej^roduced in the most accurate translation. 

Generally speaking, the emphatic positions are at the beginning and 
the end of a clause, especially the former. 

c. Constructions that appai'ently violate the simplicity of speech 
may generally also suggest some special emphasis. 


1 Cor. xiii. 1 : If with the tongues of men I speak . . . and of the 

Heb. vii. 4 : to whom also Abraham gave tithe of the spoils . . . the 
patriarch, i.e., though he bore that sacred character. 

1 Pet. ii. 7 : for you, then, is the preciousness ... who believe, i.e., 
on the condition that yon are believers. 

See also Heb. ii. 9. 

The displacement of a word or phrase, as in the above instances, 
for the sake of greater effect, is sometimes termed Hyperbaton, from 

410. Elliptical constmctions are not infrequent. Many have 
already been noticed in their place ; as the ellipsis of the Copula, 
§ 166 ; of the Subject, § 169 ; of Substantives, §§ 25Q, 316. Two 
important elliptical forms of expression are the following : — 

(1) Aposiopesis, or expressive pause : some look or gesture, or 
the mind of the hearer, being supposed to supply the rest. 

Luke xiii. 9 : m^ jxev TroiTjo-r] Kapnou ... fl 8e /ij;ye, k.t.X., and if it 
bear fruit ... but if not, &c. 

Acts XXlii. 9 : ei Se rrvevfia iKaXrjo-ep avra fj ayyeXos ..., but if a 
spirit spoke to him, or an angel . . . (The following words, let us 
not fight against God, are regarded by the best editors as an 

See also Luke xix. 42, xxii. 42 ; John vi. 62. 

(2) Zeugma : a construction in which a verb is joined to two or 
more different objects, though only applicable in strictness to one. 

1 Cor. iii. 2 : yd\a vfias IttoTiara, ov ^pajia, I gave you milk to 
drink, not meat. 

See also Luke i. 64 ; Acts iv. 28 ; 1 Tim. iv. 3 (where the antithetic 
verb must be understood). 

h. In accordance with the primitive simplicity of language, the 
links between different clauses are sometimes omitted, being left to 
the reader to supply in thought. 


Thus, Kom. vi. 17 : Thanks be to God that ye were the servants 
oj" sin, but ye obeyed, &c., z'.e, "that although ye were ouce tlie 
servants of siu, ye liave uow obeyed." 

So 1 Tim. i. 13, 14 : / obtained mercy, because I did it igno- 
rantly in urthelief, but the grace of our Lord was exceeding abun- 
dant, i.e., "I obtained mercy, because (while 1 acted thus) the 
grace of the Lord abounded." 

Compare also Matt. xi. 25 • John iii. 19. 

411. a. Some forms of expression are ajiparently redundant. 
In these cases, a special emphasis may generally be marked. 

Instead, therefore, of assuming pleonasm, the careful student will 
note the emphatic meaning. Frequent cases are the following : — 

(1) Simple repetition of a phrase, ilora. viii. 13 : " ye received not the 
spirit of bondage, but ye received the spirit of adoption ; " Col. i. 28 : 
''warning every man, and teaching every man in all wisdom, that we 
may present evei-y man perfect in Christ Jesus;" Heb. ii. 16: "he 
tahetk not hold of angels, but he talcetli hold of the seed of Abraham." 

(2) Kepetition in a contrasted form. John i. 20: "he confessed, and 
denied not;" Acts xviii. 9: ^' Speak, and be not silent;" Horn. ix. 1 
(1 Tim. ii. 7) : "I speak the truth in Christ, I lie not." (3) The men- 
tion of accompanying circumstances, as Matt. v. 2 : "he opened his mouth, 
and said" (comp. Acts viii. 35); John xxi. 13: "Jesus cometh, and 
taketh the bread, and giveth to them;" where "every separate act of 
the wonderful occurrence is designedly specified, and, as it were, placed 
before the eye."* The verbs, come, arise, take, stretch forth (the hand), 
are frequently found in such connection. 

b. An idiom to be especially noticed is that in wliich an Accu- 
sative object and an Object-sentence are both appended to the verb. 

In this case also the double expression conveys an emphasis ; the 
attention being first called to the Object, and then to that which is 
said about it. For examples of this idiom, see § 382, d. Other 
instances are John xi. 31 ; Acts iv. 13, ix. 20, xvi. 3 ; 1 Cor. xvi. 15 ; 
Gal. vi. 1. 

412. Anacolouthon {avaKoKov6ov) is literally a breach in the con- 
tinuity of a sentence, and is a term applied to those numerous 

* Winer. 


instances in which the construction is changed in the course of the 
same period. 

Many so-called anacoloidha are, however, to be explained by laws of 
construction already laid down. The deviations from strict grammatical 
construction, excepting in the book of Revelation, are comparatively 
few, and are generally to be paralleled from classic authors. 

The most frequent cases of anacolouthon may be classed as 
follows : — 

a. The transition from the indirect to the direct form of speech — 

Luke V. 14 : he charged Mm to tell no man {/jiTjdevl elnelv), but go 
and show thyself^ &c. (aTreX^ij' hfi^ov, k.tX.) 

See also Mark vi. 9, xi. 32 ; Acts i, 4, xvii. 3. 

h. The transition from a participial construction to a finite 
verb — 

Eph. i. 20 : eyeipas avrov ... Ka\ etcaOia-ev^ having raised Mm ... and 

he set Mm. 

See also John v. 44 ; 1 Cor. vii. 37 ; 2 Cor. v. 6, 8 ; Col. i. 6, 26 ; 
2 John 2. 

c. The use of nominative participles in reference to substantives 
of any case, standing at a distance in the sentence — 

Phil. 1. 29, 30 : vpiv exap'ia-Sr] to inrep XpicTTOv ... 7raa-;^eti', rou avrov 
ayoiva 'i\ovTi'5, to you it was granted to suffer for Christ, having the 
same conflict. 

Compare § 397. 

d. A change of structure in the course of the sentence — 

Luke XI. 11 : riva i^ vp.a>v tov nartpa alrrjo'ei 6 vios aprov, pfj \idov 

emBcoa-ei avrov ; lit., from which of you, the father, shall his son ask 
bread . . . will he give him a stone ? 

Compare Mark ix. 20 ; John vi. 22-24 ; Acts xix. 34. 

e. The non-completion of a compound sentence ; the second 
member of a comparison, for instance, being omitted, or only 
suggested by the general sense of the passage — 


1 Tim. i. 3 ; Ka6ois napeKciXecrd ere Tvpoaixi'ivai ev 'Ef^eVw, as I exhorted 
thee to abide in Ephesus (where the E.Y. supplies so do at the end 
of vex-. 4, without anything corresponding in the original.) 

Rom. V. 12 : As by one man sin entered into the world. The 
antithesis, Winer thinks, is completed in sense, though not in form, 
in ver. 15. Others suppose a long parenthesis from ver. 13-17, 
inclusive; the parallel being resumed and completed in ver. 18. 

See also 2 Pet. ii. 4. 

To this head may be referred the frequent occurrence of /teV witkout 
the corresponding 5e'. (See § 404. ) 

413. An attention to soiind and rhythm in the structure of 
sentences is sometimes observable. 

a. Paronomasia, or alliteration, was a common ornament of 
speech with Oriental writers. Hence its employment in the New 

Luke xxi. 1 1 : Xifiol Ka\ Xoi|iol ea-ovrai. 
Acts xvii. 25 : Sw^v kql ttvotiv. 
Heb. V. 8 : ?na0€v acp' ojv 'iva^i. 
Rom. i. 29 : fiea-Tovs 4>6dvov, <j>dvov. 

These are instances of alliteration proper, there being no con- 
nection between the words in meaning. Where such a connection 
exists, the effect of the sentence is rather in the sense than in the 

Matt. xvi. 18 : o-i ei IleTpos, Ka\ eVt Tairr] rij ireTpa, k.t.X. 

Acts viii. 30 : apd ye •yivcoo-Keis a dva'yivcGo-Keis ', 

Rom. xii. 3 : /xi) iiir€pt})pov€iv Trap' 6 5ei <j>poveiv, dWa <J)pov€tv els to 


1 Tim. i. 8 : koXos 6 vojaos, edv ns avra vofAificos XP^'''^^- 

In the Epistle to Philemon there are probably allusions to the name 
of Onesimus, ovria-if^os, profitable. (See ver. 11, and dvalfuriv, ver. 20.) 

b. As the characteristic of Hebrew poetry is to run in parallel 
clauses, it might naturally be expected that in passages of strong 


and sustained feeling, tlie same peculiarity would be found in 
the New Testament.* There are some decided instances, as 
1 Tim. iii. 16 : 

{(pavepaidr] ev (rapKL ... eStKaLendr] iv TrvevfiaTi. 

axpdr] dyyeXot? ... eKrjpvxdr] ev edveaiv. 

ema-Teiidr] iv Kocrfico . . . aviXi](j)6r] iv 86^r]. 
This passage was probably part of a rhythmical creed of the 
early Church, or of a primitive Christian hymn. For true hymns, 
see also Luke i. 46-55, 68-79, ii. 29-32; Eph. v. U; Jude 24, 
25 3 Eev. v. 12-14, &c. ix. 2 : Xinrri ixoi iarl jueydX?;, 

Koi dbiaXeiTTTos 68vvt] rt] Kupdla >xov. 

Here we have the tone of strong emotion. 

For similar rhythmic constructions, see John xiv. 27 ; Rom. xi. 33 ; 
1 Cor. XV. 54-57 ; Col. i. 10-12, and many other passages. The parallel 
clauses often contain strong contrasts, as John in. ^0, 21 ; Rom. ii. 6-10, 
where a long series occurs. 

Sometimes the construction is more elaborate ; a second series of 
clauses corresponding with the first, but in reverse order. This is 
called " reverted parallelism," or chiasmus,f or epanodos (^eirdvoSos). 
See a simple illustration, § 312, 1, Simpler still is Matt. xii. 22 : 
"the blind and dumb, both spake and saw." Compare Matt. vii. 6. 

So Phil. iii. 10 : "to know Him, 

and the power of his resurrection, 

and the fellowship of his sufferings, 
being made conformable unto his death, 

if by any means I might attain to the resurrection 
[ilavduTaatv] of the dead." 

Other more elaborate harmonies of the kind might easily be traced. 
The whole subject connects itself with the studj' of the influence of the 
Old Testament upon the New — an important field of enquiry, as yet 
only very partially explored. 

* See Jebb's "Sacred Literature," and especially the vei'sions of the 
Epistle to the Romans by the Rev. J. H. Hiutoii, a.b:., and by the Rev. 
Dr. Eorbes. 

t From the letter cki, X. 


c. (1) Thi'ee quotations of Greek poetry have been found in the 
New Testament, all by the Apostle Paul. 

Acts xvii. 28 : tov yap koI yevos ecrfiev ' (the former half of a hexa- 
meter), by Aratus, a native of Tarsus, B.C. 270 ; found also with 
a little variation (e'/c a-oii yap) in Cleanthes, a poet of Troas, b.c. 300. 

1 Cor. XV. 33: cjidelpovaiv rjdrj XPW^* opiXiai KUKai, from Menander, 
an Athenian comic poet, about B.c. 320. (The measure is iambic 

Titus i. 12 : KprJTes del yj^eva-rai, kuko. drjpia, yaar^pes dpyai (a com- 
plete hexameter), by Epimenides, the Cretan bard (see ver. 5), 
about B.C. 600. 

(2) There are also apparently unconscious verses, such as will 
sometimes occur in prose style. 

Compare the anapaestic line — 

"To preach the acceptable year of the Lord." 
And the English hexameter — 

' ' Husbands, love your wives, and be not Litter against them.* 
Also the iambic couplet — 

" Her ways are ways of pleasantness, 
And all her paths are peace." 

The following have been traced : — 

Hexameters — 

Heb. xii. 13 : koI rpnxias opdas TTOiTjcraTe roTj Troalv>v. 

James i. 17 : Trao-a Boais dyddrj koL ndv baprjfxa reXeiov. 

Iambic measure — 

Acts xxiii. 5 : apxpvTa tov XaoC a-ov ovk epels KaKojs. 

This last is a quotation from the LXX. (Exod. xxii. 28). It ia 
possible that the others may be citations also from some unknown 
poetic source. 

2 THESSALONIAXS T. 1, 2. 389 


The following Exercise illustrates the application of manj^ of the 
foregoing rules to an extended portion of the New Testament. 
The figures refer to the Sections, which the student is recommended 
to consult. 

Verbal analysis is not given, as being unnecessary at the present 
stage. No word, however, should be left without its stem, declen- 
sion, conjugation, &c., being accurately known. The verbs of the 
Epistle have already been taken as material for an Exercise (Ex. 15, 

The Epistle is given as in the Received Text, important cor- 
rections being subjoined in the Notes. No interpretation of diffi- 
cult passages is attempted. The first duty of the New Testament 
student is to ascertain the plain grammatical meaning of the text : 
the way to its explanation will then be open. 



IIATAOS /cat 'EiXovavos koI TiixoOeos, rfj eKKXrjcria ©ecrcra- 
\ovLKeoL>v kv 06(3 irarpl i)ij.aiv kol Kwpiw 'IjjctoS Xpiorw ' ^ ^apis 

Ver. I. Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, nominatives; the 
compound subject of the sentence of salutation, some such predicate as 
"send greeting," being understood, involved in X"P"> "^^r. 2. (For the 
proper names, see 159, c, d.) to th.e church, dat. of transmission, 278; 
secondary obj. of the implied verb, of Thessalonians, extension of 
secondary obj. ; gen. of material (or origin, 248) ; article omitted, 233, because 
only some in Thessalonica belonged to the chui-ch. in God OUT Father, 


viuv KoX dpi]Vi] aiTo Qeov Trarpos ijijlcov KaC Kvpiov ^Irjaov 

^ RvXapicrT€LV 6(peikop.^v rw ©ew ttolvtot^ Tiepl vjjl^v, ah^Xcpol, 
KaOuis a^Lov kanv, otl virepav^dveL i) TTiart? vjxoiv, koX TrAeoz^a^et 
1] aydirr] evbs kada-Tov lidvTOiV vpLcov els dkXi]Aovs ' ^ cucrre rjixds 
avTohs iv vpXv KavxaaOaL kv rais eKukijaiaLS tov Qeov, virep r?/s 
VTTOiJiOvrjs vp-(2v Kol TTtorecos ev Tidcn toIs btMyij.o'is vp^MV koI tols 

further extension of iKKXTjaia; for «V, see 295, 4; Trarpi, clat. by apposition, 
177; TjuZv, unemijhatic possessive, 333. and the Lord Jesus Christ, 
Kvpio) under the same regimen with &ew, without the article, intimating 
that the union is one and the same with both. See 232, and compare 217, 
a, 6 (3), e, note. 

Ver. 2. Grace unto you, and peace (the Eastern and Western 
modes of sahitation), subj. of omitted verb, eifrj; comp. 166. from God 
our Father, extension of subj. ; for aw6, see 292, 2 (John, in a similar 
Connection, uses irapd, 2 Ej). ver. 3 ; iK is more usual), and the Lord 
Jesus Christ, prep, not repeated, 314, to show that the source is one. 

Ver. 3. We are bound, o(j). plur., as referring to the three in ver. i 
(some, less probably, understand the Apostle as speaking of himself, see 239) ; 
to thank God, e^X-) i'^^- ^"^ its ordinary use, 385; tense as 386; for dat. 
066?, see 278, d. always, adv. qualifying evx- concerning you, for 
TTfpi, see 302, a. brethren, voc, aS is meet, H^iSv, neuter, as referring to 

the substantivized clause, because your faith greatly increases 

(Sti causal, 407), explanation of the clause immediately jireceding. For 
virep in composition, see 147, a; the verb is nowhere else found in the New 

Testament, and the love of every one of you all to one an- 
other abounds, f^os sKdaTov, possess, gen., 254 (comp. 269); Traifr. vfj.., 
partitive gen., 261 ; present tenses as 361, a. For els (dej)endent upon 
aydTTT]), see 298, 3. 

Ver. 4, So that we ourselves boast in you, ware, 391 ; V- avr. 

(emphatic), subj. of inf., 285, 387; iv, 295, 4; Lachmann and Tischendorf 

read iyKauxuadai. araong the churches of God, for iv, see 295, 2; 
for the art. with 0, 217, a. for your endurance and faith, itrip, 

303, Of, 3. For the one article with the two nouns, see 232, a ; the endurance 
and faith combine to form one character, in all your persecutions, 

and the afl9.ictions, the article repeated, 232, b. which ye endure, 
ah, dat. by atti-action (for Zv, as the verb governs a gen. in the New Testa- 
ment, 2 Cor. xi. I ; 2 Tim. iv. 3), 346, b ; avex, only middle in the New 
Testament, act., "to hold up;" so mid., "to hold one's seK up against," 
355, I- 

2 THESSALONIANS I. 5-8. 391 

Okl^eaiv als avex^ecrOe, ^ evb^Lyixa rijs biKaias KpiVew? tov Qeov, 
6is TO Kara^L(ji6y]vaL vfjias rrjs ^aaiXeias tov 0eoG, ^ inrep ^s Koi 
irdax^eTc • e'lrrep hUaLOV Trapa ©ew avraTTohovvax tols OXifiovcnv 
Vfxas dkiylnv, ^ /cat v\uv roi? ^At/3ojuerots aveaiv /xe^' rjixciv, iv Trj 
CLTioKaXvilfeL tov Kvptov \rjaov air ovpavov ix€t ayy^kcov Surajueco? 
avTov, ^ iv TTvpl (pXoyos, bibovTos eKbLKrjcnv roi? jur/ elbocrL Qeov, 
Kol TOLS jXT] vTiaKovovcn T(o evayyekiia tov Kvp[ov i]p.SiV lr]crov 

Ver. 5. (Which is) a token, nom. (pred. to an implied relative clause, 
6 ioTTiv) ; the tokea being the endurance and faith of the Thessalonians. 
of the righteous judgment of God, genitives of origin or source, 

248 ; article again employed, in order that ye may be counted 

worthy, for inf., see 390, c ; tense, 386; u/i«s, 285. The clause expresses 
the intent of God's righteous judgment ; and hence its result, in proving 
the fitness of the faithful for God's kingdom, of the kingdom of God, 
^a(T. gen. after compound of &^ios, 272. 

Ver. 6. For the sake of which ye also suffer, for fiirtp, see 

303, 2. The Kol combines into one the thought of the suffering and the 
being counted worthy, if truly it is righteouS (as it is, implied by 
■vfp), copula omitted ; Sik. neut., because referring to inf. with God, 

for irapd (dat.), see 306, /3, 2. to repay to those who afllict you, 

afl3.iction, in the verb, uttS marks the debt, avrl the return ; for the aorist, 
see 386. (This verb is used both in a good and a bad sense in the New 
Testament: to "repay" or to "retaliate," Eom. xii. 19.) For the art. and 
participle, see 395 ; dat. secondary object, and ace. primary object after the 
verb, 278. 

Ver. 7. And to you, the afflicted, 0MP. is passive (not middle). 
rest with us, Atera, as 301, a, I ; vfiuv, referring to the three, ch. i. i. at 

{iu, 295, 7) the revelation of the Lord Jesus from heaven, the 

time when the recompense shall take place, referred to d*'ro7r., ver. 6 ; air6, 
292, I ; ovpavov, singular, 240, a, note, and without article, 218. with the 
angels of his power, compare 258. The angels are the ministers of 
his power. The art. is unnecessary before 0177., as the following gen. 
defines it, 208. 

Ver. 8. In a fire of flame, fv of investiture, dependent upon K. Iijo-., 
295, 3 (Lachm. and others read iv <p\oy\ irvpSs, in a flame of fire) ; rec. 
reading, <p\o-y6s; gen. of quality or attribute, 257. allotting vengeance, 
SiSocTos refers to 'Itjo-oO. (The verb in this connection is unusual.) to thos© 
who know not God, dat., 278; art. and part., 3,95; /i^, the subjective 
negative, see 393. and to thoSB who obey not, for the repeated 
article, see 232, h. the gospel, dat., 278, d. of our Lord Jesus, 
see 270, note. Christ. (Modern editors generally omit Xp»<jTov.) 

e e 


XptoToC • ^ otrives hiKr]v Ti<jovcnv, oKedpov alutviov utto TTpoa-Mirov 
Tov Kvptov, Kol aiTo TTJ9 So'^Tj? Ti]s ia)(yos avTov, ^° orav eAdt] 
ivbo^aaBrjvaL ev Tolls ayiois avrov, koI davfxaadrjvaL ev Tracri rocs 
TiicTTevovaiv, on eTnarevdrj to fxapTvpiov rjixcov 6^' vnas, ev ttj 
7]iJi.€pa €K€Lirr], ^^ et? 6 KOL 7Tpoaevx^op.(6a irdvTOTe irepl vjjiwv, tva 
ifxas a^Ldocrri Trjs KAr;o-eco9 6 ©eo? i]p.Q>v, kol TrXyjpaxrj] Tracrav 

Ver. 9. WJtlO, the compound relative, denoting character and suggesting 
the reason, 349. shall pay (the) penalty, eternal destruction, 
ace. in apposition \rith SiKrjv, 177. (away) from the presence of the 
Lord, art. omitted before irpocd/n-ov, 219. The meaning of air6 is doubtfuL 
It may either refer to the source of the punishment, 292, 3, "inflicted bij 
the presence of the Lord," or to the fact of separation, 292, i, this being 
itself the doom. Probably the latter meaning is to be adopted, and from 
the glory of his might, the preposition repeated, to indicate a distinct 
conception ; iax^os is the gen. of origin, 248. The glory is that of God's 
manifested might, and exclusion from this beatific vision shall be destniction. 
Ver. 10. When he shall have come, oVw with subj., 379; fut. perf. 
force of subj. aor., 383, ^ {orav as idv). to be glorified, iuf. of design, 
390, 3, note; for tense, 386. in (or among, 295, 2) his saints, and to be 
admired in (or among) all who believe {rea.d ina-Teva-aaiv, aor. part., 
"already believers," compare 364, e) ; probably eV here is to be taken, 
not as among simply, but as showing the sphere (295, 4) in which the glory 
will be disi)layed, and from which the admiration wiU spring, because 
our testimony to you was believed, parenthetical expansion of 
marfvffaciu, and the one aor. helj^s to explam the other : then, belief will 
have become a fact of the past. ijyLOJV is gen. of origin. For ivi, dependent 
on fiaprvpwv, see 305, 7, 4. in that day, clause dependent on ivSo^. kuI 
Oavfji., thrown somewhat out of order, compare 409, c. For iv, see 295, 7; 
(Kiivri, the emphatic demonstrative, 340, note. 

Ver. II. Whereto we also pray, eh denoting direction, 298, 4; 
'6, rel. pron., ace. neut., antecedent in the entire previous sentence, 344; 
Kol, with reference to the general sentiment of the jireceding, "we not only 
indulge the hope, Imt also expi;ess it in prayer." always concerning 
you, 313, 2. that (384, note) our God may count you worthy 
of the calling, gen., as 272, and for art., see 210. The meaning of a^iwa-T) 
is doubtful : nrnke worthy would appear best to suit the context, but this 
sense of the verb in the New Testament is unexampled, and fulfil every 
good pleasxire (see 224, a; 214, c) of goodness, i.e., every voluntary 
fiurjiose that can spring from (gen. orig. ) goodness; not God's goodness, for 
which a.'yadaxrvi'r} is never used, but goodness as an element of Christian 

2 THESSALONIANS I. 12; II. 1, 2. 393 

evhoKtav ayado}(TVvr]s kol epyov mcrTeo)? ey bwafxei ' ■'" ottws 
ivbo^aadr] to ovo}xa tov Kvptov r]ixS}v ^\r](Tov XpnTTOv ev vpuv, kol 
Vfjie'LS kv avT(a, Kara T-qv \apiv tov ©eou r}p.S)V Koi Kvpiov 'I?jcro5 


'EPflTIlMEN 8e vims, ab€\(f)ol, v-n^p t^s Trapovatas tov Kvpiov 
T]p.(iv 'Irjcrov XptcTTou, KOt rjfxQv eina-vvaycoyrjs eTr' avTov, ^ et? to 
(XT] Ta)(e(a? a-aXevOrjvaL airb tov vobs, p.rjTe dpoeia-Oai, jxriTe 
8ta TtvevpiaTOS ix-qTC bia \6yov fxriTe bb eTncTToArjs ws 8t' i]p.Q)v, ws 

character, so correspouding with the next clause, and. work (also quali- 
fied by iraaav, see 318) of faith (248) in power (295, 6), qualifying 
irA-npccayj, "powerfully fulfil." 

Ver. 12. In order tbat the name of our Lord Jesus (Christ), 
Sttoij, as distinguished from 'Iva, seems to denote the how as contrasted with 
the ivhere ; but the line cannot be very clearly drawn. XpiffTov is omitted 
by most edd. may be glorified (384, a, i ; tense, 374, note) in you 
(see on ver. 10), and you (understand eV5o|a<r0y)T€) in him (or in if, i.e., 
the name, but less probably. See Alford, and 295, 4, note), according 
to, for Korrd, see 300, 3, 5. the grace of our God and Lord Jesus 
Christ (or 0/ our God and the Lord Jesus Christ), see 232, a, note on Titus 
ii. 13, where, however, the phrases are different. KvpLos is so often properly 
anarthrous (217, b) that the former of the above renderings is at least 
doubtful. (See Ellicott here). 

Ver. 1. But (Se transitional, 404; the writer's mind jjassing from his own 
prayers to the duty of his readers) we entreat you, brethren, in 
reference to, 303, a, 3 (not by, as if in adjuration. See Alf. ) the 
coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our (gen. obj., 268) 
gathering together unto him, for eVf, see 305, 7, 3 (Mark v. 21), 
not up to, although the reference is to the final gathering. 

Ver. 2. That ye be not (lit., in order that ye should not be) soon 
shaken, for els, see 298, 4. The purpose of the entreaty was to prevent 
their being shaken. For rS, substanti\azing the inf., see 390; for /jL-fi, 
385; for vf^as, 285, and note, from your mind (or conviction), aTr6, 
as 292, I ; the article as an unemphatic posse.«sive, 215. nor yet b© 
troubled, for ij.r]S4 disjunctive (not /urire, as rec), see 405 ; epoilaBou, pres. 
inf. , denoting an enduring state, the aor. , aaMve. , referring to a single effect, 

386, neither by spirit nor by word nor by letter, as by us, 


ort €V€(TTr]Kev rj ijixipa rod Xptcrrov. ^ M-q n? vixas e^airaT-qa-rj 
Kara ixr]biva rponov ' on eav jur) t\dr} rj aTToa-Taaia TtpStTov, koi 
airoKaXvcpdrj 6 avOpcoiros rij^ ajxapTLas, 6 vlos rrjs aiT(oX.eCas, 
* 6 avTiKeip-evoi Koi VTrepaLpojxevos ctti Trdvra Xeyop^^vov Oebv t/ 
<r4l3a(Tfxa, ojo-re avTOV ets tov vaov tov ©eou cos Qeov KaQitrai, 
aTTobeLKVvvTa kavrbv ort ecrrt 0eos. ^ ov nvrj[xov€ViT€ otl ert u>v 

the repeated ^ui^re here breaks up the negation into three parts, and connects 
them. For Sid, see 299, a, 2. (Spirit no doubt refers to a pretended pro- 
phecy ; word, to a pretended saying on inspired authority ; letter, therefore, 
according to the parallel, should mean a pretended epistle. Tliat the refer- 
ence is not to the First Epistle, the ws seems further to indicate), as that 
(2 Cor. V. 19 shows that the ws does not in itself imply deceit, but only 
that the thing was so represented — "to the effect that"), the day of 
the Christ (or Lord ; K.upiov is the accepted reading, instead of Xpiffrov) 
is already come (or, is imminent, immediately), not simply is at hand, 
for the verb always refers to the present ; the part, ivearws expressly 
signifying the present in distinction from the future (Rom. viii. 38 ; i Cor. 
iii. 22.) 

Ver. 3. Let no one deceive you, «|air., subj. in imper. sense, 375; 
aor., 373, fc. in {KUTd, 300, fi, 5) any way, the two negatives strengthen 

the denial, 401. because, unless the apostasy, definite, 213. shall 
first have come (383, 3, note), and the man of sin [the sin, 214, b) 
shall have been revealed, — the A^wstle does not conclude the sen- 
tence, see 412, e, but passes on to describe the characteristics of the " man of 
Bin." the son of perdition (genitives of quality). 

Ver. 4. He that withstands, and exalts himself (middle, 355, i). 
Obs., the single article shows that the two participles refer to the same 
subject. But avTiKelfiivos caunot take eVi following ; an object must, there- 
fore, be understood, Christ. On the tense, see 395. above (305, 7, 2) every 
one called God, observe irdyra, masc. or an object of worship, 

06OJ' and ffi^aafia, accus., in apposition with irdyra after copidative verb. sO 
that he sits, for &a-Te, see 391 ; KaBiffai, intrans. aor., "he took his seat," 
and so now is seated in — literally, into — i.e., *' entered into and sits in," 
constructio prcegnans, 298, 8. exhibiting himself that he is God, 

airoSeiK., acc. by avrSv preced., present, as expressing his habit. For the 
object and object-sentence, see 411, b. fffri is emjihatic. 

Ver 5. Remember ye not, interrog., 369, b. that, introducing 
object-sentence, 380. when yet with you, &v, part, in apposition with 
Bubj. of eAe70v; for irpSs, see 307, 7, 2. I used tO tell yOU thOSO 
things, for imperf., see 362, b; vfuy, 278, b. 


Trpos v/xas TavTa eXeyov vfuv ; ® koX vvv to Kari^ov oi8are, eis to 
aTTOK.aXv(f)dr]vai avTov kv tm kavTov Kaipca. "^ to yap p.v(TTi\piov 
ijbr] ivepy^LTai, rfjs avop.ias, p.6vov 6 KaTh/ayv apTL ecos e/c jxeaov 
yivqraL • ^ /cat Tore aTTOKakv(f)0'>](T€Tai 6 avopios, ov 6 KvpLos 
ava\(a(T€t tw 'nvevp.aTi tov aTop.aro'i avTov, koI KaTapy7]a^L 
rr) eTTicpaveia ri/j Trapovaias avTov • ^ ov eoriy r/ T^apovaia 
KttT evepyeiav tov "^aTava ev naari Kal arip.eioi,s Kal 

Ver. 6. And now ye know what hinders, vvv temporal (as token 
with you I gave you the information, so noio ye know), or logical, without 
reference to time (Ellicott) ; rh Kcnexov, part., substantiv^ized. in order 
that he should be revealed in his own time, for eh, see 390, c. 
The hindrance is "in order to" the revelation being made at the right time, 
as a barrier might be said to be for the proper admission of a multitude. 
For er, see 295, 7 ; for the position of eavTov, reflex, pron., 229. 

Ver. 7. For, 407, explanatory of the hindrance, the mystery of the 
lawlessness (or iniquity) is already at work, avofiiai, definite, gen. 
either of apposition, 259, "the mystery which is the iniquity;" or of quality, 
257, "the mystery characterized by (the) iniquity;" ■fjSr/, adv. of time, 
ivepy., middle present, 361, a. only, f.i.Si'ov, adv. he who hinders, 

change from neut. to masc. at present, until he shall have been 
taken out of the way (midst). This clause may either be read, by a 
slight inversion of words, as dependent upon the foi-mer — "is at work only 
until he who at present hinders be taken out of the way," the olijection to 
which is the unnatural position of ecas — or by supposing an ellipsis of a 
predicate, "only he who hinders (is working, ii/tpyelrai) as yet, until," &c. 
In this case, the thought which yap introduces is in the latter, not the former 
clause of the verse. Compare the examples in 410, b. (For, although tli£ 
mystery is even now working, there is as yet a '■^ hinder er.") For e/c ixiaov, 
see 219. 

Ver. 8. And then, i.e., when the restraining power or person is taken 

out of the way, tJtc emphatic, shall the lawless one be revealed, 
210. whom the Lord (Jesus added, as in best MSS.) will consume 
by the breath (Spirit), 280, d. of his mouth, 248. and will 
destroy by the manifestation of his coming, 258. 

Ver. 9. Whose coming is, o5, correspondent with ov, ver. 8, relative 

to &vofjios. according to the working of Satan, Kurd as 300, 5 ; 

fifepy. anarthrous, "such working, in general, as Satan would perform." 
For the gen., Sax., see 20, a. in (of investiture or accompaniment, 295, 3) 

all power and signs and wonders, ttot?; in sense belongs to all three 
nouns, 318, and denotes "every kind of," 224, a. of falsehood, prob. 



repacn y^evbovs, ^^ koI ev -namj airaTr] r?/s abiKias Iv rots a77oA- 
\vixivoL<i, avd^ 5}V Ti]v aydirriv rrjs akrjOeCas ovk ibe^avTO els to 
(Tcodf]i'aL avTovs • ^^ Koi bia tovto 7re/x\/fei avTols 6 0eos ivepyeiav 
TTkdvrjs, ds TO TTiaTevcraL avTovs rw \lfevbei. • ^^ tva KpiOSxn tjclvt^s 
ol 1X7] TTLdTevcravTes tj] aXrjOiLq, dAA.' evboKijaavTcs ef Trj dbiKta, 
^^ 'Hju.ets 8e ocpeLhofxev ^vxapiaTilv tw ©ecS ticlvtot^ nepl vpwv, 
dbekfjyol i)ya-nr]pivoi vtto KvpCov, otl eiAero vjjids 6 0eos art' 
dpxtj^ «ts (TO}Ti]piav iv dytacr^o) YlvevpuTos Koi ttCo-t^l dA?j^eta?, 

gen. of origin, 248 (these things being severally born of falsehood), or per- 
haps gen. of quahty, as E. V. 

Ver. 10. And in all (every kind of, as ver. 9) deceit, parallel to the 
former prepositional clause with eV, the two together explanatory of kot. 
ivepy. 2ar. of iniquity (the article should be omitted), gen. of quality. 
among [or for) the perishing (omit eV, with all the best modern edd.), 
dat. incummodi, 279. For the force of the particijtle, see 200 (note), and 396. 
because, for wd' S)v, see 291, note, they received not, aorist, viewing 
their lifetime as past, the love of the truth, gen. obj., 268. in order 
that they might be saved, const, as vers. 2, 6. 

Ver. II. And on this account, 299, h, i.e., because they received 
not, &c. God "will send (or, is sending ; TrefXTrei, not irtfi^u, is the ap- 
proved reading), explanatory of the airoKKv^fvois. to them (dat. of trans- 
mission) a working of delusion, parallel to ivepyetau above, gen. of 
characteristic quality, 257. so that they should believe (the intent, 
and so the result, of the delusion, 390, c) the falsehood, dative, 278, d; 
article of "renewed mention," 212. 

Ver. 12. That they might all be judged, a second intentional 
clause, 384, gi-owing out of the preced. who believed not the truth, 
395, h ; for negative, see 393. but took pleasure, the conduct viewed 
as past from the point of view of their condemnation, in the iniquity, 
art. as 212. 

Ver. 13. But we, emphatic pron., 169. are bound to give thanks 
to Grod always concerning you, see on ch. i. 3. brethren be- 
loved by the Loi'd [i.e., by Christ, see 217, h), because God (for 
art., see 217, a) chose you (var. read., ei'Aaro, see 97, b, note), causal sen- 
tence ; compare the on in ch. i. 3. from the beginning, 219. unto 
salvation, dependent upon il\. ; for eh, see 298, 4. in sanctiflcation 
of the Spirit, eV denoting the sphere (295, 4) in which the salvation is 
realized. Uvevfi. is gen. of the author, 248; for omitted article, see zij, f. 
and belief of truth (or, the truth), iriaTfi without the art., like ayiaa-ij.(f, 
under the common regimen of eV, 314; see also 208. Truth is abstract, 214, 

2 THESSA.LONIANS II. 14-17. 397 

^* CIS o eKciAecrey iJ/jia? 6ta rou evayyeXiov i][xG>v, ets TT^pnroirjcnv 
5o'£??? ToO Kuptou jz/xwy 'I)7cro{! Xptoro?). ^^ apa oSy, dSeA^ot, 
crr?7KeTe, /cat KpareXre ras TrapaSoVet? a9 ibibaxOi^Te, ftre 8ta 
Ao'yoD etre 8t' €ni,(rTo\rjs i]\xS>v. ^^ avTu9 8e 6 Kwpto? 7;ju,wi' 
'irjcroCs XpLCTTus, Kol 6 0eo? Kat TTaTi]p i]\xS)V, 6 aya-m](Tas i]ixas 
Kol bovi TrapdKXrjaiv altaviav kuX kK-nida ayaO^v kv \apiTL, 
^7 TTapaKaXeaat vp.Q>v ras napbtas, Koi ari^pi^aL vpLas iv ttuvtI 
Aoyci) Koi<^ ayaO^. 

ami is used in the utmost generality ; not so much the specific truth of the 
Gospel, but the Gospel considered as truth ; the disposition given being that 
of harmony with truth in itself, whatever it might be. 

Ver. 14. Unto which (state of salvation), the neuter relative referring 
to the whole object of thought; compare 344. he called you, aor., as 
before, of specific time, by means of, 299, a, 2. our gospel, i-e., the 
Gospel as preached by us, see 270, note, for the attainruent of tho 
glory, fis, connected with and explanatory of us <rwr. ; 5o|., gen. obj., 
268. (The glory of Christ is regarded as in a sense the heritage of Chris- 
tians ; compare John xvii. 24.) of our Lord Jesus Christ, possess, 
gen., 254. 

Ver. 15. Accordingly therefore, for the inferential conjunction, 
see 406. brethren, stand fast (derivative of e'jTTjKo, see 106, 4), and 
hold fast the instructions, ace. obj. of /cpar., compare 264. which 

ye were taught, as, secondary object, with pass. eSiSax-, see 284, note, 

and 356. whether by word, 299, a, 2. or by our (248) epistle. 

For elfre, see 405. 

Ver 16. But may our Lord himself, Se, as usual, adversative, 404; 
avT6s, very emphatic, 335. Jesus Christ, and (may) our God and 
Father (or, Ood and our Father, see EUicott on Gal. i. 4). For our God, see 
ch. i. II. who loved us, referring to the last antecedent, God the Father 
(aor., as referring to a single and complete act). and gave eternal 
consolation and good hope, abstract, anarthrous ; better rendered 
without indef. art. in grace, connected with dovs, 295, 6 and 4. 

Ver. 17. Comfort, for opt., see 378 : sing., indicative of the close union 
between the Father and the Son ; so the following, your hearts, plur. , 
see 237. and establish you, u^"* omitted in chief MSS. in every 
good work and word (such being the order of the best authorities), 
iy denotes again the element; that in which the confirmation is given. 



TO XoLTTov, TTpoarevx^o'Oe, dSeAc^ot, urepL ijiJ-cov, tva 6 Ao'yos 
Tov Kvptov Tpi\r] KoX ho^a.0]TaL, Kadixjs /cat irpos, ^ Koi Xva 
pva-QocipLev airb tuiv aTOTtcov kol irovqpuiv avdpcoTTOJV • oi) yap 
irdvTcov Tj TTtoTts. ^ TTtoTos 8e iaTiv 6 Kvpi.05, OS (TT-qpi^ei 
KoX <f)vXd^€i diro tov TTovrjpov. * Tre7Toi9a{j.ev 8e ev Kupt'o) e<^' 
v/iaj, OTL a TtapayyiWoixev vpXv, kol iroLelTe kol Trof^crtTe. 

Ver. I. For the rest (as to what remains to be said), neut. adj., ace. of 
time (comp. 286, b, 2 ; see also 266, and FjUicott on Gal. vi. 17). pray, 
brethren, for us, for -irepi, see on i. 1 1 ; also for '[va. that the word 
of the Lord may have free course (raw) and be glorified, 
passive, not (as some) middle, even as also («' is) with you, Kai adds 
in thought the Thessalonian Church to the other plaees where the word 
achieved success. For irp&s, see 307, 7, 2. 

Ver. 2. And that we may be delivered, aor. subj., showing that 

a specific deliverance is desu-ed, 374, note; the pres. subj., ver. i, suggesting 

continuous success, 374, note, from the perverse and wicked men, 
the article denoting a class, as the hypocrites. Matt. vi. 2, probably specifying 
the Jewish party in Corinth, whence this Ep. was written, for the faith, 
the Christian faith, see 213 (not faith in general, which in this connection 
would hardly have been definite, does not belong to all, lit., "(is) 
not of all," i.e., is not their possession, see 267, note. 

Ver. 3. But (although the faith is denied by so many) faithful is the 
Lord, a paronomasia with the preceding clause, 413, a, 2. who will 
establish you, ref. to m-npi^ai, iL 17. and guard (you) from evil, 

or less appropriately (yet see Ellicott), the Evil One. Comp. the quotations 
in 316, p. 292. The neuter sense is sustained by the close connection through 
ffTTipi^. with epy^ in ii. 17. For and, see 292, i. 

Ver. 4. But we trust, the adversative S4 bringing the future just ex- 
pressed into antithesis with the present (so Ellicott). in the Lord, 295, 4 
(not simply "in the Lord, who wUl bring this about by his goodness," but 
being in Him, as the element of our life and hope, we trust) ; for TreVoiSo, 
see 99, c, note, also 367. in reference to you, for iiri, see 305, 7, 4. 
that what we command (you) now, as the verb, is pres. ; vfj.7v (dat. 
by 2-78. b) is doubtful, ye both are doing, and will do, for kuI... 
Kal, see 405. The whole clause from '6rt depends on imroid. as an object- 
Bentence, 380. 


^ 6 8e Kvpios KaTevdvvat vixwv to? Kaphtas els Tr]v aydir-qv tov 
&€0V, KoX eh VTTOfiovrjv tov Xpicrrou. 

^ YlapayyeWofxev 8e vpuv, aheXcpol, ev ovofxaTt tov KvpCov 
TjiiGtv ^\r](TOv X.pi<TTod, aTeXXeadaL vixas a-rrb iravTos abeX(f)ov 
CLTCLKTMS TTeptTtaTovvTos, Kol fxi] KaTo. T7]v TTapahoaiv ^v TTapeXa^e 
Trap' i]ijlS>v. '^ avTol yap o'thaTe ttws Sei /xt/xetcr^at ^/nas • otl ovk 
■^TaKTi]aaiJ.€V iv vpXv, ^ ovhe bu)peav apTov ecfxiyofxev itapa tlvos, 

Ver. 5. But, again slightly adversative, " though this is the case, yet as 
a further blessing." may the Lord, i.e., Jesus Christ himself, 217, h. 
(As Christ is separately mentioned at the close of the verse, some refer K. 
here to the Holy Spirit, quoting 2 Cor. iii. 1 8 ; but the argument is very 
doubtful.) direct your hearts, opt., as in ii. 17; vfj.S>v slightly emphatic 
from position, into the love of God, for eh, see 298, i; Qeov objective, 
269. and into the patience of Christ, prep, repeated, as of a sepa- 
rate object of thought, 314. Before uir., the art. xTJy should undoubtedly be 
inserted. Xp. is probably gen. of possession, 254, "such patience as Christ 
exhibited ; " or it may be gen. of author, ' ' the patience that Christ imparts. " 
The objective sense given in E.V., "patient waiting for," is not supported 
by the meaning of inTOjj.ovi\. 

\ Ver. 6. Now, 5e', transitional (404, ii.) to the preceptive part, we 
command you, brethren, for izapay., see ver. 4. in the name of 

(OVir or the) Lord Jesus Christ [w^v, doubtful), tV hvifi., dependent 

uponirap., 295, 5. that ye withdraw yourselves, object, inf., with 

ace. subject, 285 ; cneW., only mid. in the New Testament; active, to put 
together ; mid. , to draw one's self together, 355, i ; hence to shrink from, with 
ace, as in 2 Cor. viii. 20, or with uirS, as here, from every brother 
walking disorderly, and not, subjective neg. according to, 
300, 5. the instruction (see^ii. 15) which he (or they) received, 
Vj obj. of TTopeXayS., 343. The reading here is doubtful; most modern critics 
preferring the>j received (irapfXa^ov) in reference to the implicit plural in 
iraurSi, by synesis, 175. from US, for irapa, see 306, a. 

Ver. 7. For yourselves know, emphatic pron. subj. ; yap suggests 
an implied thought: "I need not enter into details, for." how ye ought 
to imitate us (for the impersonal verbs, see loi), "a brachylogy" 
(EUicott), implying irepiirareiv, from preced. , "how ye ought to walk — in 
fact, to imitate us." because we were not disorderly, '6ri. gives 
the reason for ixt/xuffdat, "we propose our conduct for imitation, because." 

among you, 295, 2, 

Ver. 8. Nor, slightly ascensive, "nay, and we did not," 404. did we 
eat bread, 306, a, 350 (to eat bread is a quasi-proverbial phrase for "to 


dAA.' €V ko'tto) Kol [JLoxdco, vvKTa Koi r][jjpav epya^ofjLevoL, irp'os to 
ui] iTnfiapr]craL TLva vixSiv ' ^ ov^ on ovk 'i)(op.€V i^ovariav, a\k 
iva ^avTOvs tvttov ow/xey vp-iv et? to [xtpieiaoai. rjixas. kul yap 
ore rip.iv npos vp-as, tovto TTapqyyikkoixev vpHv, on e'i n9 ov 
^e'Aet ipyd^ecrOaLj /xrjSe ^aOuTM. ^^ aKOvop.€v yap<i irepL- 
TvaTovvTas ev vpA.v aTanTcos, [xrjbev epyaCop.evovs, dkka TTepiepya^ 
CojJL^vovs. ^^ rots 8e tolovtol^ napayyikXop.ev Ka\ irapaKakoviiev 
bta Tov KvpLov r]p.(av 'irjcroO Xptorou, Iva p.(.Ta i]crv)(^Las ipya^oix^voL 

make a living"), for nought, Supfdv, an old ace. as adv., 126, a; coni- 
jiare its use in Matt. x. 8, " without an equivalent;" so in other passage."?. 

from any one, 306, a. but in (accompaniment, 295, 3) toil and 
travail (we did so) labouring night and. day, 286, b, 2. Both these 
clauses depend on 4<pdyuiJ.ev, implied, in order not to be burden- 
some, for irpSs with inf., see 390, c. to any of you, for ace, compare 
281, a; iifj-iiv, partitive geD., 262. 

Ver. 9. Not that, a frequent elliptical formula, correcting a possible 
misajiprehension, "do not suijpose me to say that" (see EUicott on Phil. 
iiL 12). we have not a right (to maintenance), but (we do so) in 
order that we may present ourselves, Si/iei', aor. of one definite 

determination; for kavrovs, see 335, 2, h. an example, secondary predi- 
cate, in apposition with kavT. to yoU, to the end that, (Is as in ii. 1 1, 
&c. (ye) should imitate us. 

Ver. 10. For even, see 407, note, when we were among you, 
for ■jrp6s, compare ii. 5. we used to enjoin this upon you, impf., 

362, h ; for irapafy^Wic and its regimen, see ver. 4, 6. that, introducing 
objective sentence explanatory of rovro, but thrown into a quotation form, 
382, a ; hence eVe. imper. " if any one wills not to work," for ei, 
see 383, a; for BeKn., 363,/. "neither let him eat," neg., 371. 

Ver. II. For, introducing the reason of the command, we hear that 
some are walking, predicative participle, 394. among you, iv as 
ver. 7. disorderly, doing no work, but being busybodies, par- 
ticiples in apposition with Trepnr. ; for the paronomasia, see 41 3, a, 2. The 
verb trfpiepy. does not again occur in the New Testament, although the subst. 
vepUpyos is found, i Tim. v. 1 3. 

Ver. 12. But to such as these, pron. definite, 220. we command 

and exhort, the dat. obj. belongs grammatically to iraoayy., as in ver 4, 
&c. ; irapaKoK. takes the ajc. by (or in, the rec. 5to is less fully supported 
than eV ; see Ellicott) the Lord Jesus Christ that, working with 

quietness, for ix^ra, see 301, a, 2. they eat, subj. by "va; tense, 374. 
Obs. vapayy. with the inf., ver. 6; with object and obj. clause, oVt, ver. 10 .. 

2 THESSALONIANS III. 13-17. 401 

Tov kavTisiv apTOV ecr^tcocrty. ^^ v/xets be, ade\(pol, fxr] kKKaKr]ar\T€ 
KaXonoLovpTes. -^^ et 8e tls ovx vTraKovei t<Z A.oy&) r/pLcav bca rijs 
iTTia-Toki]^, TovTov a-rjixetovade • /cat fxr] avvavaixiyvvcrOe avr<2, tva 
ivrpa-nij • ^"^ Kal jxr] u>s eyOpov ijyela-Oe, aXXa vovOeTelre ws 
ab€k(f)6v. ^^ avTos be 6 Kvpios ttjs elprjvqs bcoi] vp.LV tijv elpi]V7]v 
bca iravTos ev iravTl rpoirut. 6 Kvptos pera iravToyv vpwv. 

^^ 'O a(nTa( rfj epS] X^'P' YlavXov, 6 ecm <Trip.eLOV ev Tia<n\ 

here with the intentional particle. The command is given in order that the 
result may follow, their own bread, emphatically, not that of others. 

Ver. 13. But ye, emphatic, by way of contrast to those just mentioned. 
brethren, be not weary, subj., with imper. force, 375. The reading 
varies between skk. and i-yK. ; the latter (from ev) being to grow weary or 
cowardly in any enterprise ; the former, to go out of it through weariness 
or cowardice. But iKK. is altogether doubtful, in well-doing, pres. 
part., adjunct to pred., 394, 3, h, "whilst well-doing" being implied; or 
causal, as c. 

Ver. 14, But if any one obeys not, 383, a. our word, 278, d. 
through, conveyed by, 299, a, 2. the epistle, i.e., this epistle, note 
this man, for o-tj^., middle, see 355, 2, "mark for yourselves." and 
keep no company with him, dat. of association, 277, a. The pres. 
imper. in both cases enjoins the conduct as habitual. that he be 
ashamed, the purpose, again, not simply the residt. 

Ver. 15. And, not adversative, but simply conjunctive; another parti- 
cular of the conduct to be observed, esteem (him) not as an enemy, 
tiy, a particle of apposition connecting e'x^p. with rovrov, understood from 
preced. but admonish (him) as a brother. 

Ver. 16. But (the antithesis being between the persons addressed by the 
Apostle and those just specified, "as for you," "to return to you") may 
the Lord of (the) peace, gen. of quality, himself, emphatic pron. 
give (the) peace to you, S^<rj, opt. in the usual sense and the ordinary 
const, of the verb. The article before elp. both times is emphatic, recognising 
peace as the peculiar and well-understood Christian blessing. always 
Xpi^yov understood with iravrSs, an adverbial adjunct to 8cJr]. in every 
way, Lachmann reads rdirai, 2>lace. The Lord be, e^ as L 2. with, 
301, o, I. you all. 

Ver. I J. The saUltation, nominative, in apposition with ver. 18, as a 
kind of title : "This is the salutation." of me, Paul with my own 
hand, for const., see 336, p. 307; x^^pK dat. of instr., 280, d. which, 
neuter rel. pron., 346, a. is the Sign, pred. om. art., see 206. in every 
epistle, 224, a. so I write, the other member of the comparison being 


eTncFToXri • ovTui ypd(pco. ^^ r} X'^P'S tov KvpCov rjfiZv 'It/ctoS 
XpioTOu juera ttclvtcov vfi^v. aix-qv. 

Upbs QecraaXovLKels bevrepa iypd(})r] aTib ^ A0r]vS>v. 

omitted, as obvious to the orig. readers; compare examples under 412, e. 
Probably the phrase alludes to some peculiarity in the handwriting. Com- 
pare Gal. vi. II. 

Ver. iS. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be, (H as i. 2. 
with (301, o, i) you all. (Amen, is omitted by Tischendorf ; but see 
Ellicott. ) 

The subscription to the Epistle, The second (epistle) to the Thessalonians was 
written from Athens (see also subscription to First Epistle), is undoubtedly 
spurious, and is also incorrect. It arose probably from a careless and mis- 
taken interpretation of i Thess. iiL i. 


Probably no two words in any language are precisely synonymous, 
although many are interchangeable. It has already been shown 
(p. 256) that words in different languages seldom, if ever, perfectly 
correspond. Hence arise some of the chief difficulties of transla- 
tion. It has often been unthinkingly suggested that, in the New 
Testament for instance, the same Greek word should always be 
rendered by the same English one. This rule would constantly 
lead to glaring incorrectness : although, undoubtedly, capricious or 
unnecessary variations should be avoided. The word suffer, for 
instance, covers so great an extent of meaning, that we are hardly 
surprised to find it employed in the Authorized Yersion for ten 
distinct Greek words, beside various combinations of the same 
roots. To provoke, again, occurs twelve times in the English 
Version for eight diflferent Greek words. To provide is found 
eight times, representing six distinct originals. The verb ordain 
occurs eighteen times : once for ttou'co, which Greek word has in 
difierent places thirty-six English equivalents ; once for yiVo/nat, 
the various equivalents of which are almost innumerable ; twice 
for ap'i^a,, which is translated in four diffei-eat ways ; once for 
npoopi^o), which has three English equivalents ; twice for ridrj^L, a 
verb translated in fifteen ways ; twice for rdaa-co, which is rendered 
by five different words ; thrice for Siaracrcreo, a verb with five 
renderings ; thrice for Kadia-rrjfii, which we find translated in six 


ways; once for KaTaa-Kevd^co, a verb with four English equivalents ; 
once for Kpivco, which is rendered in fifteen ways ; and once for 
XfipoToveco, a word occurring twice, and in each place differently 
rendered. In addition to these, we have to ordain before, by 
npoypcKpo) and frpoeroipd^co. 

Such instances suggest the largeness of the field that is open to 
the inquirer into the so-called Synonyms, whether of the Greek or 
the English New Testament. To cover that field, in however 
perfunctory a manner, would be plainly impossible in the compass 
of a few pages. All that can be attempted is to point out the 
main distinctions between some important words in general use, of 
kindred meaning, and often translated alike in the Authorized 
Version. For further detail, the English reader is referred to 
Tittmann's " Remarks on the Synonyms of the New Testament," 
translated in Clark's Biblical Cabinet, 1833-37 ; to Archbishop 
Trench's " Synonyms of the New Testament ;" and to the " Syntax 
and Synonyms of the New Testament," by the Rev. W. 
Webster, m.a. 






'AyaOSs, ayaBaxTvuT] 


Sai/xciiv, SaifMSftov . 

• 53 

ayairdw. kydinj 

. 19 

SaKpvco . 

. 20 

ayios, a-yvos 

• 23 

Se'yjcris .... 

. . 38 


• 39 

Ser . . . , 



• 43 

Sei\6s, SeiXia 

• 33 


• 52 

SetaiSai/xwy, SeKTiSai/Movia 

• 44 

&5lK0S, oSiKi'o 

. aa 


• 59 

atSios . 

• 5S 

Sfj/ios .... 

• 73 

alvtcc, alvos . 

• 47 


. 67 

tuTiui, aiTriiw. 


diaKovos, ^laKovia, SiaKoveai 

36, 60 

ald-v, alcii/ios . 

. 58 


• 15 


. 18 

Stdvoia .... 

• 55 

aXridris, aXijOeia, a 


• 24 


• 49 

&Wos . 

. 76 

SiSdaKQ}, SiodcTKaXos 

14, 59 

a/xcrpTai'd), a/xapria 

afidpTTifxa . 

• 39 

S'lKaios, SiKatoivfTi, Si/caia),ua 

21, 49 


. 70 


• 70 

avddr]/xa. afaOe/xa, 


• 51 

Sfiy/na . , . . 

. 49 

a.vaKaiv6(ji, avaitdui 

. 26 

SoKeoj, So^a . 

6, 47 


. 62 

Sov\o7 .... 

. 60 


. 62 

Svvafxai, Siuafits . 

45, 57 

avofx'ia . . 

• 39 

Sut-ia, . , . 

. 61 

c.vox'h • « 

• 3' 

avriXvTpov . 

• 43 

'EPpaTos . . . . 

• 50 

airuXvTpuicns . 

• 43 

idvos, iBvT] . . . , 

• 73 



flSov, flSos, itSuKov 


aperr] . 

*i, 47 

ilKCCV . . . . . 

• 56 


. 25 

fi/xi . . . . 



, 72 

cItTOV, eTTOS . . , . 

. 8 

acpirifit, &(peffis 

. 42 

iAeos . . . . . 

. 41 

• 50 

$dpos . 

. 68 

fv^vfia . . . . . 

. 66 

• 57 

• 49 


. 21 

iVToXri . . . . . 



3 ' V 

tTraiveo), cTraivoj 

• 47 

• 4 

/S-VeVw, ^\4ixna 

• 5 

tTriaTajxai . . . . 

^0(TKOi . , • 

. 16 

> / 

firiaraTTjs . . . . 


Ppecpos . 
^wixis . 

• 3 
. 62 

• 37 . . . . 
epo) . . . . . 
epccrdu . . . . 
eVeTjs . . . . . 


9. 38 

. 66 

yUvva , 

• 52 

frepos . . . . . 

• 76 

ylvo/xai . 


svayyiXiov. fvayy(X!(w . 

• 15 

yiWiiffKU . 

• 4 

tvXa^-ns, fvXd^eta, ^vXa^fO/jLai 

33> 44 

yofjios . 

. 68 

(vXoyr)T6i . . . , 

. 28 




fva(^T)i, (Vff€^eia . 

• 44 

\fycii, \6yos ..... 


. . . 38 

\etTovpy6i, heiTovpyiu, \eiTovpyia, 
\eiTovpyiK6s , . . . 

Cm . . . 

• 54 

\ri(TTi)s .... 



\6yos ..... 


• 39 

Kvrpov, \VTp6ci>, \vTpti>ffis 
\vxyos, Kvxvia 

6dvaTos, 9avar6(i>, 6vr\T6 

s . . 54 


• 5 

/ua97jTTJs, (i.a6-riTi\ioi 

BeXo) . 


jxaKapios .... 

6fO(re$i}s, 6eoa4Bfia 

• 44 

jxaKpodu/jLta .... 

&f6rrii, Qeidr-qs 

• 34 

fjidvTis, fxavrevofiai. 

6epdrra>y, depairevu . 

. 60 

/xdraLOS .... 

6eaip4(i> . 

• 5 

fxeyaXvvM .... 



fifKet, ufAfTdtv 

6vi)t6s . 

• 54 

/xcAAci) ..... 

BprjaKos, BpriaKfia . 

. 44 

/xtptfiydai, fx^piuva . 

Ou/ids . 

. 32 

fj-fTa/xiKofiia'. .... 


. 71 

/xsTauofw, fxeTafoia 

Ovaia, dvaioar-fipiov 

. 37 


hpfvs . 

• 37 

yaSs ..... 

Up6s, Up6v . 

23, 35 

veKpos, V€Kp6tO 

i\a.aKOlxai, lAafffiSs 

• 43 

V€os, ve6Tr]S .... 


. 66 

vr)Tvios ..... 

'lovSaios, 'I<7/>a7j\iT7)S 

. 50 

viirria ..... 

lax^w, l(TX"^- 

• 57 

vovs, vSrifjLa .... 


. 23 

uyKos ..... 

Kaivos, Kaivdrris 

. 26 

6Svpfi6i .... 

Katp6s . 

. . . 64 

oilSa ..... 

kukSs, Kania . 

.. 22 

oIkos, oiKia, o'lKfTris 

KaX6s . 


olKOVfXfVI] .... 

KapSia . 

• 55 

OlKTipn^S .... 

KaTa77e'AAa) . 

• 15 

oAJkAtjpos, ii\0Tf\ris 


. 14 

opdai, opajxa, tjipoixat, oij/is 

Ktvos . 

• ^9 


KTipvacui, KTipvyfia. 

• 15 

oaios ..... 

KAafo) . . . . 


o4>€iAa), 6<pfi\T]fia .... 


• 74 

ox^os ..... 


. . 69 

KSap-os . 

. . 58 

TraTr, TraiSioy, iraiSei^w . . 62 

KpuTos, KpeicTcraiu . 

57, 21 

iraXaiSs ..... 

KTicris . . . . 

• 49 

vapd0affis, TrapaKoii, irapdirTco/xa, 


• 59 

irixpavuf/la .... 

Trapal3o\ri, itapoifua 

\a\4oi . . . . 

8, 15 

irapdSocns ..... 


. . 65 

irdpems. ..... 

\a6s . . . . 

• 73 

Trarpia ...... 

Xarpevo) . . , 

. . 36 

irapopyicTfios ..... 






»r6V7)J .... 

• 3° 

Te'Xos, T€A.fw, TeAeios, TeXeiJw i'?, 27 

■, irfpiiroir](Tis 

• 43 

Te'paj .... 

• 45 

ireVpa, irerpos 

• 75 

Ti/iiJ .... 

• 43 

rrXTj/i^ueAeia . 

• 39 

■!r\7ip6w, irXrjpoo/xa . 
■K\vVlt3 . . , 

• 13 

('(UJ'OS .... 

. 48 

TTvevfia . 

• 55 



TTOteO) . 

troijxaivm, TToifiVT], wolixvi 



• 31 



6, 72 


novrip6s, TTovripia . 


■irpo(, irpoaevx'fl 



irpo(p7irT]s, Trpo(pr]Tevofiat 


. 22 


. 38 

. 36 

. 37 





(pauKos .... 


<PVIJ-'i- .... 

(piAf'oj, (piXaydpomia, (pt\aSe\(l 

<p6Bos, (poPeo/ . 

. 6 


. . 65 

. 8 

ila . 19 

. 33 

■n-u\Ti, TTvKtSiv . 


. 68 

TTvvddyo/jLaL . 


(ppeves .... 
(ppuviui, (ppovrl^u} . 

. 11 

h^^i- .... 

. '1 

<pv\ri .... 

. 61 
. . 65 



XapaKT-np, x&pa-yiJ^a, 

. . 56 

crdp^, crapKtKSs 


X«P'S .... 

. 4t 

Sardi/, 'Sarauas 


X'Taij/ .... 

. 66 

(Ti^o/xai, (Ti^d^ojjLM 


XP^ • 

. 12 



Xpyi'^fi^, XPWr^TTjs 

. 21 

aiydofiai, tnoiirocD . 

Xpic, xP"^tJs 

. 18 

(TKld .... 


XP<^J'os .... 

. . 64 

airovSri .... 


(TTTVpis .... 


i^aX/if^s . , , 

. 48 

aT((payos, arrtfifia . . 


^rj\a<pdw . , , 

. 7 

irxma .... 


^"xn> ^VX"(<^S 

54. 55 

TiKvoy .... 




<^H . 

. 4S 



First, some gi'oups of Verbs in ordinary use may be selected, 
with their related Substantives. 

1. To Be, Exist, Become. 
Ki/il is the ordinary verb of existence; virdpx<» implies essential or 
original condition (Phil. ii. 6), and so is directly contrasted with yivofuu, to 
become (James i. 22). See further, Acts xvii. 24 ; Heb. xl 6. 

2. To Do, to Make. 
Uoifo) seems to denote more sustained effort than irpdcrcw, whence the 
frequent use of the former for well-doing, the latter for ill-doing. For other 
senses of irpdffffw, see Eph. vi. 21 ; Luke iii. 13 (this last compared with 
iroUo) in Luke xii. 33, xix. 18). 

3. To Win, to Desire. 

BouXomoi denotes the will rather on its intellectual side, "to choose;" 
ee\(c, the siniple fact of volition. So the latter is used of arbitrary (Luke 
iv. 6) or absolute (Rom. ix. 18) authority, the former of determinations 
where the wisdom and justice are apparent (Luke x. 22, xxii. 42). Thus 
Bov\-fi is counsel ; Oi\-r\ixa, will ; ^SovAtj.uo, plan (only in Acts xxvii. 43 ; 
Rom. ix. 19). BouA.o^ai is also used in recommendations, backed by reason 
(i Tim. ii. 8, v. 14). For a striking instance of distinction between the two 
verbs, compare Mark xv. 9, 12, with vei-se 15. So Philemon 13, 14. MeXAco 
indicates futurity, as the result of predetermination, or of some act or 
event, " is to be," " is going to," Matt. iii. 7, xi. 14 ; Luke vii. 2 ; Heb. L 14. 

4. To Know. 

OTSa is properly a perfect, " 1 have seen," and implies the knowledge 
which comes from without, objective knowledge; ■yivcaa-KCD, "I learn," in 
any way, expresses the knowledge as existing in the mind, subjective know- 
ledge. Hence, when knowledge involves experience, yu/wa-Ka) is always used 
(Eph. iii. 19; Phil. iii. 10; i John ii., iii., iv. ); eViVTa^ai (an old dialectic 
form of the middle of i(piffTf\ixi), " to set (the mind) upon," may either mean 
simply to he aware of, as in the Acts, or to understand (Mark xiv. 68). The 
distinction between oloa and e7riVTa/ioi may be noted in Jude 10 ; that 
between yivcicKO) and iiricTTafxat in Acts xix. 15. 

5. To See. 
BXeTTw denotes the act of seeing, and is referred to the organ; 6pdw 


{S<, el^ov) is referred to the thing seen, whether in itself (objectively) or 
in regard to its impression on the mind (subjectively). The former verb, 
therefore, may be used without an expressed object (as Matt. xiii. 13). 
Both verbs are applied to mental vision, the former imjjlying greater vivid- 
ness (Heb. ii. 8, 9). "With ^tj, they have the sense beware ; generally, 
however, fixi-ro) is used, occasionally with 0.1:6. In accordance with the 
distinction above mentioned, opafj.a is a vision ; P\,a, the exercise of the 
faculty of .sight; to. ^KeirS/j.ei'a, the things seen (2 Cor. iv. 18), i.e., on which 
the faculty of immediate discernment is exercised ; rh &par6v, the visible 
(Col. i. 16), i.e., in itself considered. Tittman distinguishes Spaa: and its 
derivatives from elSoy, in that the former is objective, and the latter sub- 
jective, oi|/o/iat being a middle term. Compare Spa/jia, dSos, 6\\/is. It is 
doubtful, however, if this distinction can be maintained in the use of the 
verbs. Bedofiai (referred to the subject) and 6(wp4a> (referred to the object) 
are to look at purposely, or attentively to gaze upon (Matt, vi 1, xi. 7 ; 
John xii. 45 ; Acts viL 56). 

6. To Appear. 

AoKfcc "expresses the subjective mental estimate or opinion about a 
matter which men form, their So'|a concerning it, which may be right 
(Acts XV. 28 ; I Cor. iv. 9, vii. 40), but which may be wrong, involving, as 
it always does, the possibility of error (Matt. vi. 7 ; Mark vL 49 ; 
John xvi. 2; Acts xxvii. 13);" (paivo/xai "expresses how a matter 
phenomenally shows and presents itself, with no necessary assumption of 
any beholder at all." — Trench. This "phenomenon" may represent a 
reality (Matt. ii. 7 ; Phil. ii. 15, "appear," not "shine") or a mere show 
(Matt, xxiii. 27, 28). 

7. To Touch. 

"AiTTOjuaj (middle of Utttod, to kindle) is the usual word ; Biyydvo) denotes 
a lighter touch (compare the two in Col. ii. 21, where, as Vrchbishop Trench 
observes, the order of our translation should be reversed ; and see 
Heb. xi. 28); }f/ri\a<pda is to feel ("to feel after," Acts xvii. 27), to handle. 
Pres. part., palpable, material (Heb. xii. 18), 

8. To Speak, Say. 

AaKeo) is simply to .speak, to employ the organ of utterance ; Xeyu is 
referred to the sentiment of what is spoken (compare /SAeVw and Spdw above) ; 
^■tfijil, ^4u, epS>, elirov, to the. words ; pfj/xa is a word, in itself considered ; 
\6yos, a spoken word, with reference generally to that which is in the 
speaker's mind; eiroj is onlyfoimd (Heb. vii. 9) in the phrase ws ettos e/ire7i', 
so to speak. 


9. To Ask. 

AjVewis to ask for somethincr, to beg, pray ; fpurdoa, to question, to ask 
in general, si>ecifically : "In that day ye shall ask me no questions ... -what- 
soever ye shall pray the Father in my name." Observe, ipwrdw is elsewhere 
used of Christ's prayers to the Father (John xvii. 9, 15, 20), never of ours. 
Compare the two in John xvi. 23; and in i John v. 16, Ilvyddyo[, to 
ask for information, to inquire. 

10. To Come. 

"EpxoM"' denotes the act, "I am coming;" t/ikw, the result, "I am 
come." John viii. 42: "I came from God, and I am here." See also 
Heb. X. 9. 

11. To Care. 

^poveu, (ppovrlCu, implies solicitude (Phil. iv. 10; Titus iii. 8); 
fxeKerdo) (and impers. ix4\(i), solicitude expressed in forethought, or the 
employment of means to the desired result ; (jiepiixvdw, anxious or distracting 
care. So the substantive fnipiixva. See especially i Peter v. 75 airouS^ 
("haste") is, earnestness, diligence, generally. 

12. Ought. 

Aei (impers.) denotes the duty or necessity as existing in the thing itself, 
often used for the ought arising from prophecy (Luke xxiv. 26, 46) ; 6(pel\oe 
refers to the obligation as actually imposed (John xiii. 14) ; xpi7 (only once 
in the New Testament, James iii. 10) is connected with xpao^ai, and origi- 
nally differs from Se? as the rule of utility differs from that of abstract 
right (SeT would express Butler's philosophy of morals ; XP^> Paley's). 

13. To Accomplish, FiQfil, Perfect. 

Te'Xos expresses the end of a course or series : so re\4w, to reach the end ; 
Te\ei6(c, to complete; irXrjpSu denotes the accomplishment of a plan or 
purpose, to fulfil ; Te\e'« gives the finishing stroke (John xix. 30) ; ir\rjp6a 
adds the completing element : the former brings the toj^stone, the latter, 
the keystone. Hence they are often interchangeable. Compare Acts xx. 24, 
■where the prominent thought is the completeness of the Ai^ostle's life-work, 
■with 2 Tim. iv. 7, where to this is superadded the thought of its approaching 
close. The fulfilment of prophecy is exjjressed by irX-npSw, except John xix. 28, 
■which has re\ei6a). ^Ai5^yc^>jua is generally active, that which brings com- 
pleteness, fulness, to anything (Matt, ix, 16 ; i Cor. x. 26) ; but may 
be used passively, that which is filled (Eph. i. 23), or abstractedly, /uiwess 
(Col. ii. 9). 


14. To Teach, Instruct. 

A«5cJ(r»fw is to teach generally; Kar-qxeoi, strictly to teach by word of 
mouth (Luke i. 4; Rom. ii. 18). Hence catechesis, catechize, of careful, 
repeated oral instruction ; (UaflTjrei'tu is (actively) to make, or (intransitively) 
to be a disciple, in the former sense distinguished from Vi^arrKco in 
Matt, xxviii. 19 ; iratSeuw involves the notion of discipline, and is often to 
be rendered chasten. 

15. To Preach. 

Ki)pi(rcTw is to proclaim, as a herald ; KTjp vyna, the proclamation made ; 
fvayy4\iov and ^vayytKi^w add the further notion of glad tidings; 
KarayyeWco refers simply to the delivery of the message. Found with 
evayye\iCa>, Acts xv. 35, 36; with Kr)pv(r(Toi, Phil. i. 15, 16. AaXew, 
sometimes rendered preach, means simply to talk (see 8), and diaAiyofiai 
(Acts XX. 7, 9) implies covference; vpo(pr]T(va!, to forth-fell, and irpo(p-r}T7is, 
are used for preachers under the New Testament (Eph. iv. 11; i Cor. 
xiv. I ), as for the prophets of the Old, both being set to declare the Divine 
will ; fjLdvTis, a soothsayer, is of heathen use, and not found in the New 
Testament, ixowTevofiai occurring only Acts xvi. 16. See Trench. 

16. To Feed (a flock). 

Tloiiiaivd) is iu general to exercise the care of a iroi/xiiv, to tend the 
flock (Acts XX. 28), hence to rule, govern (Matt. ii. 6; Rev. ii. 27) ; $6(rK0} 
refers to the special function of providing food, to pasture (Luke xv. 15). 
Both are included in our Lord's charge to St. Peter (John xxi. 15-17), 

17. To Wash, Bathe. 

Tlxivon is to wash things, as garments, &c. ; \ov<u, to wash the whole body, 
"to bathe;" i/iittw, to wash a part of the body. See John xiii. 10 ; and 
remarks by Archbishop Trench. 

18. To Anoint. 

Xpto) denotes official anointing, as of a king or priest, hence Xpi«rT<Js: 
h.\il(po3, anointing iov festcd purposes (Luke vii. 46), for health (James v. 14), 
or for embalmment (Mark xvi. 1). 

19. Love, to Love. 

'A7oxo<tf denotes the love of esteem or of kindness, love to character 
("diUgo"); ayaiTT), its cognate substantive, "is a word born within the 
bosom of revealed religion. It occurs in the LXX., but there is no example 
of its use iu any heathen writer whatever ; the utmost they attained to here 


was <pi\av6pa>iria and (pt\aSe\(pia, and the last, indeed, never in any 
sense but as the love between brethren in blood. " — Trench. Wherever we 
have " charity" in the E.V., the original is aydxr}, but it is more generally 
and better translated "love;" <pi\4ai expresses the love of the feelings, 
instinctive, warm affection ("amo"). The force of the two verbs is very 
beautifully illustrated in John xxi. 15-17, on which see Trench and others. 

20. To Weep. 

KXofctf is the verb generally employed ; SaKpvo), "to shed tears," is found 
but once, John xi. 35 : "Jesus wept." In Matt. ii. 18, Gprivos (reading 
doubtful), K\avdix6s, oHvpixoi, form a climax, "lamentation, weeping, and 
mourning. " 


Some important words, chiefly Adjectives and Substantives, 
expressive of moral quality, may now be considered. 

21. Good. 

'A'^aBos is good ; Si/catos, right. In the former, the notion of beneficence 
prevails, in the latter that of justice. So with ayadciiavvri, SiKaiocrvvij. 
Still, the two are not opposed. In Eom. vii. 12, both are predicated of the 
Divine law. In Rom. v. 7, the ayaBos is one of the Sikoioi (as proved by the 
article and by 7op). In Matt. vi. i, seq., SiKaioavvri* refers to almsgiving, 
prayers, and religious fasting; Ka\6s contains the notion of giving pleasure, 
"beautiful," "fair," "honourable." It may be interchanged with ayadds 
(compare, e.g., 1 Tim. i. 19, with Heb. xiii. 18), or combined with it, as 
Luke viii. 15. (So in classic Greek, KaXonayadSs predicates the highest 
excellence in morals and manners.) XprjffTds, good, gentle (Matt. xi. 30; 
I Cor. XV. 33), and X ?')""'■ (^Trjs, goodness, gentleness, benignity, are connected 
with xP'^ofxai, XPV- The New Testament comparative of a^a^Js is usually 
Kpelaawv, Kpi'iTTCDv really akin to Kparos, force, and betokening the time 
when strength and goodness were too closely identified. (Comjiare oper^, 
"virtue," really courage, found only in the New Testament, Phil. iv. 8; 
I Pet. ii. 9, where see 47; 2 Pet. i. 3, 5.) b4\tiov, as an adverb, is 
found 2 Tim. i. 18. 

* Undoubtedly the true reading. 


22. Evil, Bad. 

KukSs i3 bad, generically, including every form of evil, physical and 
moral. So KaKla, badness, specially in its forms of meanness, cowardice, 
malice, SSi/cos, adiKia (opposed to Sltcaios, SiKatoffvyr}), wronrj ; irovrjpS^ 
expresses especially the more active form of evil, malignant (so 6 TrovripSs, 
not d kukSs, for the Evil one, Satan); irovt]pia, malignity; (j>av\os is 
worthless, "good for nothing," like the old Eng., "naughty," from 

23. Holy. 

"OtTios is holy, intrinsically ; referred once to the Divine purposes (Acts 
xiii. 34, from Isa. Iv. 3 ), generally to interior purity ; predicated both of 
God and of men ("pious"); 0710s, ayuos, are both derived from a root 
denoting separation, the former, when applied to men, expressing consecra- 
tion to God (see i Pet. ii. 5, 9), the latter, jnirity, chastity; Up6s, very 
infrequently (except in its neuter substantival form, Upov, on which see 
35), is "dedicated to God," and is only used in the New Testament of 
things ; Kadap6s, literally clean, free from impure admixture. 

24. True. 

'A\7j0^j is "true," morally, and is applied to persons or to declarations ; 
a\ri6tv6s is "genuine," "real." The former epithet, for instance, applied 
to God, denotes His attribute of faithfidness (John iii. 33) ; the latter 
expresses the reality of His Godhead, as distinguished from false deities 
(John xvii. 3). The use of a^i)dtv6s in the Revelation is an exception to this 
rule (see xix. 9, 11). The substantive aA7j0eia includes the idea of both 
adjectives, though generally correspondent with the former. 

25. Old. 

na\ai6s is "old," as having existed long; apxa'tos, "old," as having 
existed formerly ; apxcuos fxadriT^s (Acts xxi. 16), one of the original disciples. 
Compare 2 Pet. ii, 5 ; Pev. xii. 9, xx. 2. Ua\ai6s sometimes connotes the 
idea of decrepitude, decay (opposed to Kaivos, see 26), Matt. ix. 16; i Cor. 
V. 7, 8 ; and for the /erb, Heb. viii. 1 3. 

26. New. 

Ne'os is new in reference to time, having recently come into existence 
(young); KaivSs, new (fresh) in reference to quality, different in kind. (See 
Trench on the words.) So via SiaBvKTj (Heb. xii. 24) is "a covenant recently 
given;" Kaivrj SiadiiKi] (Heb. ix. 15), "a covenant new in character;" 
avave6<ii (Eph. iv. 23), to renew in youth; avaKaivooi (Col. iii. 10), to renew 
in character and spirit. So yeiJTTjy, youth ; KaivoTus, newness, freshness. 


27. Perfect 

TeXetos, "full-grown," applied to character, means that which has 
attained the moral Te'\os— manhood in Christ ; "however, it may be true 
that having reached this, other and higher ends will open out before him, to 
have Christ formed in him more and more."— Tre7ich. The attainment of 
their highest end is expressed by the perfect TereAe^oj^ai (Phil. iii. 12). 
'0\6KXr]pos is complete in parts, no Christian grace lacking; 6XoTt'\ij$ 
denotes maturity in each separate element of character (i Thess. v. 23). 

28. Blessed. 

Two dififerent adjectives are translated blessed: fiaKapios, happy, as in 
the Beatitudes, and notably i Tim. i. 11, vi. 15; and ^vKoynrSs, verbal 
adjective of the verb to bless (Mark xiv. 61 ; Rom. i. 25). 

29. Void, Vain, Futile. 

KevSs, literally empty, refers to the contents; fidratos, purposeless, to 
the result. See the two in i Cor. xv. 14, 17 : "your faith is Ker^— there is 
no substance in it— and iiaraia, leads to no happy issue." The latter 
adjective is also employed (from the LXX.) ior false, as in the "lying 
vanities" of heathendom (Acts xiv. 15). 

30. Poor. 

IlevTjs (only in z Cor. ix. 9) may refer to the poverty of scanty livelihood ; 
■KTtcx^s implies that of utter destitution. See Matt. v. 3, xi. 5. 

31. Patience. 

'rirofxovl] (inro/xevti)) denotes not only the passive, but the active virtue of 
endurance, and may often be rendered persistence, continuance (Luke viii. 15 ; 
Heb. xii. i; James v. 11); ixaKpoQvixia {fiaKpoOv^ew) seems always to 
involve the notion of tolerance, "long-suffering, bearing with," as God with 
sinners; avox^ (only in Rom. ii. 4, iii. 25) is forbearance, the result and 
expression of the Divine fiaKpoOufiia. 

32. Anger. 

evfios is the impulse and passion ; opyh, the habit and settled purpose of 
wrath. Both (as in Romans ii. 8) are applied to the anger of God against 
sinners; the latter, however, being the usual word. Both are ranked 
among the sins of men (as Eph. iv. 31)- Still, there may possibly be a 
righteous human anger (Eph. iv. 26 ; compare Mark iii. 5), while the 
exasperation and bitterness of anger, ■jrapopyiafJL6s are utterly forbidden. 
(See Trench on these words. ) 


33. Fear. 

^6$os, (l>o$4ofiai, are words in themselves indifferent, the fear being 
sinful, or reverent and holy, according to the particular reference ; but 
Set\6s, Sei\ia, are always bad and base, "cowardly, cowardice;" fv\d- 
Bfia, evXa^eo/xai, denote apprehension generally (see Acts xxiii. lo), but 
chiefly pious fear (Heb. xii. 28, and pei-haps v. 7). 


As a third division, some words may be enumerated of 
frequent theological or ecclesiastical use. 

34. Deity. 

@ii6rTjs (Rom. i. 20), Deity, in an abstract sense (Gottlichheit) ; ©cotjjs 
(Col. ii. 9), Deity, personally (Gottheit). See Tittmann. 

35. Temple. 

'Iip6v, the whole sacred enclosure (Matt. xxvi. 55; John ii. 14); va6s, 
the shrine itself, the Holy place, and Holy of Holies (Matt, xxvii. 51 ; 
Acts vii. 48 ; i Cor. iii. 16). 

36. To Worship. 

XlpoffKvvici) is the generic word (primarily expressive of the act, "to 
fawn," from Kiwv) of homage paid to God, to Christ, and (in the Revelation) 
to the "dragon" and the "beast;" ai^ofxai (uf^d^onat), of the religious 
feeling, "to cherish, or to pay devotion;" Aarpewo), of Divine worship, 
PhU. iii. 3 (idolatrous in Acts vii. 42) ; \eirovpy4oD, of solemn, stated 
observance. So \etrovpyia, as Luke i. 23; \etTovp'-, ik6s, Heb. i. 14; 
\eiTovpy6s, Heb. viii. 2. But these last words may also apply to the 
ministry of kindness between fellow- Christians ; as SiaKovfw, but in a more 
exalted sense. See 60. 

37. Altar, Sacrifice. 

®v(riaa-T'fipiov is the general word, properly an adjective — that on which 
sacrifices are offered; ^ofxSs, the altar-s^r?Ydi(re (orig., "a raised place"), 
is only found once, of a heathen altar. Acts xvii. 23 ; dvala is a sacrifice 
offered by a priest ; Up^vs, either expiatory, in which sense Christ alone is 
priest, or eucharistic, in which all Christians are priests alike (i Pet. ii. 5) ; 
irpoa-<popd. is any offering to God, priestly or otherwise. In Eph. v. 2, 
some refer irpo(T(popdu to Christ's consecrated life, Svcridv to his atoning death. 


38. Prayer, to Pray. 

E.UXV is a prayer (James v. 15) or a vow (Acts xviii. 18) ; etxofiai, to 
jiray, or to wish strongly (Rom. ix. 3); irpotrevxonai, irpoa-evx-fi, are 
restricted to prayer to God, the latter denoting sometimes a place of prayer, 
a building below the rank of a synagogue, "proseucha" (Acts xvi. 13); 
Seriais is in general the expression of need, any urgent request, "suppli- 
cation." For ahfoj, ^pcordu, see 9; a<iTTiiJ.a is any particular request; in 
plur. , the individual petitions in the irpoaevxr]. See Phil, iv, 6. 

39. Sin, to Sin. 

"Sin," says Archbishop Trench, "may be contemplated as the missing 
of a mark or aim; it is then afiapria or aixapTrifxa (auapTavoi) : the over- 
passing or transgressing of a line ; it is then irapd^aais (irapa$aivcD) : the 
disobedience to a voice; in which case it is irapaKori {irapaKuvw): the 
falling where one should have stood upright; this will be TrapdirTaifi.a: 
ignorance of what one ought to have known ; this will be ajpSri/xa 
(Heb. ix. 7) : diminishing of that which should have been rendered in full 
measure; which is ^TTijMa: uon- observance of a law; which is avofxla or 
■n-apavofi.ia: a discord; and then it is wXTju/xtKeia: and in other ways 
almost out of number." Note also 6(pei\riiJ.a, in the Lord's prayer (Matt. 
vi. 12), debt to divine justice. Luke has a/xapTia (xi. 4). 

40. Repentance, to Repent. 

Merdyota, fieravoeco, express a change of mind, and hence of the whole 
life ; neTatie\, a change of feeling, "to regret." Godly sorrow is said 
to work a/xeT antKriTov, "repentance that leads to no remorse" 
(z Cor. vii. 10). Esau found hi place of repentance, fierayuias (Heb. xii. 17), 
i.e., of changing his father's mind with respect to the blessiuo-. See 
Dr. Campbell's Dissertation, in his "Gospels." 

41. Grace, Mercy. 

Xapjs is free favour, in general, specially of the Divine favour as 
extended to the sinful; e\eos is mercy, to the miserable (i Tim. i. 2). 
The difference between eAeos and oiKTipix6s is that, in the latter, pity is the 
prominent idea ; in the former, kindness. For the verbs, see Kom. ir. 1 5. 

42. Forgiveness. 

"h'Pfais, a<pi-i\ni, denote the "remission" of sins, forgiveness, to its fidl 
extent, as promised in the Gospel; it dp e oris, found only Eom. iii. 25, 
literally, 2'>assing-hy, " pra3termission " refers rather to the simple with- 
holding of punishment deserved, a parallel being found Acts xvii 40 


43. Kedemption. 

"'AyopdCo, buy, as in a market-place, for a certain price {ri/x-fi); \vTp6ai, 
effect deliverance by the payment of ransom and exertion of power ; 
Kxirpov is the price paid for releasing any one from captivity, punishment, 
or death (Ai/a, loose); the buying back by paying the price of what had 
been sold, or the redeeming what had been devoted by substituting some- 
thinc in its place. So avriXuTpou, with the further idea "in room of," 
denoting exchange, the price paid for procuring the liberation of another by 
ransom or forfeit; xiTpaicris, o.Tro\vTpai(ns, the process of deliverance; 
i\a(Tfx6s, e^i\a<rfx6s, are the same as Xirpov, with the leading idea of 
propitiation." — Wibster. See the use of iKdaKoiia.i in the jniblican's 
prayer, Luke xviii. 13; tAacrrripioi', properly an adjective, "i^ropitiatory," 
of the mercy-seat in LXX. and Heb. ix. 5 ; of Christ's sacrifice, Kom. 
iii. 25; irepiTToieo/iai, Trepi'Troi'ijcris, denote acquirements for one's self, 
purchase, generally, Acts xx. 28; i Pet. ii. 9; Eph. i. 14. 

44. Piety, Religion. 

Evffffivs, (v<Te$eta, denote worship or piety ngfMy directed, in human 
relations as well as divine; deoaePris, 6eo(rePfia, worship directed towards 
God; evKa$vs, evAaHeia, denote the devoutness springing from godly 
/ear; fiprjo-Kos, ep-naKeia (James i. 26, 27; Acts xxvi. 5; Col. ii. 18, 
only), refer to external worship, religious service; SeKTiSai/xotiu (Acts 
xvii. 22), and Seiai.5atp.ovia (Acts xxv. 19), may have a favourable or 
unfavourable meaning, "religious" or "superstitious," literally, "devoted 
to the fear of deities." 

45. Miracle, Sign, "Wonder. 

AJj/o/iij (generally in plur. ), applied to Christ's miracles, is a forth-putting 
of Divine power; ripas is a prodigy, a wonderful act; a-qiJ.t7ov, a sign, 
authenticating Christ's mission, and symbolizing heavenly truths (Acts 
ii. 22). 

46. Parable. 

Tlapa$o\-n, a detailed comparison, "parable," as usually understood; 
Tzapoifxia (literally, a wayside discourse), "a proverb," John xvi. 25, 29 ; 
"a comparison," 2 Pet. ii. 22 ; John x. 6. 

47. Praise, to Praise. 

Aiceo), aJvos [atveais), are used only of praise offered to God; iiraiviu, 
eiraivos, of praise, approbation generally; S6^a, where rendered praise 
(John ix. 24, xii. 43; i Pet. iv. 11), denotes the recognition of character, 
"the glory." In i Pet. ii. 9, the word is apfrds, virtues; jueYaAi/rw, to 
magnify, is a yet more exalted word, Luke i. 46. 


48. Psalm, Hymn. 

Wa\fj.i$ is probably used restrictively of the Psalms of the older 
Scriptures; vfxvos (not often used, probably from its associations with 
heathenism) is an ode of praise to God : "A psalm might be a de profundis; 
a hymn must always be more or less of a magnificat." — Trench. ^S'^ is a 
song that might be either psalm or hymn, or a yet more general expression 
of Christian feeling (Eph. v. 19 ; CoL iii. 16). 

49. Ordinance. 

This word is adopted as the rendering of ^6-yp.a, a thing decreed 
(Eph. ii. 15; Col. ii. 14. See also Col. ii. 20); SiKaiiMi/jia, that which it is 
right to observe (Heb. ix. i, 10); Siaray^, appointment (Rom. xiii. 2); 
vapaSoats (i Cor. xi. 2), instruction or injunction given, elsewhere trans- 
lated tradition (as 2 Thess. ii. 15); and kt'ktis (creation, creature), 
I Pet. ii. 13. As distingiushed from diKaidixara, the eVroAoi are moral 
precepts, Luke i. 6. 

50. Hebrew, Israelite, Jew, Greek, Hellenist. 

'EPpaTos denotes the Hebrew-speaking Jewish community; ^ZWriPtariis 
being a Greek-speaking Jew. The latter word is rendered "Grecian" in 
the A.V., in distinction from "EAAt);/, "Greek," or GentUe (Acts vi. i, 
ix. 29; in Acts xi. 20, the reading should probably he''ZWrivas). 'lovSalos, 
Jew, originally referred to the tribe of Judah alone, had come in the New 
Testament times to designate the whole people; while 'lapaTjKirijs is 
always a term of honour, ' ' one of the chosen race. " 

51. Anathema. 

^AvdOrifia, a thing devoted in honour of God (Luke xxi. 5); avdOf/xa 
(originally the same word), a thing devoted to destruction, "accursed." So 
the verb avaOefj-aTL^co. See Acts xxiii. 14. The other occurrences of 
ivdeefia are Rom. ix. 3 ; i Cor. xii. 3, xvi. 22 ; Gal. i. 8, 9. 

52. Hell, Hades. 

"AtSij J, "the unseen world," the place of the departed, generally (compare 
Luke xvi. 23; Acts ii. 27); by metonymy for death and destruction 
(Matt. xi. 23); once only rendered "grave," i Cor. xv. 55; "the gates of 
hades" are the powers of destruction (Matt. xvi. 18); yfeyya (from 
"Valley of Hinnom") is "the abode of the lost" (Matt. v. 22, 29, 30, 
X. 28, xviii. 9, xxiii. 15, 33; Mark ix. 43, 45; Luke xii. 5; James iii. 6, 
only). See Dr. Campbell's Dissertation, in his " Gospels." 


53. Devil, Dgemon. 
The almost uniform translation of Saiixwv, 5aiti6viov, by "devil" is 
unfortunate. The word (most usual ia the New Testament in the second 
or diminutive form) classically denotes a subordinate divinity, supernatural 
being. There were /caKoooi'/ioj'es and aya9o5aifjoves. In Scripture the word 
always has its evil sense, and demon would be a good rendering; 6 
5id0oKos (Heb., from larav, 'Saravas) is the one arch-spirit of evil, "the 
devil." In its sense of calumniator, the word ia found (plur.) i Tim. iii. ii ; 
2. Tim. iii. 3 ; Titus ii. 3. 


In the last place, a number of miscellaneous words, cliiefly 
Substantives, in ordinary use, will present some interesting 
jjoints of distinction. The list, it is plain, might be greatly 
extended ; but enough is given to excite the student's inquiries. 

54. Life, Death. 

Zurf is life in its principle, life iutrinsic; ^ios, life in its manifestations, 
life extrinsic. Hence the former is used especially for life spiritual and 
immortal ; the latter may denote the duration or manner of life, livelihood. 
yoX^f is the principle of animal life, "the soul." See the next article. 
QavaTos is death, opposed to fco?f : viKp6s, dead, Qvr}r6s, mortal. The verbs 
eava.T6ai (Eom. viii. 13), veKpSu (Col. iii. 5), are both translated mortify ; the 
former, perhaps, referring rather to the state, "death to sin," the latter to 
the deed, "slay them." 

55. Soul, Mind, Spirit. 

^vx"^, soul or life, is common to man with the irrational animals (Rev. 
viii. 9), hence se(/" (Matt. xvi. 25, 26), person (Rev. xviii. 13), often the 
soul as the seat of passion or desire, the point of contact between man's 
bodily and spiritual nature; y^fvxnids, "natural" (1 Cor. ii. 14, xv. 44, 46; 
James iii. 15 ; Jude 19, only) ; ffSiixa and ^vx"^ are jointly elements of what 
is often called (rdpl, the lower, fleshly nature. So crapKiKSs, as i Cor. 
iii. I, 3, 4. But ffwixa is sometimes used for person, Rom. xii. i, "your 
bodies," i.e., the instruments or organs of your entire nature. Xlvevixa, 
spirit, man's highest nature, the point of contact between the human and 
the Divine; in>ivjxaTiK6s, spiritual, as 1 Cor. ii. 13, 15; <pp4v(s (only in 
1 Cor. xiv. 20), the understanding; vods, the mind, percipient and 
intelligent, the reason; KapSia, the heart, ia used not only for the seat of 


the emotions, but for tbat of the intellectual faculties, al KapStai, koi ri 
vo-^fxara (Phil. iv. 7), "thought at its source aud in its manifestations;" 
Sidvoia, the understanding, as exercised, for good or evil, Eph. ii. 3; 
Matt. xxiL 37. 

56. Foi'm, Fashion, Likeness. 

EiSoj is appearance, that may or may not have a basis in reality ; 
it^wKov, a mere appearance, "an idol;" i>.op<p-fi, the /orm as indicative of 
the interior nature; a^hv^O; the form, externally regarded, "the figure, 
fashion (see Phil. ii. 6, 7, 8); ei/cwv denotes the exact representation, 
"image;" aKia, the shadowy resemblance (Heb. x. i) ; x°P«'''''7jp, the 
impress, as enstamped (Heb. i. 3). Compare xapo7/io, "stamp, engraving." 

57. Power. 

Avva/xis, used also of miracles (see 45), inherent power, might; i^ouffla, 
power delegated, authority; «Vxi5j, strength, as an endowment (so lffx'J'», 
to be strong, prevail, more emphatic than SvfaiJLcu) ; Kparos, strength as 
exerted, "force." 

58. World. 

K6<rnos, the scheme of material things, the world, often in opposition to 
the kingdom of heaven ; aiuv has reference primarily to duration (probably 
derived not from oei &v, bat from Stj^ui, to breathe ; hence life, duration:) 
adj., alwvios, belonging to the aliiv : alSios is from ail, and means simply 
everlasting, only found Rom. i. 20; Jude 6); aluivis (Heb. i. 2), "the 
ages," or, as E.V., "the worlds," in respect to their successive ages; 
oiKovfi4vr\, the earth as inhabited, the world of men. For k6(Tij.os and 
olKovyiivr] interchangeable, compare Matt. iv. 8, with Luke iv. 5. 

59. Master. 

Kupioy expresses lordship in general; Zicnr6Tr\s, ownership (correlative 
with 5oCa.os) ; Zi^affKaXos (correlative with jua^TjTTfs) is teacher. In James 
iii. I, the meaning seems to be censors ; iiTL<ndTr\s (ouly in Luke), literally, 
superintendent, is the Greek rendering of the Hebrew pafifii, foimd in its 
original form in Matt., Mark, John. 

60. Servant. 

Aov\os, slave, is the lowest word in the scale of servitude (dovXSo), to 
enslave; SovKtvai, to serve, as a slave); virrjpeT-ns, " under-rower," 
expresses in general subservience to another's will (so virripeTew) ; Stdicovos, 
SiaKovla, SiaKoveoj, imply service, ministry, in every form; depdirecp is 
attendant (only in Heb. iii. 5); depa'jrevai (eeparrei'a) have special reference 
to healing; otKerjjs, a household servant, Acts x. 7 (so wars, see 62). 


61. Family, Tribe, House. 

*u\i} is a tribe, as of Israel; irarpid, a family, in the wider sense, 
descendants of a common ancestor (only in Luke ii. 4 ; Acts iii. 25 ; Eph. 
iii. 15; in E.V. different each time); oJkos, o<kio, both mean household, 
the former referring to the inmates, the latter to the building and that 
which it contains {SUfxa always in the New Testament of the building, with 
iiri, "house-top.") 

62. Child, Infant. 

TeKvov, child by natural descent (from tIktw) ; izals, a hoy or girl, a 
child in legal relation, also a servant (liuke xv. 26 ; Matt. xii. 18 ; Acts 
iv. 27, 30); naihiov, a yovng child; ^pi^os, a babe; v-^-kios (from ►tj, 
negative, and elirof), a chUd in power and character. 

63. Man. 

"Ai/Opcoiroj, a man, member of the human family (homo) ; avr^p, a man in 
sex and age (vir). 

64. Time. 

XpSvos, time as duration ; KuipSs, a definite time, with reference to some 
act or crisis, " opportunitJ^ " 

65. Lamp, Light. 

*£$, light, generally; ^ajtrrrfp, luminary (Phil. ii. 15); A»x'"'^ a, lamp 
CJohn V. 35), (\vxvla, a lampstaud) ; \afxirds, a torch (Matt. xxv. i; Acts 
XX. 8) ; ^€77os, light in its splendour, " radiance.'' 

66. Clothes. 

'l/idriov, raiment, generally, also an outer garment, opposed to xjt(£j', 
an inner vest (Matt. v. 40); ia-Bi^s, apparel, generally applied to what is 
ornate or splendid; fvSvfj.a,, anything put on (Matt. iii. ^, vi. 28. 

67. Crown. 

'Zretpavos, "a garland," a conqueror's or a festal crown {a-T(fj./xa, a 
sacrificial garland. Acts xiv. 13); SidSrifxa, "a fillet," a royal crown, 
Rev. xii. 3, xiii. i, xix. 12, only. 

68. Burden. 

Bap OS denotes the pressure of a weight, which may be relieved or trans- 
ferred. Gal. vi. 2; (popTiov is specific, the "load," which each must bear 
for himself," ver. 5 ; ySfios, the lading of a ship (Acts xxi. 3); oyKos, the 
weight tliat encumbers, Heb. xii. i. 


69. Basket. 

K6(t>ivos, a travelling basket (Matt. xiv. 20); airvpls, a large hamper 
used for storage (Matt. xv. 37; Acts ix. 25). In all the accounts of the 
two miracles, the baskets used in each are distinguished. 

70. Net. 

AiKTi/oc, a net, in general; a/Kpl^Kria-Tpov, a fishing-net flung from the 
hand (Matt. iv. 18; Mark i. 16); aayijvn (Matt. xiii. 47), a large draw- 
net, "seine." 

71. Gate, Door. 

Ovpa, a door (janua) ; ttv'Atj, a gate (jjorta); irvKuv, a great gate, an outer 
gate, a porch. 

72. Fold, Flock. 

AuXrJ is/old; irolnvTi (dim. -roiiiviov) is flock. The promise in John 
X. 16, is, that there shall be " one flack and one shepherd." 

73. People. 

Four words are so translated : \a6s, people, collectively, with a general 
reference to the Jews as the people of God; ^Byos, nation (plur., edv-q. 
Gentiles); Sriixos, people, as a municipality ; o x A. os, "irregular crowd, mob." 

74. Thief. 

KA.e'irT?7s, "thief," one who steals by fraud (fur) ; Xtjo-tt^s, "robber," 
one who steals by violence (latro). The crucified malefactor and Barabbas 
probably belonged to the hordes of banditti which then ravaged the land. 

75. Stone. 

Tier pa, a rock (Xlfrpos, the same word, only with masc. termination to 
make it a proper name), " saxum ;" \i6os, a stone, detached or hewn, 

76. Other. 

"AWos denotes numerical, trepos generic distinction, "different." See 
GaL i. 6, 7, "to another (eVepur) Gospel which is not another (&\\o)." 
There may be various kinds of so-called Gospels, but there is really no other 
than that which the Apostls preached. 


g s 

In the following Yocabulary, the Declension of Substantives is 
marked by the subjoined Genitive termination ; their Gender, by 
the Article. 

Of Adjectives, the Feminine and Neuter forms are given ; in 
those of two terminations, the Neuter. 

To Verbs, the Future endings, and, where necessary, other forms, 
have been generally appended. 

The Hyphen has been freely used, to indicate the formation, not 
only of synthetic, but parathetic compounds. (See §§ 146-148.) 
For further etymological details, a larger Lexicon must be 

The Scripture References are intended to illustrate the ordinary 

as well as the special uses of words, and are introduced as fully as X 

space would permit. Nothing, however, can supersede the use of 1 

the Greek Testament Concordance.  

The Vocabulary is purposely restricted to the Received Text. 
For words that occur only in MSS. or in critical editions, the 
student is referred to Griinm's Clavis or to Bruder's Concordance. 


A, o, &\(pa, alpha, a, the first letter. 
Niimerally, a'=i; a=icoo. For 
a ill comi)osition, see 147, b, c. 
Fig. rb A, or rh a.\(pa, the first prin- 
ciple of all things; of the Father, 
Eev. i. 8, xxi. 6; the Son, i. ii, 
xxii. 13. 

'Aapwv, 6 (Heb.), Aai-on. 

'A^aSScjf, 6 (Heb., "destruction"), 
Abaddon, Rev. ix. 11. 

a-Baf>ris, e's (cf. jSa'pos), without weight; 
hence, not burdensome, unexacting, 
7. Cor. xi. 9. 

'A6/Sa (Heb. in Chald. form) Father! 
only as an invocation, Mark xiv. 36 ; 
Eom. viii. 1 5 ; Gal. iv. 6. 

"AiSeA, b (Heb.), Abel. 

'A^id, 6 (Heb.), Abijah, the king, 
Matt. i. 7 ; the priest, Luke i. 5. 

'ABideap, 6 (Heb.), Abiathar. 

'Aj3i\T)i'i7, r,s, V, Abilene, a district iu 
the E. of Anti-Libanus, named from 
Abila, its chief city, Luke iii. i. 

'ABi'jiiS, 6 (Heb.), Abiud. 

'A0padn, 6 (Heb.), Abraham. 

&-0vff(Tos, ou, 7] (originally adj. bottom- 
less), abi/ss; generally, as Eom. x. 7 ; 
specitically, Luke viii. 31; Eev. 
ix. I, XX. I. 

"AyaBos, ov, o, Agabus. 

ayaBo-fpyetm, H (or ayaOovpyectj), to do 
good, I Tim. vi. 18. 

ayado-Troifai, w, {1) to do good, bene- 
ficently; ace. of pers., Luke vi. 33, 
(2) to act well, generally. 

ayaeo-TToua, as, tj, well-doing, in sense 
(2) of preceding, i Pet. iv. 19. 

ayaeo-Trot6s, ov, 6 (orig. adj.), well-doer. 

ayaOos, r], 6v (Kpiicrauiv, KpdrtcrTOs), good, 
intrinsically or beneficially ; used of 
both persons and things. Tb aya66i/, 
goodness ; to. ayaOd, goods, wealth, 

ayaQwavvr), tj?, r}, goodness; as virtue 
or beneficence. 

ayaWlacris, eois, rj, exultation, gladness. 

ayaWido), S>, atrca, to leap for joy ; 
hence, exult, rejoice; generally de- 
ponent. Followed by iVa (subj. ), 
eVi (dat.), or eV (dat. ) 

d-yafxo^, adj. 6, v;, unmarried, abso- 
kitel}% or in widowhood, i Cor. vii. 

&yavaKTeo}, a, ria-cajobe indignant, angry, 
or vexed. With wepi (gen. ) or on. 

ayavdKTr\ms, fojs, r), indignation. 

ayairdu}, ii, riauj, to love. See Synonyms. 

aydTTTi, ris, rj, love. See Synonyms. 
Object with fU, iv, or genitive, on 
which see 254, 5. aydirai (.Jude 
12), love-feasts. 

ayavrirds, ■i], ov, beloved ; of Christ, 
"the Beloved Son," and of Chris- 
tians in their relation to God or to 
one another. 

'Ayap, 7] (Heb.), Hagar. 

ayyapevo), aco (from the Persian), to 
impress into the public service ; 
hence, to compel. 

ayyt'iov, eiov, t6, vessel, utensil. 

ayyeXia, as, r], message. 

&yyf\os, ov, 6, messenger ; spec, of 
God's messengers to men, angel. So 
of fallen spirits. ' ' Angel of a church" 
(Eev. i. 20, ii. iii.), either messenger, 
or elder, or a symbolic representation 
of the spirit, the grniusoi each church 



[fi-yt — &yti 

&ye, adv. (see &y<a), come now, go to, 
James iv. 13, v. i. 

ayi\T], rjs, i), a flock or herd. 

a-yevea-\6yTiTos, ou, adj., 0/ unrecorded 
(jenealorpj, Heb. vii. 3. 

o.-yivi]s, is (cf. yevos), low horn, ignoble, 
I Cor. i. 28. 

0710^01, (TCD (see oytos), to set apart from 
common use. Hence to hallow, or 
regaid with religious reverence ; to 
conseci'aie to religious service, whe- 
ther persons or things ; to cleanse 
for such consecration ; so to j^uri/i/, 
sanctifij. 01 ayia^6fiei'oi, those ivho 
are being sanctifhd ; oi Tiyiaafxifot, 
those who are sanctified. 

ayiaiTfj.6s, ov, 6, consecration, sanctiflca- 

ayios, a, ov, set apart from common use, 
spec, to the service of God ; hence 
iudlowed, worthy of vmeration, holy, 
consecrated, A^-hether persons, places, 
or things, ol ayioi, '■^ the Saints ;" rh 
ayiov, the Temple ; ra ayia, the Sanc- 
tuary; ayia ayiwu, the Holy of Holies. 

ayi6T7]s, rri'Tos, tj, holiness. 

aytcoavfTi, ris, 7), holiness. The "Spirit 
of holiness" (Rom. i. 4) is Christ's 
Divine nature. 

ayKaXTi, rjy, i], the (curve of the) ai'm, 
Luke ii. 28. 

&yKi(Trpov, ov, t6, fishhook. 

&yKvpa, as, tj, anchor. 

a-yva(pos, ov, adj. (not fulled or dressed), 
«eM', of cloth, Matt. ix. 16; Markii.21. 

ayueia, as, rj, purity, i.e., chastity, 
I Tim. iv. 12, V. 2. 

ayv'i^oi, G(i), to cleanse, purify; lit. as 
John xi. 55; tig. as James iv. 8. 

a.yvi(Tix6s, ov, 6, ceveraonial purification. 
Acts xxi. 26. 

a-yvoeu, w, iicrw (cf. yiyvwiTKw), (1) not 
to know, to be ignorant {ayvowv, igno- 
rant ; ayvoov^Livos, unknown pierson- 
ally. Gal. i. 22; ignored, disesteemcd, 
■z Cor. vi. 9) ; (2) not to understand, 
Mark ix. 32; perhaps Acts xiii. 27 ; 
I Cor. xiv. 38. 

a.yv6r}fxa, aros, t6, a sin of ignorance, 
error, Heb. ix. 7. 

a7i'oia, as, r/, ignorance, spec, (in N. T. ) 
of religious subjects. 

ayvSs, ri, 6v, pure, of God, as i John 
iii. 3 ; of men, as 2 Cor. vii. 11 ; 
spec, of female chastity, 2 Cor. ix. 2, 

ayv6Tris, ttjtos, t], 2)urity, 2 Cor. vi. 6. 

ayvwaia, as, r\, ignorance, spec, wilful 
iguoi-ance, 1 Cor. xv. 34; i Pet. 
ii. 15. 

&yv<t)aTos, ov, u7ikno7vn, Acts xvii. 23. 

ayopd, as, T] (dyeipco), a place of public 
resort ; hence nuxrket place or open 
street ; spec, market, Mark vii. 4 ; 
the forum, or place of public as- 
semblies, trials, &c.. Acts xvi. 19, 
xvii. 17. 

ayopa'i^oi, aa>, to purchase, buy, with 
gen. of price, or 4k, once iu. Rev. 
V. 9; tig. to redeem, ransom; act. of 
Christ ; pass, of Christians. 

ayopa'ios, ov, adj., belonging to the 
forum; henue (rjfMepai) court days. 
Acts xix. 38 ; {&v0pu>iToi) idlers, loun- 
gei's, xvii. 5. 

ii.ypa, as, 71 (hunting), fishing, Luke 
V. 4; met. draught, ver. 9. 

a-ypd/xfj-ajos, ov, adj., unlearned, i.e., 
in Rabbinical lore. Acts iv. 13. 

ayp-av\4w, a>, to remain in the fields, 
Luke ii. 8. 

aypevoj, aui (to take in hunting), fig., 
to ensnare, Mark xii. j 3. 

aypL-fKaios, ov, 6, wild olive, oleaster, 
Rom. xi. 17, 24. 

aypios, la, lov, ivild, of honey, Mark 
i. 6 ; of waves, Jude 13. 

'Aypiwiras, a, 6, Agrippa, i.e., Herod 
Agrippa ir. See 'Hpdi^Tjs. 

aypos, ov, 6, field, spec, the country; 
plur. , country districts, hamlets. 

aypvTvviw, w {virvos), "to be slee^jless ;" 
hence, met., to watch, to be vigilant. 
With vTtip (gen.), Heb. xiii. 17, to 
watch over; with eis, Eph. vi. 18, to 
give attention to. 

ay pvvrvia, as, r}, watching, i.e., assiduous 
care, 2 Cor. vi. 5, xi. 27. 

ay CO, ^w, fiyayov, trans., to lead, bring; 
with irp6s (ace. ), eois, (Is, of destina- 
tion ; with eVi (ace), of purpose, as 
Acts viii. 32 ; also in the sense of 
before, as, e.g., for trial. Heuce to 
spend, as of time ; to keep, as a par- 

a"yw7'»] — a€Tos 



ticular day. Fig. , to lead the inclina- 
tion, induce. lutraus. (or trans, with 
reflexive pron. understood), to (jo, 
depart; iinper., &y6, come! subj., 
ayiujuej/, let us go ! the former being 
uiseil as an adverb. 

ayaiyi], rjs, i] (^7"), "leading, guid- 
ance ; " hence, manner of life, z Tim. 
iii. lo. 

dycic, wvos, contest, spec, with the 
notion of pain or danger; fig., of 
the Christian hfe, as Heb. xii. i. 

ayuvla, as, 7], contest; emphatically, 
agony, Luke xxii. 44. 

ayaivi^ofxai, to strive, as in the public 
games ; to contend with an adver- 
sary ; tig. , of Christian eflbrt and 

'ASdfi, 6 (Heb.), Adam. 

a-^omavos, ov,free of charge, gratuitous, 
I Cor. ix. 18. 

'A55i, &, Addi, Luke iii. 28 (not men- 
tioned in 0. T. ) 

aSeAcpv, 7)s, T], a sister, (i) lit., (2) fig. 
of Christian friendship. 

aSe\(p6s, ov, 6, a brother, (i) lit., some- 
times implied (see 256), (2) of more 
general relations, a fellow- Israelite, 
Slatt. V. 47 ; a fellow -Christian, 
Matt, xxiii. 8 ; a fellow-man. Matt, 
v. 22-24; also expressing the rela- 
tion between Christ and believers, 
Matt. XXV. 40. The "brethren 
of Christ" (Matt. xiii. 55; John 
vii. 3; Acts i. 14; Gal. i. 19) are 
thought by some to have been His 
cousins or other near relatives. 

a.Se\(p6T-ns, Trims, rj, the brotherhood, 
i.e., the Christian community. 

S-SrjAos, ov, not manifest, uncertain, to 
the sight, or ear, or mind. 

d-5r)A.dTT)s, TT/Tos, 7], uncertainty. 

a-Sii\us, adv., uncertainly, aimlessly. 
I Cor. ix. 26. 

a^-rinovea, w, to be sad or dejected. 

adT]s, ou, 6 (a priv. and fiS- in jSe"^), fM 
invisible world. Hades ; fig. of derp 
degradation. See Synonyms. iriiKai 
afiov, the powers of the unseen world. 
See ttl'At). 

a-5:d Kinros, ov (James iii. 17), either 
act., not distinguishing, impartial, 

or pass. , not distinguishable, or dubit- 

able, unambiguous, honest. 

d-Sia-AeiTTToy, 01/, without intermission, 
■unceasing ; adv., -ais, unceasingly. 

a-Sta-<pdopia, as, % uncorruptness, 

aSiK^co, u>, rjiro) {&Sikos), intrans. , to act 
unjustly, commit a crime ; trans., to 
'wrong, injure ; hence to hurt, \\'ith- 
out any notion of wrong, Luke 
X. 19, and Rev. often; pass., to be 

aZ'iKriiia, aTos, t6, a Crime. 

aoiKia, as, r], wrong, injustice, iniquity, 
absolutely, unrighteousness, or in the 
relations of life ; in man's relation to 
God, tvickedness generally, o|iposed 
to SiKaiuauvri. In Luke xvi. 9, 
" the mammon of unrighteousness " 
{aStKias} denotes riches, which in their 
nature are deceitful, transitory. See 

&-5iKos, ov, unjust, (i) absolutely, (2) 
wicked generally, opposed to Siwatos, 
as Matt. V, 45, or (vae^r}s, as 
2 Pet. ii. 9; adv., -cos, unjustly, un- 
deservedly, I Pet. ii. 19. 

a-SiKtuos, ov (tested, but not ap- 
proved), (i) repjrobate, (2) worthless 

6.-^o\os, ov, without fraud, genuine, 

1 Pet. ii. 2. 

'A5pa^uTT7);'<is, 17, 6v, of Adramyttium, 
an ^olian seaport, Acts xxvii. 2. 

'Adplas, a, 6, the Adriatic, embracing 
the Ionian sea. Acts xxvii. 27. 

dSpoTTjs, TTjTos, V. largeness, abundance, 

2 Cor. viii. 20. 

a-Zvvariu!, Si, to be impossible, withdat., 
or Kapd (dat. ) 

a-SvvaTos, ov, adj., (i) of person.s, act., 
powniess ; {2) of things, pass., un- 

oiSctf, arfoi (contr. from deiScu), to sing, 
with cognate ace, eiSriv, a song ; with 
dat., to sing (praise) to, celebrate. 

df(, adv., always ; of continuous time, 
unceasingly ; of successive inter- 
vals, froin time to time, on every 

acrus, ov, 6, an eagle, gen. bird of prey, 
as Matt. xxiv. 2^. 


r&-^v[j.os — ai<r9r)cris 

&-^vixos, ov, wikavened, only iu jilur., 

sc. \d-jaua, cakes, or &pToi, loaves; 

met., the pascJud feast ; tig., incor- 

rujit, sincere, i Cor. v. 7, S. 
'Aj-oJf), (5 (Heb.), Jsor, Matt. i. 13, 14; 

not meutiouuJ in 0. T. 
"Ai'oJTos, ou, 7), Azotas or Ashdod, Acts 

viii. 40. 
dv'jp, af'pos, •^, the air, atmosphere; hence 

«/te region above the earth, Eph. ii. 2 

(see e\ov(Tia} ; lig. , </ie fOJcZ, as 1 Cor. 

i.x. a6, xiv. 9. 
a-Oavaaia, as, 7] (see 6dvaro<:), immor- 

taUtij, I Cor. XV. 53 ; 1 Tim. vi. 16. 
o.-detJ.iTos, ov (de/xis, law), unlawful, 

a-Oeos, ov, ■without God, either nega- 
tively disregarding or positively 

denying Him, Ejih. ii. 12. 
a-8eafj.os, ov, adj. {deafids, statute), 

la ivless. 
a-deT4ai, co, ■i)CTu> (6f- as iu ridviJ-i), to set 

at nought, i.e., persons, to despise, 

slight ; or thiugs, to nullify, conteiim. 
a-ehyjais, ecus, i], nuUlJication, abro- 
gation, Heb. vii. 18, ix. 26. 
'Att/>ai, wv, al, Athens. 
'Mr)uaios, a, ov, Athenian. 
adAeui, u, [adKov, 'prize), to contend, in 

the pubhc games, 2 Tim. ii. 5. 
adK-nais, iois, 7], contest, as iu the pubhc 

games; tig., struggle with ajjlldlons, 

Heb. X. 32. 
a-dvu-iu}, w, to lose heart, despond. 

Col. iii. 2 1. 
ae&jus, (iv (or adwos), undeserving of 

jjunishment, innocent, Matt, xxvii. 

4 ; with air6, of the crime, ver. 24. 
cu-yeios, 7;, ov (a?«, goat), of OV belonging 

to (I goat, H"b. xi. 37. 
uiyLa\6s, ov, (5,' the ■•ihore, beach; in 

Gospels, of Genuesaret ; iu Acts, of 

the Mediterranean. 
AouTTTiox, a, ov, Egi/ptian. 
Ah/uTTTOi, ov, 7), Egypt. 
a'iSios, ov, adj. (aei), eternal, everlasting, 

Horn. i. 20 ; Jude 6. 
alSus, uvs, 7], modesty, i Tim. ii. 9 ; 

revtsrence, Heb. xii. 28. 
Aifl/oiJ/, OTTOS, 6, an Ethiopian, Acts 

viii. 27. 
ol^a, aros, r6, blood, (i) lit., especially 

of blood shed, i.e., of animals, vic- 
tims in sacrifice ; so of man, of 
Christ, connected with which latter 
meaning tbe word is often used ; 

(2) met., of the death of Christ; 

(3) bloodslied, murder ; hence blood- 
guiltiness, the crime or responsibility 
of another's destruction ; (4) natural 
life, which was believed to reside in 
the blood, especially with adpi, 
1 Cor. XV. 20 ; so human nature 
generally; heuce (5) natural 7-ela- 
tlonship ; (b) in Acts ii. 20, &c., 
the reference is to the colour of 

al/j.aT-eK-xvcria, as, % shedding ofblooa, 
Heb. ix. 22. 

ai/jLoppoeu, w, to have a flux or issue of 
blood. Matt. ix. 20. 

Alveas, a, 6, jEneas, Acts ix. 33, 34. 

aificis, itas, 7], praise, Heb. xiii. 15. 

alvew, a, iffw aud Tjcrcs, to pyraise, ouJy 
of God. See Synonyms. 

aiviyfj.a, aros, t6, a dark intimation, an 
enigma, i Cor. xiii. 12. 

aJvos, ov, 6, praise, only of God. 

Aiviiv, 7} (Heb.), jEnon, John iii. 23. 

a'ipecTis, ews, 7] {alpio/xai), choice, its act 
or result ; hence a religious sect or 
party, party spirit, dissension. 

alpiTL^oi, aw, to choose, with preference 
and love. Matt. xii. 18. 

alpiTiK6s, ov, 6, one who acts from party 
spirit, a factious person, "heretic," 
Titus iii. 10. 

alpew (irreg., see 103, i)> to take, only 
iu mid. iu N. T., to choose, prefei: 

at]ou) (see 92), (i) to takeup, lift, carry, 
used of carrying the cross, lit.. Matt, 
xxvii. 32; lig., Matt. xvi. 24; so of 
raising the eyes, the voice, the mind ; 
hence to keep in suspense ; (2) to take 
away, authoritatively or forcibly, as 
to abrogate a law, to remove by death ; 
imp., oip^, apuv. Away with! i.e., to 
execution ; (3) to take away siu, de- 
scriptive of the redeeming work of 
Christ, John i. 29 ; 1 John iii. 5., ijadoixTiv, dep., to perceive, 
comprehend, Luke ix. 45. 

afcrtJTja-is, eais, 7/, perception, accurate 
judgment, Phil. i. 9. 

al<r9r|Ttipiov — d-KaTcl-l 


aia6i]T-fipiov, on, n., organ of perception, 
faculty of judgment, Heb. v. 14. 

altrxpo-KepSris, es, eager for disgraceful 
gain, sordid; adv., -ws, sordidly. 

alaxpo-Koyia, ai, 7], foul language, scur- 
rility. Col. iii. 8. 

ahxp^s, a, 6v (orig. deformed, opposed 
to KaKis), base, disgraceful, morally 
(gen.), or as contrary to usage. 

al(Txp^T7}s, rijTos, ■^, prob. obscenity, 
Eph. V. 4 only. 

alffxvfn, '7^5 V' shame, in personal feel- 
ing or in the estimation of others, 
disgrace, shameful conduct. 

alcrxvvoixai, ovfiai, mid., to feel asJuimed ; 
pass., to be J) ut to shame, confounded. 

alriw, S>, Tiaa}, to ask, require, demand ; 
with two aces. , or ace. of thing, and 
0.1:6 or irapd (gen.) of person; spec, 
to pray, to desire. Acts vii. 46 ; 
mid., to ask for one^s self, beg. 

ahrj/xa, aros, t6, desire, object of desire. 

ahia, as, rj, cause, (i) as the reason or 
ground of anything ; (2) in Matt. 
xix. 10, the state of the case; (3) 
forensically, an accusation, a crime. 

alria/xa, aros, t6, accusation, charge, 
Acts XXV. 7. Some read airiaifxa. 

uItios, la, lov, causative of, used as 
subst. masc, the cause, author; 
neut., a cause, reason, espec. of 
punishment ; a crime, like a'nia. 

aicpviSios, Of, adj., unexpected, sudden. 

(xlxt^-o.\a>(ria, as, t), captivity ; met., a 
captivity, i.e., a multitude of cap- 
tives, Eph. iv. 8. 

aix^-a.\airiva>, ca), to make prisoners of, 
to take captive, captivate, 2 Tim. iii. 6, 
where some read the following. 

alxf^-a^'^Ti-^'^j o''^) to lead captive. 

alxu.-a.Kiiiros, ov, 6, 7], a captive, Luke 
iv. 18 (from Isa. Ixi. i). 

aldv, -wvos, 6 (del), continuous duration, 
( i) time limited, an age, as the ages 
before the Messiah (i Cor. x. 11), 
the ages afterwards (Eph. ii. 7), or 
gen. iu plural, the ages; (2) the 
world, considered under the aspect 
of time, as Luke i. 70, espec. with 
ovTos, this world, m contrast with 
the world to come (b niWwv, 6 
epxii^.fvos), the world generally, Heb. 

i. 2, xi. 3 ; (3) tiine unlimited, the 
age of eternity, past, as Acts xv. 18, 
future, 2 Pet. iii. 18, especially in 
the following phrases ; ds rhv aiwva, 
for ever, with negative adv. never ; 
€ts Tovs aiwvas, a stronger expression, 
for evermore ; eis tovs alSivas tSiv 
albivoiv, stronger still, for ever and 
ever. Phrase slightly varied, Eph. 
iii. 21 ; Ilev. xiv. 11. 

aidivios (-I'a* or -los), -lov, perpetual, 
kt sting, (i) of limited duration, with 
Xp6voi, the times of old ; (2) of un- 
limited duration, spec, future, eter- 
nal, everlasting, aicii'ioi' (Philem. 15), 
adverbially, in jierpetuity, for ever. 

a-KaOapaia, as, tj (Ka6aipoi>), uncleanness, 
impurity, (i) lit.. Matt, xxiii. 27; (2) 
generally iig., pollution, incontinence. 

o-Ko9apT7js, T7JT0S, 7], impurity. Rev. 
xvii. 4. 

a-KadapTos, ov, adj., unclean, impure, 
(1) of ceremonial, legal or religious 
defilement ; (2) of evil spirits, with 
TTvevixa, Gospels, Acts, Rev. ; (3) of 
human beings, impure, lewd, Eph, 

V. 5; 

a-Katpfo/xai, ovfiai, dep., to lack oppor 
tunity, Phil. iv. 10. 

a-Kuipais, adv., unseasonably, z Tim 
iv. 2. See eu/caipcos. 

&-KaKos, ov, Sid]. , free from evil, liarm 
less, Heb. vii. 26 ; unsuspecting^ 
Rom. xvi. 18. 

aK.av&a, rjs, T), thorn, briar. 

aicdvOtvos, ov, made of thorns, Mark 
XV. 17 ; John xix. 5. 

&-KapTtos, ov, unfruitful, barren, lit., 
Jude 12, generally fig. 

a-Kard-'yvoKnos, ov, not to be Con- 
demned, irreprehensible. 

a-Kara-KaKviTTos, ov, unveiled. 

a-KaTa-Kpnor, ov, uncotidemned. 

d-KOTa-Auros, ov, indissoluble. 

a-Kard-iravaros, ov, not to be re- 
strained, with gen. 

a-KaTa-(TTaaia, as, 7), instability ; hence 
sedition, tumult, disorder. 

a-KaTa-ffraros, ov, inconstant, unstable, 

* Fem. form only in 1 Theaa. ii. 16 ; Heb. 
ix. iz. 


[diKaTd — ^Xevpov 

d-«aTd-(TX6Toy. ov, unruly, untamedble, 
Jas. iii. 8. 

'AKeA-5ajua (Heb. in Chalcl. form, field 
of blood), Aceldama, Acts i. 19. 
Some read 'AweASa^ax. 

a-Kepaios, ov {Kifjavvvixi), unmixed; 
hence, fig., simple, innocent, guile- 
less. Matt. X. 16 ; Kom. xvi. 19 ; 
Phil. ii. 15. 

a-K\Xviis, is, unhending ; hence unwa- 
vering, sted/ast, Heb. x. 23. 

uK/uafci), (TOO, to reach the point of perfec- 
tion; so, of fruit, to ripen, Rev.xiv. 1 8. 

o,K^r\v, ace. as adv., up to this i^oint, 
hitherto. Matt. xv. 16. 

afforj, 7Js, ri (aKuvoi), hearing, (i) the sense 
or faculty ; (2) espec. the organ, the 
ear; (3) the act of hearing ; (4) the 
thing heard, as a report, speech, doc- 
trine. a.Kof„ dat., qualifying aKoveiv, 
"to hear with hearing," i.e., atten- 

aKoXovQid, S>, -ficrai, (i) to accompany, 
follow, ov attend, with dat., or fjnTo. 
(gen.), or oiri(ro> (gen.), espec. of the 
disciples of Christ ; so, met., to obey 
and imitate ; (2) to succeed, in order 
of time, or retribution. 

aKovoi, (Toi or aofiai, pf., aKrjKoa, to hear, 
(i) iutrans., i.e., to i)ossess the 
faculty ; (2) ti'ans. (ace. or gen. 
hear, listen to, heed, understand. 
aKov»vT€s, hearers or disciples. 
pass. , to become notorious. 

a-Hpaaia, as, t], intemperance, inconti- 
nence, I Cor. vii. 5. 

a.-Kpari}S, is {Kparos). poiverless, i.e., 
over one's self, 2 Tim. iii. 3. 

&-KpaTos, ov (Kfpavvvfj.t), unmixed or un- 
diluted ; hence intoxicating, E,ev. 
xiv. 10. 

uKpi^eia, as, f], precision, strictness. 
Acts xxii. 3. 

a.Kpi$-fis, is, accurate, strict ; -as, adv. , 
diligently, accurately, perfectly. 

oLKpifiou), Si, ciaoo, to enquire closely (or 
ascertain exactly), Matt. ii. 7, 16. 

oicpis, ihos, fj, a locust. 

iiKpoariipiov, iov, n. (aKpodofxat, to hear), 
the place of hearing judicially. 

aKpoariis, ov, 6, one ivho listens to, a 
hearer, E,om. ii. 13 j Jas. i. 22. 




UKpo^vcTTla, as, ri, the foreskin, uncir- 
cumcision ; aKpofivariav fx'"''''*^! wn- 
circumcised; collective ior 2yaga7is or 
uncircumcised Gentiles. 

aKpo-yaivtalos, a, ov, belonging to the 
foundation; with KiQos understood, 
^'foundation stone," ref. to Christ, 
Eph. ii. 20 ; I Pet. ii. 6. 

cLKpo-Biviov, Iov, t6, fij-st fruits, i.e., the 
best of the produce, applied (plur.) 
to spoils taken in battle, Heb. vii. 4. 

&Kpos, a, ov, outermost, pointed; neut., 
■th &Kpov, the end, extremity, as of a 
linger, rod, &c. 

'AKvXas, ov, 6, (Latin) Aquila. 

a-Kup6o>, CO, to deprive of power, set 
aside, as a law. 

a-KwXvToos, adv., freely, without hin- 
drance. Acts xxviii. 31. 

iiKiiiv, ovaa, ov (a, 'iKuv), unwilling, 
I Cor. ix. I 7. 

aXa^acnpov, ov, r6, alabaster, a vessel 
for perfume. Matt. xxvi. 7 ; Mark 
xiv. 3 ; Luke vii. 37. 

aAaCovila, as, ij, boasting, show, osten- 

aXa^dov, 6vos, 6, a swaggering, boastful 

aXoLKa^oo, dau, to raise a cry, or loud 
sound, as in mourning, as Matt. 
V. 38 ; of cymbals, i Cor. xiii. i.. 

o-Aa\i)Tos, ov, not to be uttered in words, 
E,om. viii. 36. 

&-\aKos, ov, dumb, making dumb. 

aKas, aros, t6, salt; tig., wisdom, pru- 

a\fl<pa>, ^u, to anoint, festally, or in 
homage ; also medicinally, or in 
embalming the dead. 

a.X^Kropo-<\>uvia, as, rj, the cock-crowing, 
between midnight and dawn. 

aXiKTdip, opos, 6, a cock. The name 
signifies sleejiless. 

'AXe^avSpivs, iais, 6, an Alexandrian, 
i. e. , a man of Alexandria. 

'AAelaz/Spii/fJs, ??, 6v, Alexayidrian, used 
of a ship. Acts xxvii. 6, xxviii. 11. 

' AKi^av^pos, ov, 6, Alexander. Four of 
this name are mentioned, Mark 
XV. 21; Acts iv. 6; Acts xix. 33; 
I Tim. i. 2c. 

&\evpoy, ov, t6, fine mealorfiour. 

dXTjOeia — &^osJ 


a.\vd(ia, as, ^, trufh ; generally, as 
Mark v. 33 ; espec, (1) freedom 
from error, exactness, as (2) The 
Truth, or Word of God ; Jesus is 
called (he Truth, John xiv. 6 ; (3) 
truthfulness, veracity, sincerity, inte- 
grity, opposed to aSiKia, Eoni. ii. 8 ; 
I Cor. xiii. 6. 

aA7)07)y, e's (a, \a6- in \avddvoi), uncon- 
cealed, true, valid, sure, sincere, up- 
right, just. See Synonyms for com- 
parison with tile following. -uis, 
adv. , truly ; in truth, really ; in very 
deed, certainly. 

aKridij/6s, 17, 6v, real, genuine, contrasted 
with "fictitious," "pretended;" 
also with " typical," as John vi. 32; 
Heb. viiL 2, ix. 24. 

aKridco, riffw, to c/rind, i.e., with a hand- 

, mill- 

a\i4vs, 4(i3s, 6, afisherman. 

a\i€V(i>, evau, to fish. 

a\l(a>, icrco, to salt, sprinlcle with salt. 

aXiayrina, aros, t6, jyollution, as from 

eating what has been sacrificed to 

idols, Acts yv 20. 
aWd (prop. 11. plur. of SaAos), but, an 

adversative particle. See 404. 
aWdaaw, a^co, to alter or exchange. 
aWax^Biv, adv., /ro/M elsewhere. 
a.\X-riyopia}. ai, to speak allegorically, 

or to allegorize; pass, part., Gal. 

iv. 24. 
'AAATjAoyia (Hebrew), Hallelujah, 

Praise ye Jehovah, Eev. xix. i, 6. 
aKKi\Xuiv, reciprocal pron., gen. pku'., 

one another, each other. 
aKKo-yiV7\s, es, of another nation, a 

foreigner, Luke xvii. 18. 
aKKoixai (dep. ), aXov/xai, 7]\d./xT]v, lo leap 

up, leap; to bubble up, as water, 

John iv. 14. 
aAAos, 7j, o, other, different, another; 

ol &AA01, the others, the rest. See 

Synonyms. -cos, adv., otherwise, 

I Tim. V. 25. 
aAAoTpio-eirifTKOTTOs, ov, &, one who looks 

at or busies himself in the things of 

another, a busybody, 1 Pet. iv. 15. 
oAA<{Tpios, ia, lov, belonging to another, 

foreign, strange, alien ; not of one's 

own family, hostile. 

a\K6-<pvKos, ov, a.^]. , foreign, of another 

tribe or race. Acts x. 28. 
dAoao), w, Tijffto, to beat or thresh, as 

corn, I Cor. ix. 10; i Tim. v. 18. 
&-\oyos, OP, (i) loithout speech or reason, 

irrational ; (2) unreasonable, absurd. 
aXo'n, TJs, T}, the aloe, John xix. 39. 
0A5, a\6s, 6, salt. See d\as. 
a.AvK6i, V, iv (£As), salt, brackish, 

James iii. 11. 
S-AuTTos, ov, free from sorrow, Phil. 

ii. 28. 
d\v<TLS, (COS, 7], a chain or manacle. 
d-Auo-iTeA7)s, es, without gain, unprofit- 
able, hurtful. 
'AA(f)aioy, ov, 6, Alphcmis. Two of the 

name are mentioned, Mark ii. 14 ; 

iJark xv. 4 (the latter being called 

KAwirds, John xix. 25 ; another form 

of the orig. Hebrew name). 
d\cov, wvos, 6, 7], a threshing fioor ; 

met., the corn of the threshing-fioor. 
aXciin]^, (Kos, r], a fox; met., an art fid 

and mischievous person. 
aXuiais, (COS, i}, a taking or catching. 
afj.a, adv., at the same time, ivith or 

together with (dat. ) ; dfj.a irpm, with 

the dawti. 
a-fiad-ris, 4s, unlearned, rude, 2 Pet. 

iii. t6. 
a-iJ.apdvTivos, ov, adj. {ixapaivofxai), un- 
fading, I Pet. V. 4. 
a-fxdpavTos, ov, adj., unfading, I Pet. 

ajxapidvoi, rvau, to miss a mark, to err, 
to sin (with cognate ace. ) ; to wander 
from truth or virtue, to sin against 
or offend any one (with els). 

d/uapTTjyiia, uTos, r6, a si)i, error, offence. 

a/j-apTia, as, v, {1) sin, vice, wickedness ; 
(2) a particular sin, as unbelief, 
fr&u I or falsehood; (3) theim/>ntation 
or guilt of sin, possibly sin cffering. 

a-ixdpTvpos, ov, vjiihout loitness, 2 Cor. 
V. 21 (U.T.). 

aiJ.apTo>K6s, ov, (i) sinful, espec. habitu- 
ally and notorujusly ; liable to the 
punishment of sin ; (2) often used 
substantively, a sinner, an impnous 
person. The Jews used the word 
iov idolaters, i.e.. Gentiles. 

a-fto^os, oy, not quarrelsome. 





afidoo, CO, -fiffoo, to reap, to gather, as by 
harvestmeu, James v. 4. 

afiidvaros, ov, na., an amethyst (suj)- 
posed to be an antidote against 
drunkenness. Hence the name, 
from d, /xedvou). 

dfjLe\(u, u, TiTw, not to care for, to dk- 
regard, neglect ; gen. or inf. 

&-fiefj.TrTos, ov, mthout blame, faultless. 
Adv., -CCS, unblameably,faultlensly. 

a-fiipiixvos, ov, free from solicitude or 
anxiety, secure, easy. 

a-j-ieTii-diTos, ov, unchangeable. 

a-jxiTa-KivTiTos, ov, adj., immoveable, 
firm, I Cor. xv. 58. 

a-fxera-fie\riTos, ov, adj., not to be re- 
gretted or repented of; hence un- 
changeable, Kom. xi. zg ; 2 Cor. 
vii. 10. 

a.-iJ.fTa-v6i)Tos, ov, adj., unrepentant,, 
irreclainuible, Eom. ii. 5. 

&-/j.eTpos, ov, beyond measure, immode- 
rate, 2 Cor. X. 13, 15. 

afj.vv. Amen, a Hebrew adjective, true, 
faithful, used (1) as an adverb, at 
the beginning of a sentence, verily, 
truly, indeed; (2) at the end of 
ascriptions of praise, &c., ojjtatively 
as yevoiTu, so be it; substantively, 
2 Cor. i. 20; (3) as a name of Christ, 
tJie Amen, tJie faithful witness. Rev. 
iii. 14. 

d-jurJTcup, epos, 6, f] (ixi)r-np),ivithout mother, 
i.e., in the genealogies, Heb. vii. 3. 

a-fiiavTos, ov {fjnairw), uudefiled, sincere, 

'AfjLivaSd^, 6 (Heb.), Aminadab, Matt, 
i. 4 ; Luke iii. 33. 

afx/xos, ov, ri, sand, as of the shore ; a 
sandy soil. 

a/xvis, ov, 6, a lamb; fig., of Christ, 
.John i. 29, &c. 

afioi&v, ris, 7) (afj.eipa>), requital, 1 Tim. 
V. 4. 

&lJiTre\os, ov, tj, a vine, (i) ht. ; (2) fig., 
as John xv. i ; E-ev. xiv. 1 8. 

a/x-Tf^-ovpyus, ov, 6, rj, a vine-dresser, 
Luke xiii. 7. 

o/iiireAcoc, covos, 6, a vineyard. 

'A/xTTAias, iov, 6, Amplias, Horn. xvi. 8. 

aixuvco, a, only in mid., N.T., to defend, 
assist, Acts vii. 44. 

a/ii^i-p\7]<rrpov, ov, t6, a fishing net. 

ufj.(l)i-4vvvfx,i, 4<T<ii, to put on, as a gar- 
ment ; to clothe, adorn. j 

'Ayu<^iTroAis, ecus, ri, Ampkipolls, a city 
in the S. of Macedonia. 

aiJi<p-o^ov, ov, n., apjlace where two ways 
meet, a street. 

a/jL^Srepoi, at, a, both, only of two. 

d-/xcijUT}ros, ov, without blame or fault, 
Phil. ii. 15; 2 Pet. iii. 14. 

d/xwfj.ov, ov, r6, a spice plant, Rev. 
xiii. 13. 

a-fj-oo/jLos, ov, without spot; fig., blame- 

'Aixiiv, 6 (Heb.), Amon, Matt. i. 10. 

'Afids, 6 (Heb.), Amos, Luke iii. 25. 

&v, a particle, expressing j^ossibility, 
uncertainty, or conditionality. 

avd, prep., lit., upon; in composition, 
up, again. See 297 and 147, a. 

ava-^a6fj.6s, ov, 6 [fiaivoi), steps, stairs, 
means of ascent. 

ava-^aivdi, Brjao/xai, (l) to ascend, espec. 
to Jerusalem, on board ship (John 
xxi. 3), to heaven ; (2) to spring up, 
as plants, &c. ; used of a rumour. 
Acts xxi. 31; of thoughts coming 
into mind, Luke xxi v. 38. 

ava-Bd\Kw, mid., to postpone, defer. 
Acts xxiv. 22. 

ava-^iPd^ai, to draw up, as a net to 

ava-BKeiroi, (1) to look xipwards, (2) to 
recover sight, (3) to look attentively. 

di'd-l3\(\f/is, eois, 7], recovery of sight, 
Luke iv. 18. 

ava-^odoi, u, to exclaim, cry aloud. 

dva-^uKi}, fjs, 'q, putting off or delay. 
Acts XXV. 17. 

av-ayy4\Kui, to tell, to declare openly, to 
show forth, confess, foretell. 

ava-yfvvdii), a), to beget again. 

ava-yiviicFKw, to know well, to read, 
esjiec. aloud, to knoiv by reading; 
vised chiefiy in the last sense. 

avayKd^u), daw, to force, to compel by 
force or persuasion. 

oLvayKOLos, ala, aiov, necessary, fit, ser- 
viceable; also close or near, as friends. 
Acts X. 24. 

avayKaarHs, adv., necessarily or by con- 
straint, I Pet. v. 2. 




avdyKTi, 7)i, 7], (i) necessltij, constraint ; 

(2) distress, 2 Cor. vi. 4, xii. 10. 
ava-yviapi^ui, to make known, aor. pass., 

Acts vii. 13. 
aydyvouais, eoos, r], reading, whether 

private or public. 
av-dyoii, to bring, lead, or take up; to 

offer up, as sacritices ; pass., to put 

to sea, to set salt. 
ava-Se'iKvufii, to shoiv, as by uplifting, 

to show plainly, appoint. 
aud-Sei^is, ecus, rj, a showing or 2^ublic 

appearance, Luke i. iso. 
aj'a-Sexo/iai, dep. , to receive with a 

welcome, as guests. Acts xxviii. 7 ; 

promises, Heb. xi. 17.^o)fj.i, to give up, deliver, as by 

messengers. Acts xxiii. 33. 
ava-^cLoi, w, to live again, revive. 
ava-^riTia, w, to look or search for with 

ava-^wi/vvixi, to gird or hind up, as a 

loose dress is giixled about the loins ; 

tig., I Pet. i. 13. 
ava-^oinupiui, Si (TrSp), to re-kindle or 

rouse up; lig., 2 Tim. i. 6. 
ava-QdWui, to thrive or flourish again, 

i'hilip. iv. 10. 
avd-Qifxa, arus, t6, a person or thing 

accursed, an execration or curse. 

Later form for di/ddriua, which see. 
ayadeij-cri^w, iaw, to bind by a curse, to 

declare on jxdn of being an ana- 
ava-9ewf)(a>, w, to look at or behold atteii- 

tively, to consider, 
avd-e-rifjia, aros, t6, anything consecrated 

and laid by, a votive offering, Luke 

xxi. 5. See avdileij.a and Synonj'nis. 
av-ai5eia, as, rj, importunity (shame- 

lessuess), Lidio xi. 8. 
avaipiais, eois, 7], a taking away, i.e., by 

a violent death. 
av-a.ipio}, w (see i03, i), to take away, 

to abolish, to take off, to kill; mid., 

to take up, as Pharaoh's daughter 

took up Moses, Acts vii. 21. 
av-ai-rios, <iv, guiltless, i.e., without 

cause (aiTia) of condemnation. Matt. 

xii. 5, 7- 
iLva-Kad'iC<», to sit up (properly trans. 

with kaur6v understood). 

aua-Kaivi^oo, to renew, restore to a former 
condition, Heb. vi. 6.}, w, to renew, amend, to 
change the life, 2 Cor. iv. 16; Col. 
iii. 10. 
afa-Kaivaicris, eios, 7), a renewal or change 
of heart and life, E,om. xii. z ; Tit. 
iii. 5. 

ava-KaAuxTw, to unveil, make manifest. 

dva-KafXTTTco, to bend or tuni back, 

wd-K€, dep., (i) to be laid out, as a 
dead body, Mark v. 40, rec. ; (2.) to 
recline, as at a meal, reclining on the 
bosom of Jesus, i.e., next to Jesus at 
table ; 6 avaKd/j-ei/os, one who reclines 
at table, a guest. 

ava-KecpaKaidoj, w, to gather together into 
one, to sum up, under one head ; pass. , 
E,om. xiii. 9 ; mid., Eph. i. 10.\ivco, to lay down, as an infant, 
Lukeii. 7; to place at table; mid., 
to recline, as at a feast, like avd- 

ava-KSTTToi, to Milder (lit., beat back), 
G-al. V. 7. 

ava-Kpd^w, to cry out, to shout aloud. 

ava-Kpivw, to investigate, enquire ; to 
judge of favourably, i Cor. iv. 3, 4 ; 
uufavouralily, i Cor. xiv. 24. Ap- 
plied to proceedings in a court, 
Luke xxiii. 14. 

avd-Kpiais, fws, rj, judicial examination. 
Acts XXV. 26. 

ava-Kv-iTTU), to raise oneself from, a stoop- 
ing posture ; fig. , to be elated. 

ava-Xafxfiduco, to take up; pass., ,of 
Christ's being taken up to heaven. 

ara-Ar)i|/is, ecus, r], a being taken up, i.e., 
into heaven, Luke ix. 51. 

av-aKiaKw, \dia(ii, to consume, destroy, 

ava-Koyia, as, t], proportion, analogy, 
Horn. xii. 6.\, to think Upon, consider 

&p-a\us, ov, without scdtness. Insipid. 

avd-Kvais, fws, r), a loosening, as of a 
ship from her moorings ; hence de- 
parture, 2 Tim. iv. 6. 

ava-Kvco, to depart from, as from life, 
Phil. i. 23 ; to return, Luke xii. 36. 



[ctvajidpTT^Tos — ClVtK- 

av-afji<ipT7]-os, ov, without blame, fault- 

ava-fjifva, to await, i Thess. i. lo. 

ava-jxifivriaKoo, to remind, admonish ; 
two aces., or ace. and inf. ; pass., to 
remember, to call to mind; gen. or 

ava.-fji.vr\cns, eois, 7], remembrance, a me- 

ava-vi6(ji, w, to renew ; mid., to renew 
oneself, to be reneived, Eph. iv. 23. 

apa-vri<pQi, to recover soberness, 2 Tim. 
ii. 26. 

'Ayaviai, a, 6 (from Heb. ), Ananias. 
Three of the name are mentioned, 
Acts V. 1-5, ix. 10, xxiii. 2. 

av-avTi^-priros, ov, indisputable, not to be 
contradicted. Acts xix. 36. Adv., 
-ojs, without hesitation. Acts x. 29. 

av-d^ios. Of, unworthy, inadequate, 
I Cor. vi. 2. Adv., -cos, unwortldly, 
unbecomingly, 1 Cor. xi. 27. 

ava-iravcLs, iuis, f), rest, refreshment ; 
met., j^lace of rest. 

ava-iravw, to give rest or refreshment; 
mid., to take rest, to abide in rest. 

ava-TTiiOo), ffou, to persuade, in a bad 
sense, seduce, mislead. Acts xviii. 13. 

ava-TrifxiT(i3, to remit, send back. 

avd-trripos, ov, maimed, having lost a 

ava-mTTToi, to fall down; I'f.T., to recline, 
as at table at meals. 

ava-ir\7]p6(ii, a>, to fill up ; to fulfil, as a 
prophecy ; to perform, as a precept ; 
to occupy or fill a place ; to supjyty a 

av-awo-AdyriTos, ov, adj., inexcusable, 
Kom. i. 20, ii. i. 

ava-TTTvaaw, to unroll, as a volume. 

av-d-KTO), to kindle, set on fire. 

a.v-api9/ji.r]Tos, ov, innumerable. 

ava-aeiw, to m.ovp, instigate, stir up. 

a.}>a-(TKfvd(co, to pervert, unsettle, destroy . 

dva-airdo}, to draiu up or back. 

avd-aTaait, fws, ri, a rising up, as op- 
l)osed to falling, Luke ii. 34 ; rising, 
as from death or the grave, resur- 
rection, tlie future state; met., the 
Author of the resi'.rrection. 

dva-maTdai, w, to unsettle, put in com- 

dva-<Travp6u, w, to crucify afresh, Heb. 

vi. 6. 
dva-<TTfvd^a>, to groan or sigh deeply, 

Mark viii. 12. 
dva-cTTpfcpo), to tiirn up or over, John 

ii. 15; to restore ; intrans. , to return 

mid. (as Lat. versari), to be or to 

live in a place or state, to ynove 

among, to pass one's time or be con- 
versant with persons ; gen. , to con- 
duct one's selj. 
dva-(TTpo<pri, iis, 7], behaviour, manner of 

dva-Tdaaofxai, to compose in order, 

Luke i. I. 
dva-TeXXco, to sj)ring up or rise, as the 

sun or a star; spoken of the Messiah, 

Heb. vii. 14; trans., to cause to rise, 

Matt. V. 4s. 
dva-TiBrjiJ.i, mid. , to place before, declare, 

7nakp known. 
dvaToK-t], Tjs, 71, the dawn, the east, where 

the sun rises; sing, and ])lur., see 

240, a. 
dvarpfTrai, to subvert, overthrow. 
dva-Tpl<poi, to nu7'se, bring up, educate. 
dva-(paivw, mid., to appear, be mani- 

fe-sted ; pass. , to he shown (ace. of 

thing), Acts xxi. 3. 
dva-cpepcii, oiffai, to bear or lead, to offer, 

as sacritice ; to bear, as sin. 
dva- (pcavioi, Q, to ci'y Out aloud, Luke i.42. 
avd-x^'f^t-s, e'^J, h, « pouring out ; hence 

excess, 1 Pet. iv. 4. 
dva-x^p^i^, S>, to depart, ivlthdraw. 
dvd-iliivlis, fuxs, 7], refreshment, Acts 

iii. 2u. 
dva-i^vX<», to invigorate, to revive, 2 Tim. 

i. 16. 
'AvSpfui, ov, 6, ATulrew. 
a.v5pa7ro5iar7is, ov, 6, a man-stealer, 

I Tim. i. 10. 
av^pi(a>, iao3, mid. , to act like a man, to 

be brave, 1 Cor. xvi. 1 3. 
^Av^p6viKos, ov, 6, Andronicus, Rom. 

xvi. 7. 
dvhp6-<povos, ov, 6, a 7nanslayer, 7nur- 

derer, i Tim. i. 9. 
dv-4yK\7iTos, ov, not open to accusation, 

dv-iK-Si7iy7jTos, ov, not to be spoken, i7i- 

expressible, 2 Cor. ix. 15. 

dv«K — dvop6o(ol 



w-eK-\d\r]ros, itnuUerahle, i Pet. i. 8. 

dj'-e(cA€iirTos, ov, inexliaustible. 

dvfKTds, i), 6p, tolerable, supportable; 
only ill comp., as Matt. x. 15. 

dv.fKi7jij.ajv, ov, ivithout compassion, 
cruel, Kom. i. 31. 

dvefjii^oo, to agitate or drive with wind ; 
pass. , James i. 6. 

&venos, ov, 6, the wind; met., plur., 
the cardinal p>oints ; fig., applied to 
empty doctrines, Eph. iv. 14. 

dv-ivOiKTos, ov, adj., impossibk, Luke 
xvii. I. See Matt, xviii. 7. 

dv-e^-ep€vvr]Tos, ov, adj., inscrutable, 
Rom. xi. 33. 

dve^i-KaKos, ov, patient of injury, 2 Tim. 
ii. 24. 

dv-il-i.Xvia(rTos, ov, that cannot be ex- 
plored, incomprehensible, Eph. iii. 8. 

dv-iTT-aiax^vTos, ov, causing no shame, 
irreproachable, 2 Tim. ii. 15. 

dv-firi-ArjirTos, ov, adj., never caught 
doing ivivng, blameless. 

dv-epxo/, to come or go upwards. 

fti'eiTis, eois, T], relaxation, remission, as 
from bonds, &c., from contribution, 
from burden or trouble. 

dv-iTa^Qi, to examine by torture, Acts 
xxii. 24, 29. 

&vev, adv. as prep., with gen., without. 

dv-fvdiTos, ov, inconvenient, unsuitcdtle. 

dv-evpi(TKw, to find by searching for. 

dv-ix^^ mid., (i) to bear with, to have 
■patience with; (2) to endure; (3) to 
admit, to receive, as teachers or doc- 
trines. With gen. 

dve-^ios, ov, 6, a nephew. 

&vr]dov, ov, tS, anise, ddl. Matt, xxiii. 23. 

dvi]Kii, imjiers., it is fit ov piroper ; part., 
T^ dvr)Kov, TO. dvvKovTa, the becoining. 

dv-71/j.^pos, ov, adj., not gentle, fierce, 
2 Tim. iii. 3. 

dvi]p, avdp6s, 6, (i) a man, in sex and 
age (Lat., vir) ; hence (2) a husband; 
(3) a jjerson of importance in any 
relation ; (4) a ])erson generally ; 
plur. voc, aj/5pe?, Sirs! otten in ap- 
position with adjectives and nouns. 

dvB-lcrrnfJLi, to oppose, withstand, resist. 

dvB-ojxoKo-yiofKxi, ovjxai, to confess, give 
thanks, Luke ii. 38. 

fij/Soj, ovs, t6, a flower. 

dvBpaKid, as, r], a mass or heap of live 

&v6pa(, a/cos, 6, a live or burning coal. 

dvBpwir-dpeffKos, ov, desirous of pleasing 

dvBpcinrivo!, Ivri, ivov, human, belonging 
to man. 

dvdpooTTo-KTSvos, OV, 6, T], a homicide, a 

&vBpo>iros, ov, m., a man, one of the 
humanrace. Like dvrjp, joined in ap- 
position with substantives, as Matt, 
xi. 19, xxviii. 13. See Synonyms. 

a.v6-viraTev(u, to be proconsul, Acts 
xviii. 12. 

avd-vTruTos, ov, 6, a proconsul. 

dj/-i'7jjui, to unloose, let go, cease from; 
to leave, neglect. 

dr-iAectis-, wv, ivithout mercy, James ii. 13. 
Others read dviXfos. 

a-viTTTos, ov, adj., unwashed. 

dv-lcrrri/xi, to raise up one lying or dead ; 
intrans., to rise irom. a recumbent 
posture, to rise into existence; aor. 
part., often combined with other 
verbs, as " rising (dj/ao-ras) he 

"Avvti, 7)s, 7], Anrut, Luke ii. 36. 

kvvas, a, o, Annas (in Josephus, Ana- 
nus), Luke iii. 2. 

a.v6r]Tos, ov, foolish, thoughtless, 
i. 14; Gal. iii. i, &c. 

&vota, as, 7], folly, madness, Luke vi. 1 1 ; 
2 Tim. iii. 9. 

avoiyoi, ^01, to open ; intrans. in 2 pert,, 
aviooya, to be open. 

av-otKo8ofjLiOD, 01, to build up again, Acts 
XV. 16. 

fiz/oilis, €£os, 7), an opening, as the act of 
opening, Eph. vi. 19. 

d-vofiia, as, ri, transgression of law, 

&-V01XOS, ov, (1) lawless, not subject to 
the law, I Cor. ix. 21 ; met. of Gen- 
tiles; (2) impious; as subst., a male- 
factor. 6 avojxos, that wicked or 
lawless one, 2 Thess. ii. 8. Adv., -ois, 
without law, i.e., the declared law, 
Rom. ii. 12. 

av-op66w, S>, to make upright or straight 
again, to rebuild, make strong, con- 



[avocrtos — avixepcs 

ow5(rioj, ov, unholy, i Tim. i. 9 ; 2 Tim. 

iii. 2. 
avoxh-, ^5, ^, forbearance, patience, 

Rom. ii. 4, iii. 25. 
ovT-a7£o;'iCo;"ai, to resist, strive against, 

Heb. xii. 4. 
avT-aWayiJ.a, aros, rS, an equivalent, 

ayT-aua-irXyipScij, u, fo make good by siip- 

plyiniT de-ticiency. 
afT-aTTo-Si'Sw/xi, to recompense, requite. 
ai>T-aTvn-5ofj.a, aros, t6, a recomixnce, 

auT-aTr6-5oa-ts, tois, ih a reward, recom- 

WT-onro-Kplvoixat, to reply against, con- 
avT-fiTTov (def. , used as 2 aor. of avTiXdya), 

see <prifj.l), to contradict, to gaiiway. 
oi'T-exo), mid., to holdfast, to adhere to 

(gen. ) 
avrl, prep., gen., instead of, fo?: See 

291 and 147, a. 
dvTi/SaAAo), to debate, to converse, Luke 

xxiv. 17. 
dvTi-Sta-ridrifj.i,xmd.,to set oneself against, 

dvTi-hiKos, OV, 6, 7) (orig. adj.), an oppo- 
nent at law, an adversary. 
avTi-deais, eois, t], debate, opposition, 

I Tim. vi. 20. 
dvTi,-KaO-iaTr)fu, to resist, Heb. xii. 4. 
dvri-KaKedi, to call or invite in turn, 

Luke xiv. 12. 
avTl-Kfiixai, to oppose, resist (dat. ) ; 

a.vTiKilfj.evos, the adversary. 
dvTiKpv, adv., over against, Actsxx. 15. 
dvri-\aix0dvai, mid., to take hold oj, help, 

share in (gen.) 

dvTt-\eyw, to speak against, contradict 
(dat.) ; to oppose, deny (with fj.Ti). 

dfTi A.7ji^iy, ecos, helj? ; hence, ccncrete," 
a helper, 1 Cor. xii. 28. 

avTi-Koyia, as, 7], contradiction, conten- 
tion, reproach. 

avTi-AoiSopetc, to revile or reproach again, 

1 Pet. ii. 23. 

avrl XvTpov, ov, r6, a, ransom-price, 

I Tim. ii. 16. 
avri-jjiirpidi, u, to measure in return. 
avTi-fjLiaeia, oy, r], retribution, Rom. i. 27 ; 

reward or recompence, 2 Cor. vi. 13. 

'AvTiSxf^a, as, r], Antioch. Two [daces 

of the name are mentioned, Acts 

xi. 26, xiii. 14. 
'AvTwxevs, f'ws, 6, a citizen of A ntioch. 

Acts vi. 5. 
avri-Trap-fpxonai, to pass by on the other 

side or without staying to notice, 

Luke X. 31, 32. 
'Avriiras, a, 6, Antipas, Rev. ii. 13. 
'AuTiTraTpis, iSos, 7], Aniipatris, Acts 

xxiii. 31. 
auri-irfpav, adv., on the opposite side or 

shore, Luke viii. 26. 
avri-n'oTTw, to fall agaitist, resist. Acts 

vii. 52. 
avTi-aTimTevo/jiai, dep., to viake war 

against, Rom. vii. 23. 
avTi-Tacraai, mid., to set oneself against, 

resist (dat.) 
avrl-TVTTos, ov, corresponding in form, 

e.g., as wax to the seal. Eng., 

antitype, Heb. ix. 24 ; i Pet. 

iii. 21. 
'AvTi-xpiTTos, ov, m., opposer of Christ, 

Antichrist. Only in Epp. of John. 
avrXio), w, to draw from a vessel, John 

ii. 8. 
a.vT\-r}fia, aros, rS, a bucket, John 

iv. 7, 15.^ 
a!'T-o(f>da\fxeco, So, ta look in the face; so 

to ineet the 7vind, Acts xxvii. 15. 
&v-v^pos, ov, witliout water, dry, parclied. 

Matt. xi. 43. 
av-vKi-Kptros, ov, adj., witliout hypocrisy, 

unfeigned, Rom. xii. 9. 
ay-vTTo-TaKTos, ov, not sid>ject to rule; 

of persons, i Tim. i. 9 ; of things, 

Heb. ii. 8. 
&vai, adv. (avd), up, above, upwards : 

ra &v<i}, heaven or heavenly things, 

John viii. 33 ; Col. iii. i, 2. 
dvii-yeov, ov, r6, an upper chamber, 

Mark xiv. 1 5 ; Luke xxii. 1 2. 
&vai6ev, adv. i^fo)), of place, yro»n.o7)0«e; 

of time, from the first ; sometimes, 

again, John iii. 4, 7 ; or, perhaps 

here also, from above. 
dvoDTfpiKSs, 7], ov, upjjer, highei; Acts 

xix. I. 
dvwTepos, a, ov (compar. of &vm), higher, 

to a higher place, Luke xiv. 10; 

above, before, Heb. x. 8, 

dv(»<{>£XTJs — dir€piT[AT|TOs] VOCABULARY. 


dv-u<pe\i\s, is, unprofitable, serving no 

d^ivri, 7JS, T], an axe, Matt. iii. 9. 
&lios, ia, lov, adj., worthy, deserving of 

good or evil, suitable (gen.) Adv., 

-ws, wortliily, suitably (gen.) 
d|«{a>, w, to deem wortluj (ace. and gen. , 

or inf.), to desire, think good. 
a.-6pciTos, adj., invisible, unseen, Rom. 

i. 20 ; Col. i. 15, 16. 
dTr-a77fA.A£o, to report, relate, make 

known, declare, 
dtr-dyx'^, mid., to hang or strangle one- 

sdf. Matt, xxvii. 5. 
d7r-o7c<j, to lead, carry, or take away ; 

pass., to be led away to execution, to 

lead or tend, as a way. 
d-iraiSevTos, ov, adj., uninstructed, inept, 

2 Tim. ii. 23. 
dir-aipai, pass., to be taken away (with 


ttTT-aiTfo), to ask back, require, reclaim 
(with aTrS). 

an-aKyeai, to be unfeeling, Ejih. iv. 19. 

d7r-aAAa(T(T<B, micL, to remove oneself 
from, to depart ; pass. , to be set free 
(with dird). 

aiT-aAAoTpt6tt}, to estrange, alienate (gen. ) 

airax6s, i), 6v, tender, as a shoot of a 

hiT-avTaoi, Si, to meet, to encounter (dat. ) 

dn-dvT7](Tis, 60)5, 7], a meeting, an en- 
cou7itering ; us dTravrriaiv (gen. or 
dat.), to meet any one. 

airo|, adv., of time, once, Phil. iv. 16; 
once for all. 

d-Trapd-$dTos, adj., not passing from one 
to another, not transient, unchange- 
able, Heb. vii. 24. 

d-Trapa-(TK€vaaTos, ov, adj., unprepared, 
unready, 2 Cor. ix. 4. 

an apvfOfiai, ovixai, to deny, disoton. 

dir-dpTt, adv., of time, Icenceforth, here- 
after, even now. 

dir-apTi(Tfj.6s, ov, 6, completion, Luke 
xiv. 28. 

dn-apx^l, V^, V, the first fruits, conse- 
crated to God, the first. 

a-iras, aaa, ay, all, all togetlier, the 

onraTctco, cS, -ficcD, to deceive, lead into 

awdrri, ris, % that which deludes or 

deceives, fraud. 
a-TTaTccp, opos, 6, t) {iraTrjp), without 

father, i.e., in the genealogies, Heb. 

vii. 3. 
a.TT-av'ya'Tij.a, aros, t6, reflected splendour, 

effulgence, Heb. i. 3. 
aTr-tl^ov, 2 aor. of d(\>npacii, which see. 
d-irei'Seia, as, ri,wi-lful unbelief, obstinacy, 

a-TTiSiw, 01, to refuse belief, be disobedient. 
d-TTetdiis, es, unbelieving, disobedient 
direiAfo), w, Tiau, to threaten, forbid by 

threatening, i-ebuke. 
direiA-TJ, rjs, rj, threatening, /larshness, 

&ir-etfj.i {dfjLi, subst. verb), to be absent, 

1 Cor. V. 3, &c. 

dwe7/xi [ilfMi, to go), to go away, to depart. 

Acts xvii. 10. 
air-fiirov, mid., to renounce, disown, 

2 Cor. iv. 2. 

a-ireipa(TTos, ov, adj., incapable of being 
tempted, James L 13. 

&-TTiipos, OV, adj., inexperienced, un- 
skilful, Heb. V. 13 (gen.) 

dir-e/c-Se'xo^ai, to wait for, expect ear- 
nestly or patiently. 

dTT-eK-Svofiai, to strip, divest, renounce. 

anfKSvais, eus, r], a putting or stripping 
off', renouncing. Col. ii. 1 1. 

an-fKavvia, to driveaway. Acts xviii. 16. 

dTr-i\(yix6s, ov, o [(\iyx<>i), refutation, 
disgrace, disrepute, scorn. Acts xix. 2 7. 

dn-e\fvdf pos, ov, 6, rj, made entirely free, 
I Cor. vii. 22. 

'AireWris, ov, o, Apelles, Rom. xvi. 10. 

dTr-€\7n'^co, aic, to despair, Luke vi. ^ 5 ; 
HTlSif cnrsAiri^ovTes, rendered, E.V., 
"hoping for nothing agaiu;" more 
probably, "not despairing," i.e., 
without anxiety about the result. 

aw-evavTi, adv., gen., over against, i)i 
the presence of, in opposition to. 

a-irepavTos, ov (irepas), interminable, 
I Tim. i. 4. 

a-irepicnraardis, adv. (iripioirdai), without 
distraction, i Cor. vii. 37. 

OTrepiT/uTjTos, ov, uncircumcked. Acts 
vii. 51 ; "hearts" so covered as not 
to obey, and "ears" so covered as not 
to hear. 





av-4pxofJiii, to go or come from one 
place to another, to go away, depart; 
to go apart; to go hack, to return; to 
go forth as a rumour, Matt. iv. 24. 

aTT-ex'", to have the tvhole of, as reward; 
impers., dire'xei, it is enough; mid., 
to abstain from. 

aTTio-Teo), '2, to disbelieve, to be unfaith- 
ful, 2 Tim. ii. 13. 

aTTiarla, as, r), unbelief , distrust, a state 
ofvnbelief 1 Tim. i. 4; renunclafion 
of faith, apostasy, Heb. iii. 12, 19. 

&-Tn(TTos, ov, not believing, incredulous ; 
hence an unbeliever or infidel, faith- 
less, j)erfidioiis ; also pass., incredible. 

a-Tr\6os, ovs, rj, ovv, simple, sound ; of 
the eye, clear-sighted. Adv., -ws, 
sincerely, bountifully. 

airXoTTis, rriTos, % simplicity, sincerity, 

airb, prep, gen., from. See 292; and 
for the force of the prep, in com- 
position, 147, O" 

airo-^aivQi (for Valval, see 94, I., 6, d; 
fut., -^7)croixai.), to go or come out of, 
as from a ship ; to result, befall. 

a7ro-;SaAAa), to throw away, renounce. 

diro-ySAeVco, to look away, i.e., from all 
besides ; hence to regard with atten- 
tion, Heb. xi. 26 ; with eh. 

a.Tr6-^Kriros, ov, verbal adj., tobethrown 
away, refused, i Tim. iv. 4. 

aTro-Bo\7i, vs, i], a casting aiuay, re- 
jection, loss. 

airo-ylvoixat, to die, i Pet. ii. 24. 

ano-ypacpr], t}s, t], a record, register, 
enrol nient, Luke ii. 2; Acts v. 37. 

airo-ypaipoj, to enrol, inscribe in a register. 

WKo-Zi'iKvvfjii, to show by proof, demon- 
strate ; to set forth, designate. 

dir((-5€i|ij, ea»s, t], demonstration, proof, 
I Cor. ii. 4. 

diro-Se/caTtJu), Si, (i) to pay the tenth or 
tWie ; (2) to levy tithes on, ace. 

dirff-SeKTos, ov, verbal adj., acceptable. 

oLTTo-dixo/jiat, to receive with pleasure, to 

(LKo-ortfJLi<ji, cD, "to be absent from 
one's own peoj)le, " go abroad. Matt. 
xxi. 33 ; Luke xx. 9. 

oTrrf-STj/xos, ov, "gone abroad," a so- 
journer, !Mark xv. 34, 

airo-SiSwfii, to give from one^s self, as 
due, or as reward or testimony ; to 
yield, as fruit. Rev. xx. 2 ; to give 
back, restore, retaliate ; mid. , to 

aiTo-Si-opi^a), to separate off, i.e., into 
parties, Jude 19. 

aTro-ooKifjLd(a}, to reject, as disapproved 
or worthless. 

aTTo-Soxv, V^, V, acceptance, approbation. 

airo-dKTis, €us, T}, a putting away, i Pet. 
iii. 2 1 ; 2 Pet. i. 14. 

airo-OvK-ri, 7}s, r;, a repository, granary, 

a.Tro-6riaavpi(ci!, to treasure up, lay by in 
store, I Tim. vi. 19. 

airo-8\i8(o, to press closely, Luke viii. 45. 

airo-dvriaK(o [airh intensive), to die, 
spoken of the loss of human, animal, 
or vegetable life ; inchoative, to be 
dying, i.e., in danger of death, 

1 Cor. XV. 31 ; met., to be utterly 
alienated from, as Rom. vi. 2. 

aTro-Ka6-larrifj.i, a.iroKaTa(TTria<i> (also -KaOi- 
(TTaoi and -dva>, see Mark ix. 12; 
Acts i. 6), to re-store, e.g., to health, 
or as a state or kingdom. 

airo-Ka^vwrai, to uncover, bring to light, 
reveal ; pass. , of Christ's appearance 
from heaven. 

c.Tro-Ka.kv^is, fois, 7), revelation, mani- 
festation, enlightenment {Apocsilypse}. 

diro-Kapa-SoKla, aj, i} (/cdpa, head), earnest 
expectation, as if locking for with the 
head bent forwards, Rom. viii. 19 ; 
Phil. i. 20. 

aiTo-KaT-aWdaffo}, to reconcile, change 
from one state of feeling to another, 
Eph. ii. 16; Col. i. 20, 22. 

o.'Ko-KaTa-aTaais, tws, v, restitution, resto- 
ration, introduction of a new and 
better era, Acts iii. 21. 

air6-Kei/j.a., to be Id id away, to bereserved, 
to await any one, dat. 

aTTO-KfcpaXi^co (KecpoAr)), to behead. 

aTTo-zcAeicti, to shut :lost\ as a door, 
Luke xiii. 25. 

dTTci-K^TTTco, to smitc OV cut off; mid., 
Gal. V. 12, even cut off, not ciicum 
cised only. 

a.Tr6-Kptfj.a, otos, t6, a judicial sentence, 

2 Cor. i. 9. 

airo-Kpi.vo|xai— airo-cTTj 




aTTo-Kpivo/xai (for aor., see 100), to 
answer, to take occasion to speak, to 
continue the discourse. 

aTTo-Kptais, €0}s, T], an answer, reply. 

ano-KpinrTiii, to hide, conceal, not to dis- 

air6-Kpv(pos, ov, concealed, laid up in 

aTTo-KTeivQ), evw, to put to death, kill; 
tig., to abolish, Eph. ii. i6. 

airo-Kueo). w, to bring forth ; fig., James 

avo-Kv\tvSw, iffw, to roll away, Mabt. 
xxv'iii. 2; Maikxvi. 3; Lukexxiv. 2. 

aTro-XaijLBdvu, to receive, as from auy 
oue ; to receive back, as requital ; fo 
receive in fall, obtain; mid., to take 
aside with one's self, Mark vii. 33. 

a.i?6-Kav(ns, ews, t) (Aai'co, to enjoy), en- 
joyment, I Tim. vL 17 ; Heb. xi. 25. 

ttTTo-AeiVa), to leave, to leave behind, to 
desert ; jiass., to be reserved. 

airo-Xeixoi), to lick, as a dog, Luke 
xvi. 21. 

aTr-6Wvfxi (see 116, 2), to destroy, to 
brinr/ to noiiijht things or persons, to 
put to death ; to lose, Luke xv. 8 ; 
mid. pass (and 2nd perf.), to perish, 
die ; to be lost. 

'AiroWveav, ovtos, 6 (]3rop. part of 
airoWvw), Apollyon, the destroying 
one, Eev. ix. 1 1. 

'AvoWoivia, as, rj, Apollonia, a city of 
Macedonia, Acts xvii. 1. 

'AttoAAws, w, o, Apollos. 

airo-KoyiS/xai, ovjjiai. {Koyos), fo dfend 
ones self by speech, to plead. 

o.TTo-Xo'iia, as, t}, a verbal dej'ence, 

airo-\ova), mid., to wash atvay, as sins. 
Acts xxii. 16 ; I Cor. vi. 11. 

airoKvTpwGLS, ews, % redemption, deli- 
verance, through paying a ransom, 
as Eph. i. 7 ; or generally, without 
ransom, Luke xxi. 8; Heb. xi. 35. 

a.-no-\vii>, to release, let go, to send away ; 
spec, to divorce, to dismis,"} from 
life ; mid. and pass., to depart. 

aizo-txaaao}, ^&i, to wipe off, as dust from 
the feet. 

KTTo-i e'/io), to assign to, to give, i Peter 
iii. 7. 

airo-viwro), mid., to wash (one's self), 
Matt, xxvii. 24. 

a.iro-iriirT(a, to fall from. Acts ix. 24. 

airo-irXaydio, a>, to seduce ; pass., to 
ivander from. 

C7ro-7rAe'u', ei'uco, to sail away. 

diro-Tr\vuu), to wash or rinse, as nets, 
Luke V. 2. 

diro-irfi-yio, to suffocate, choke. 

d-Trop((ii, Si (iv6pos, resource), only mid. 
in N.T., to be in doubt, to be per- 

diropia, as, r], perplexity, disquiet, Luke 
xxi. 25. 

diTop-piirTU} {piirTw, to casi), to throw or 
cast down or off. Acts xxvii. 43 ; 
favTovs understood. 

dTr-op(pavi^Q) (upcpavos), pass., "to be 
made orphans of ; " to be bereaved, 
separated from, i Thess. ii. 17. 

dTTo-(TKivd^ujj.aL, to divest one's self of. 
Acts xxi. 1 5. 

diro-aKiaaiia. aros, t6 [aKLa^cii), a shade; 
met., a slight trace, James i. 17. 

diro-a-itdo}, a>, daco, to draw out, un- 
sheathe; to withdraw, to draw away. 

d-Ko-araaia, as, ?;, difection, departure, 
apostasy, Acts xxi. 2152 Thess. ii. 3. 

d-Ro-aTd(j\ov, ov, r6, desertion, repudia- 
tiun, dlmrce; met., bill of divorce. 

dTTo-areyd^o} (rneyri), to unroof Mark 
ii. 4; probably to remove the awning 
of the courtyard. 

diro-cn€K\(i>, to send away, to send, as 
a messenger, commission, &c. , spoken 
of projjhets, teachers, and other mes- 
sengers ; to thrust forth, as a sickle 
into corn, Mark iv. 29. 

d-Ko-ajepiu, u), i)(rw, to defraud, abs. ; 
deprive of by fraud, ace. and gen. 

dTToijToXri, 7)5, f., apiostleship.. Acts i. 25. 

dTT6-aToKos, ou, 6, (j) a messenger ; {z)an 
apostle, i.e., a messenger of Christ 
to the world ; used of others beside 
Paul and the Twelve, Acts xiv. 4, 14 ; 
I Thess. ii. 6; 2 Cor. viii. 23. Christ 
himself is so called, Heb. iii. i. 

dizo-aTOfiaTi^a} (aripia), to provoke to 
speak, Luke xi. 53. 

diro-uTpi(pw, to turn away ; trans, (with 
diro), restore, replace; mid., to desert, 
reject, ace. 



VOCABULARY. ^aTro-^rvyia) — 'AptcrTap)(OS 

uTro-(TT\ry4a), w, to detest, to abhor, Rom. 
xii. 9. 

iKo-(Tvvo.y(i}yo^, ov. excluded from the 
synagogue, i.e., from the rights and 
privileges of the Jewish people, 
John ix. 22, xii. 42, nvi. 2. 

dTTo-rdn-ffw, |co, mid., "to set one's self 
apart from ; " to fake leave of, re- 
nounce, send <noay, dat. 

diro-TfAea', w, eaai, to perfect, James 

, i- 15- 

a-Ko-TidrifjLi, mid., to lay off or aside, to 

renounce, Acts vii. 58; Horn. xiii. 12. 
aTro-Tivarrrrai, to shake off, Luke ix. 5 ; 

Acts xxviii. 5. 
diro-Tiro) (or -Ti'a'), ticto), to repay, 

Philemon 19. 
d-Ko-ToXixau), Si, to dare boldly, Rom.x. 20. 
dTTo-ro/xia, as, 7] {re/xvcc, to cut), severity, 

Rom. xi. 22. 
drro-T('/xa»r, adv., severely, sharply. 
dTTo-TpiiToo, mid., to turn away from, 

.thiin, ace. 2 Tim. iii. 5. 
dv-ou(ria, as {airetfii), absence, Phil. ii. 12. 
a-iro-rp^pai, to bear aivay from one place 

to another, Mark xv. i. 
a.Tro-<peuyw, to escape. 
d-n-o-<pd4yyon3i, to spcal: out, declare. 
dno-(j><)p7i^ofiai ((pSpros, a burden), to 

zinlade. Acts xxi. 3. 
ttTTfi-xpTjms, fcas, 7] (sttJ iatens. ), use, 

consumption. Col. ii. 22. 
airo-x<^pfoo. Si, to f/0 away, depart. 
a-Ko-x'^p^C^, to separate, rend aivay 

cLTTo-il/vxco, "to breathe out," to faint, 

as from fear, Luke xxi. 26. 
"Attttios, ou, 6, Appius. "Attttlov cpSpoy, the 

Appian Way, a road from Piome to 

Brundusium, constructed by Appius 

Claudius Cassar. 
a-Trpos-iTos, adj. (Tpoy, e?yui), not to be 

d-irpiis-KOTTos, ov {k'tttcii, to stumble), 

{ I ) not airing offence or causing to dn; 

(2) not caused to sin, tvithout offence. 
a-irpoTanro-Kriirrws, adv., not taken by 

appearance, impartially, i Pet. i. 17. 
&-irTai(TTos, ov {TTTaicii, to fcdl), without 

stumbling or filling, Jude 24. 
cTTTO), ipa. to kindle, as light or fire ; 

mid., to touch- See Synonyms. 

'Air(p'a, as, v, Apphia, Philemon 2 ; 
perhaps Philemon's wife. 

oTroj^fco, Si, airwaui, mid., to reptd-ie, to 

(xTTuiKiia, as, rj (aTriWvpit), cov^fumption, 
waste, of things ; destruction, of 
persons ; decdh by violence ; per- 

apd, as, T], curse, imprecation, Rom. 
iii. 14. 

&pa, conj., illative, therefore, thence, 
since. See 406. Spa, adv. inter- 
rogative, where the answer is nega- 

^ApaS'ia, as, f]. Arabia, Gal. i. 17, iv. 25. 

"Apau. u (Heb. ), Ara.m, Matt. i. 3; 
Luke iii. 33. 

"Apaxp, aBos, 6, Arabian, Acts ii. 11. 

apyeoj. Si, to linger, to delay. 

dpy6s. ov {a, ^pyov), "doing nothing," 
idle, inactive, unprof table. 

apyipeos, ovs, n, oiiv, made of silver. 

apyvpiov, wv, t6, silver, a jnece of silver, 
a shekel, money in general. 

apyvpo-KOrros, ou, 6, one ivho ivorks In 
diver, a silversmith. 

&pyvpos, ov, 6, silver; met., anything 
made of silver. 

"Apeios Trdyos, ou, 6, Areopagus, or Mars' 
hill,&n ojieu space on a hill in Athens, 
where the supreme court was held. 
Comp. " Campus Martius ;" "Champ 
de Mars." 

'ApeoTTayirris. ou, 6, a judge of the Areo- 
pjagite court. 

apeaKeia, as, yj, a pleasing, a desire of 
jjleasing. Col. i. 10. 

apsaKoi, apeaai, to be pleasing to, to seek 
to 2>lcase or gratify, to accommodate 
one's self to, dat. 

apeards, 7j, ov, acceptable, pleasing to. 

'Aperas, a, 6, Aretas, a king of Arabia 
Petra>a, 2 Cor. xi. 32. 

apeTTi, vs, 7), virtue, divine efficiency, 
excellency, perfection, courage, man- 

&priv. apv6s, a lamb, Luke x. 3. 

aptdfifco, S>, to reckon by number. 

apiepLds, ov, 6, cf. number, whether defi- 
nite or indefinite. 

'Apiiii.a9aia. as, 7], Arimathwa. 

'ApicTTapxos, ou, o, Aristarchus. 

dpiCTTaw — dpxi-fvv 0.70)705] VOCABULARY. 


apKTToiai, cS, rjao) (apLcnov), (j) to take an 

early meal; (2) to dine, Luke xi. 37 ; 

John xxi. 12, 15. 
apicrTep6s, a, ou, the left, i.e., hand, 

feni. sing, (x^'p) 5 neut. plur. (fJ-epr}). 
'ApiiTTO^ouXos, ov, 6, Aristobuliis. 
6.pi(jTov, ov, t6, a morning or early meal, 

a slight refresliinent. Cf. SetTrfoi'. 
o.pKer6s, 7), 6y, sufficient. 
apKe.w, a, to be sufficient for ; mid. or 

pass., to he satisfied ivifh. 
apKTos (in some edd. &pKos), ov, 6, ij, 

a bear, Kev. xiii. 2. 
&pfia, aroi, t6, a chariot, as of war; 

any vehicle. 
'Ap/xayeSSuiv (Heb., the Mountain of 

Megiddo, see Judges v. 19 ; 2 Kings 

xxiii. 29), Armageddon, Rev. xvi. 16. 
app.6^ct>, (Toi, "to tit together;" mid., 

to espouse, to betroth, 2 Cor. xi. 2. 
app-os, ov, 6, a joint, i.e., of limbs in a 

body, Heb. iv. 12.,, to contradict, disclaim, 

disown, deny, renounce, 
apviov, ov, t6 (dimin. of, a Utile 

lamb, Jolin xxi. 15. 
apoTpidct), a, da-oi, to plough, abs. 
dfjoTpof, ov, t6, a pilough, Luke ix. 62. 
apTrayh, 7}y, ri (apiTa.(a>}, (1) the act of 

plundering; (2) t/ie. thing plundered, 

apTrayp.6s, ov, 6, "a phindering," iyjo?/, 

a)!, object of eager desire, Phil. ii. 6. 
apTrd^u), daai (2 aor. pass., i]pTrdyr]v), to 

snatch, seize violently, take by force; 

to carry off suddenly, 
apwa^, ayos, adj., rapacious, ravening, 

appa^iiv, Sivos, 6 (from Heb. ), a pledge, 

an earnest, ratifying a contract. 
&fipa(pos, Of, not scanned or sewn. 
iippT]v, (V (or dparp', ev), of the male 

&pp7]Tos, OV, sidj., unspoken, unspeakable, 

2 Cor. xii. 4. 
Uppccaros, ov, adj. {pwvvvpi), infirm, sick. 
dpcevo-KoiTT)!, ov, m. (apariv koItt]), a 

'ApTtpas, a, 6, Artemas, Titus iii. 12. 
"ApTipis, i5os or 10s, ?;, Artemis (by the 

Latins called Diana), the heathen 

deity of hunting ; also, the goddess 

of the Moon. She was worshijjped 
at Ei)hesus as "the pei-souification 
of the fructifying and all-nourishiu"- 
powers of nature." 

dpT€fj.o}v, ovos, m. {iprdw, to suspend), 
prob. the foresail). Acts xxvii. 40. 

aprt, adv. of time, noiv, a ready, lately, 
loell nigh; with other particles, as 
eois dpTi, till now ; air' apTi,fror,i noiv 
or hencfforioard. 

dpTi-yivvr\To<i, ov, new- or recently born, 
I Pet. ii. 2. 

apTios, ov, adj., perfect, complete, want- 
ing in nothing, 2 Tim. iii. 17. 

dpros, ov, 6, bread, loaf or cake of 
bread, food, necessaries of life ; fig. , 
spiritual nutriment. 

dpTvoo {dpca, to fit), to season, to flavour, 
as with salt; fig., Col. iv. 6. 

'Apcpa^dS, 6 (Heb.), Arpliaxad. 

dpx-dyyehos, ov, 6, an arch- or chief - 
angel, i Thess. iv. 16; Jude 9. 

hpxaios, a, ov, old, ancient. 

'Apxe^ans, ov, 6, Archelaus, Matt. ii. 22. 

dpxv, v^, f., beginning, as of time or 
s])ace ; the outermost point. Acts 
X. II. So often absolutely, "the 
beginning." Aj^plied to the com- 
mencement of anything. Used of 
Christ, Col. i. 18; Eev. iii. 14, 
xxi. 6, xxu. i;^. Met., pre-eminence. 6. apxca, pi., rulers ; ctt' a.pxr]S, 
from Uie ()egbimng, i.e., from eternity, 
from the first, as to any particular 
thing ; iv dpxv, in the beginning, i.e., 
of all things, or of the Gospel dis- 
pensation ; e| apxv^, from the begin- 
ning or from ihe first ; Kar' dpxdi, 
attltebeginning, rrivdpxvv, originally. 

dpx-vy^^, ov, 6{dpxv, dyw), tliebeginner, 
i.e., author or leader, captain. 

apx-i<paTiK6s, 7], 6v, belonging to the office 
of the high p)riest, pontificed. 

apx-tfpevs, 60)?, 6, (i) the high priest , 
so of Christ ; (2) a chief priest, i.e., 
the head priest in his class. See 
I Chron. xxi v. 4-18. 

apxi-TToiprji; evos, 6, the chief shepherd, 
a title of Christ, i Pet. v. 4. 

"'ApxiTTTos, ov, 6, Archippus. 

ipXi-ffuvdyaiyos, ov, 6, presiding officer 
of a syiiagogue. 



[dpxi-TSKTwv — d-cruv9«T0S 

af)X'"'''f''""'>"') ovos, 6, a head builder, an 

architect, i Cor. iii. lo. 
apx'-ri\(ii/rj^, ov, 6, a chief farmer or 

collector of taxes, a chief publican. 
apx^-'rpiKKti'os, ov, 6, a president <f a 

apxctf, to reign, to rule (gen.) ; mid., to 

begin, often with intiu. ; also to 

venture, attempt, as Mark x. 28. 

ap^d/xii/os airS, beginning ivith. 
&PXt>iv, cvTos, d, 2>rop. particip., ruler, 

chief person, prince, magistrate. 
&pai/j.a, aros, t6, spicenj, an aromatic. 
'Aad (Heb.), Asa, Matt. i. 7. 
d-o-a'AeuTos, ov, unshaken, immovable. 
&-(T/3ecrTos, ov, adj. [aB^vvvm), not to be 

quenched, inextinguishable, 
aak^iia, as, r], impiety, ungodliness, 

wickedness. See Synonyms. 
aaeBeuD, u, ijaoi, to act or live impioushj, 

d-(7e;84r, es {ae^o/xat), impious, ungodly, 

a-afKyaa, as, r), excess, insolence, licen- 
tiousness, debauchery. 
&-ar]/xos,not remarkable, obscure, ignoble, 

Acts xxi. 39. 
'Aaiip, 6, Asher, Luke ii. 36 ; E.ev. 

vii. 6. 
aTdfveia, as, 7], weakness, bodily infir- 
mity, sickness ; ti;^. , mental depression, 

aaQiVico, 5>, to he weak, sick, faint ; fig. , 

to be fainthearted, 2 Cor. xi. 21. 
affdevTijia, aTOS, r6, infirmity ; fig. , 

mental or morcd weakness. 
a.-(jQivr)s, is (trfleVos, strength), "without 

strength," ^^^ea^•, infirm, sickly; fig., 

fa inthearted, afiiicted. 
Aaia, as, r), Asia, i.e., that district in 

the W. of Asia Minor afterwards 

called Proconsular Asia, with Ephe- 

sus its capital, Acts xix. 10, 22 ; 

Rev. i. 4, II, &c. 
hatavos, ov, 0, belonging to Asia, Acts 

XX. 4. 

'htjia.px'')^, o^'-i o, an Asiarch; one of 
ten appointed to preside over the 
worship and celebrations in honour 
of the gods, Acts xix. 3 1. 

dtriTia, as, i] {ff7Tos, com), abstinence, a 
fast, Acts XX vii. 21. 

&-rTtTos, ov, fasting, Acts xxvii. 33. 

a.TK€u, w, T^ata, to exercise one's self, 
exert diligence in, Acts xxi v. 16. 

aaKSs, ov, 6, a bottle of skin, Matt, 
ix. 17; Mark ii. 22; Luke v. 37. 

aafifvcvs, adv. (from part, of ijSo/^ai), 
with joy, gladly, Acts xxi. 17. 

&-ao(pos, ov, not wise, Eph. v. 15. 

aaird^o/xai, dep., to embrace, salute ; 
to greet with a welcome when pre- 
sent, with affection where not pre- 
sent ; to take leave of, to receive with 
pleasure, a.s the promises of the 

anircLafids, ov, 6, salutation, greeting. 

&-a-jnAos, ov, ov {airiAos), without spot, 

aairis, iSos, 7;, an asp, a venomous sei'- 
pent, Eom. iii. 13. 

&-airov5os, ov (airovSr)), "not to be bound 
by truce, " implacable. 

aaadpiuv, iov, t6, a small coin equal to 
the sixteenth part of a denarius, 
an as. See 154, a. 

aaaov, adv. (compar. of ^7x1)5 nearer, 
very nigli, close by, Acts xxvii. 13. 

"Ao-ffoy, ov, T], Assos, Acts XX. 13. 

d-aTario}, u, ria-w, to be unsettled, to have 
no fixed abode. 

d<TTe7os, ov {arTTv, city), fair, beautiful. 

darrip, epos, 6, a star. In Jude 13, a 
meteor, or perha|is comet. 

d-arripiKTos, adj. (arripi^o}), unsettled, 
unstable, i Pet. ii. 14, iii. 16. 

a-ffTopyos, ov {crropyi)), without natural 
affection, i. 31; 2 Tim. iii. 3. 

d-cTToxew, &} {(TToxos), to miss in aim, 
swerve from, i Tim. i. 6, vi. 21; 
2 Tim. ii. 18. 

daTpairri, f;j, i], lightning, vivid bright- 
ncs, lustre. 

darpdinw, to flash, as lightning, Luke 
xvii. 24 ; to be lustrous, xxiv. 4. 

&aTpov, ov, -16, a constellation, star. 

'AavyKpnos, ov, 6, Asyncrltus, E,om. 
xvi. 14. 

a-avp-cpuivos, ov, dissonant, discordant, 
Acts xxviii. 25. 

a-(jvvtTos, ov, tvithout understanding, 
foolish, impious. 

a-avvde7os,ov, covenant-breaking, treach- 
erous, Horn. i. 31. 


dcrdjaXeia — aixfitipogl 



a(T<pd\eia, as, fj, security, Acts v. 23 ; 
I Thess. V. 3 ; certaintij, Luke i. 4. 

a-ccpaXris , h (tn^aAAo), fallo), firm, Heb. 
vi. 19; confirmatory (with dat. ), 
Phil. iii. I ; certain, truthful, Acts 
XXV. 26. rb aa<pa\€s, the certainty. 
Adv., -as, safely, certainly. 

aa<pa\l(a}, aai, to make fast, to secure. 

a.a-)(r\\J^ovi(>i, w, to act improperly or un- 
seemly, 1 Cor. xiii. 5 ; with eVi 
(ace), vii. 36. 

aaxvi^oavvr], rjy, fi, lewdness, Rom. i. 27; 
the shame of nakedness. Rev. xvi. 15. 

A.-rrxvf^ooi', ov (ax^fJ-a), uncomely, inde- 
corous, 1 Cor. xii. 23. 

a-aonia, as, rj {<tw(oi), an abandoned 
course, profligacy. 

a-ffccTojs, adv., profligately, dissolutely, 
Luke XV. -13. 

aTUKTeu, w, to behave disorderly, 2 Thess. 
iii. 7. 

S-TOKToj, ov {rdaaca), irregular, disor- 
derly, I Thess. V. 14. Adv., -ws, dis- 
orderly, irregularly, 2 Thess. iii. 6, 1 1. 

S-Te/cTO?, 01', 6, ^ {t(kvov), childless, 
Luke XX. 28, 30. 

dT6i'i'^a>, (70!, to look intently upon. 

a.T€p, adv., as prep, with gen., ivifhouf, 
in the absence of, Luke xxii. 6, 35. 

ari/xafco, aw, to dishonour, contemn, 
whetiier persons or things, by word 
or by deed. 

aTifxia, as, 7], dishonour, ignominy, dis- 
grace, ignoble use. 

a-Tlfxos, ov {nixTi), contemned, despised. 

aTlfidcti, w (or -ioi, Lachmann), to dis- 
honour, treat vnth inngnity, Mark 
xii. 4. 

oLTjuis, i5oy, T), a va.pour, James iv. 14 ; 
of dense smoke. Acts ii. 19, from 
Joel ii. 30. 

h-TOfiov, ou, TO {t4jj.voi)), an atom of time, 

1 Cor. XV. 52. 

&-Toiros, ov {rdwos), misplaced, unbe- 
coming, mischievous. 
'ArrdXeia, as, 7j, Attalia, Acts xiv. 25. 
avya^ai, to shine upon, to erUighten (dat. j, 

2 Cor. iv. 4. 

avjT], rjs, 7], splendour, daybreak. Acts 

XX. I I. 

Ay^ouiTTos, ov, & (Lat.), Augustus, Luke 
ii. I. Compare Se^aards. 

avddSris, fs {avrSs, fjSo^ai), self- pleasing, 
an-ogant, Titus i. 7 ; 2 Pet. ii. 10. 

avdaipeTos, ov (aiiTds, alpfofiai), of on^s 
own accord, 2 Cor. viii. 3, 17. 

avdevrfoi, u, to exercise authority over 
(gen.), I Tim. ii. 12. 

avXeai, w, riaa, to play on a pipe or flute. 

avKi), T)s, ri {^oi, to blow), (i) an open 
space, court, fold ; (2) a hall, court, 
as of justice. 

av\T]T^s, ov, 6, a player on a pipe or 
flute, ]\Iatt. ix. 23 ; Rev. xviii. 22. 

av\i(ii/ (to lodge in the open air), to 
lodge, take up a temporary abode. 

av\6s, ov, 6 (aa)), a flute, piipie, I Cor. 
xiv. 7. 

av^dvca, also ai/|£o, av^Tiau, trans., to 
make to grow; pass., to arrive at 
maturity ; intraus., to grow, increase. 

av^r}TLs, iccs, t}, growth, increase. 

avpiov, adv. {avpa, morning breeze, &a>), 
to-morrow ; rj {r]fj.epa, so.) avpiov, the 

aixTTTipos, a, 6v, (dry) harsh, austere, 
Luke xix. 21, 22. 

avrdpiceia, as, tj, sufficiency, 2 Cor. ix. 8 ; 
contentment, 1 Tim. vi. 6. 

avT-dpK7]s, es {apKeijo), content, satisfied 
(sutticient to self), Phil. iv. 11. 

avTo-Kard-KptTos, ov, self- condemned, 
Titus iii. 1 1. 

avTSfidros, ov, spontaiieous, of its own 
accord, Mark i v. 28; Acts xii. 10. 

avT-6TZT7)s, ov, 6, an eye-witness, Luke i. 2. 

avTos, % 6, jiron., he, she, it. Properly 
demonstrative, self, very ; joinetl 
with each of the persons, / myself, 
thou thyself ; «itli the article, the 
same; with a dat., indicating like- 
ness. Acts xiv. I ; I Cor. xi. 5. firX 
TO o.vt6, Kara rb avri, together, for 
the same purpose or at the same time 
or place. See 335. 

avTov, Tjs, ov, pron. reflex, (contr. for 
eauToD), of himself, herself, &c. 

avTov, adv., of place, here, there. 

avr6-(pa)pos, ou {(pup, a thief), in the 
very act, John viii. 4; (iri, with 
neut. dat. 

aliTO-x^ip, adj., acting with one's own, 
hands. Acts xxvii. 19. 

avx/J-vpiis, d, 6v, dark, dismal, 2 Pet. i. 19. 



d4>-aipeo> — S-XP^ 

a.<p-aipeai, i2, to take away, as sin, Rom. 
xi. 27, &c. ; to cat off, as the ear, 
Matt. xxvi. 5 r. 
a-faui^s, is {<pa\.va)),not appearin(i, Iddden, 
Heb. iv. 13. 

a.-<piivi^o), to put out of sight, to disfigure ; 
pass., to vanish, perish. 

a-ipay^a/xos, ov, 6, a disappearing ; spec, 
the abrogation of a covenant, Heb. 
viii. 13. 

a-<pavTus, Of, disappearing, not seen, 

Luke xxiv. 3 1. 
a.(pi^f)ilov, 03V0S, 6, " draught," latrine. 
Matt. xv. 17; Mark vii. 19. 

a-(^si5ia, as, tj ((pelSofMai), severity. Col. 
ii. 23. 

a.(pi\6Ti]s, rriros, simplicity, sincerity, 
Acts ii. 46. 

cKp-eais, fojs, f. (ac^iTjjiii), deliverance, 
Luke iv. 18 ; remission, pardon of 
sins. Matt. xxvi. 28, &c. 

acpii, r}s, 7] (oTTToi, to fit), that which con- 
nects a joint, a ligature. 

a-cpdapaia, as, r], incorruption, immor- 
tality, I Coi'. XV. ; Itom. ii. 7 ; 2 Tim. 
i. 10; perpetuitii, E]ih. vi. 24. 

a-<p2apTos, ov {(pdeipco), incorriiptihle, im- 
niortal, as God, iiotn. i. 23 ; i Tim. 
i. 17; the bodies of the saints, 
I Cor. XV. 52 ; unperisldng, i Cor. 
ix. 25, &c. 

a(j)-i7],ai (see 112), to send away, as 
(1) to let go, emit, dismiss, in senses 
varying according to the obj. ; spec, 
to disregard, pass by, send away, 
dioorce ; hence (2) to forgive, very 
often ; (3) to permit, concede, abs., or 
vi'ith inf., or ace (dat.. Matt. v. 40), 
or 'iva, subj., or subj. alone; (4) to 
leave, depart from, abandon, leave 
behind, as at death. 

o.(, ovfiai (2 aor. , acplKoirqv), to 
reach; to go abroad, as a report, 
Rom. xvi. 19. 

a.-ipiX-d'yados, ov, not loving goodness or 
good men, 2 Tim. iii. 3. 

a-(pt\-dpyvpos, ov, not loving money, not 
covetous, I Tim. iii. 3 ; Heb. xiii. 5. 

&<pi^is, ecos, r], "arrival;" hence depar- 
ture. Acts XX. 29. 

ap-laTq/xi, aTTouTTiocii, trans, in pres. , 
imi)erf., i aor., tut., to lead away. 

to seduce; intrans. in perf., plup., 
, 2 aor., to go aivay, depart, avoid, 
ivithdraw from (often with oTro) ; 
mid., to fail, abstain from, absent 
one^s self. 

ix(pvw, adv., suddenly. Acts xvi. 26. 

a-(p60uis, adv., luithout fear. 

a.(p-o,uoi6a!, a>, to make like, iu pass., 
Heb. vii. 3. 

a^-opdoD, S>, to look mvay from others 
at one (ets); to comider attentively, 
Heb. xii. 2. 

a<p-op[(^a), fut. jw, to separate from, (ere 
or o.tt6) ; trans., to separate for a 
purpose (els or inf.) ; to excommu- 
nicate, Luke vi. 22. 

a</)-op^i'), TJs, T), an occasion, opportunity, 
Rom. vii. 8 ; 2 Cor. xi. 12. 

acppi^o}, to foam at the mouth, Mark 
ix. 18, 20. 

acppSs, ov, d, foam, froth, Luke ix. 39. 

a-(ppo(Tvv7], i)s, T], folly, boasting, levity. 

&-(ppicv, ovos, 6, 7] {(ppw), unwise, incon- 
siderate, foolish, destitide of religion. 

a'p-v-Kvia, a (aTr6 intensive), to sleep 

a-cpccvos, ov, mute, without expression ; of 
idols, 1 Cor. xii. 2 ; of animals, 2 Pet. 
ii. 16 ; of the lamb, Acts viii. 32. 

"AxaC o (Heb.), Achaz, Matt. i. 9. 

'Axai-'a, as, 7], Achaia, the Roman pro- 
vince of Greece, including Corinth 
and its isthmus. 

'Axai/cJy, ov, o, Achaicus, i Cor. 
xvi. 17, 15. 

d-XapicTos, ov, unthankful, Luke vi. 35; 
2 Tim. iii. 2. 

'Axe'M> " (Heb.), Achim, Matt. i. 14. 

cL-xn-po-irolriTos, ov, not made by hands. 

ax^vs, vos, T), a thick mist, darkness, 
Acts xiii. 1 1. 

d-Xpei^os, ov, slothful, doing no good, 
unprofitable, Matt. xxv. 30, Luke 
xvii. 10. 

a-xpeioo), S>, to become useless or corrupt. 

a-xpriTTos, ov, useless, unprofitable, 
Philemon 1 1. 

&XP^ 'iiid ^XP'^> ^^^- ^s prep., with 
gen., to, unto, as far as, whether of 
]ilace, time, or degree. ^XP'* °" <^^ 
&XPi-^ alone, with the force of a con- 
junction, until. See /ut'xpi. 

£x.^pov — Eap-vdpas] 



S.X'jpov, ov, t6, chaff, straw, Matt. iii. 12 ; 
Luke iii. 17. 

a-{l/(v5r,s, e'?, free from, falsehood, truth- 
ful, Titus i. 2. 

oL\i/iudos, ov, 7], wormwood, Eev. viii. 11. 

a-^^vxos, ov, loithout life, inanimate, 
I Cor. xiv. 7. 

B, /3, )3i)Ta, heta, b, the second letter. 

Numerally, /3''=2; ;3,= 2ooo. 
Baa\, o, ^ (Heb.. Master), Baal, chief 

deity of the Phoeuicians ; the Sun, 

Rom. xi. 4 (fern.), from i Kings 

xix. 18. 
Ea/Si'Acoj', iiuoi, 7) (Heb., cmf union. 

Gen. X. 7), Babi/lon, lit.. Matt. 

i. 1 1, &c. ; Acts vii. 43 ; and prob. 

1 Pet. V. 1 3 ; mystically for Rome, as 
the enemy of the Church, Rev. xiv. 

^adp-os, ov, 6 (Baivu), to step), a step or 
degree in dignity, i Tim. iii. 13. 

Pddos, ovs, r6, depth or height, lit. or 
fig. ; met., of great extremity, as 

2 Cor. viii. 2. 

Padvvui, vvai, to dig deep, Luke vi. 48. 

Badvi, e7a, v, deep, John iv. 11; of 
twilight, Luke xxiv. i ; " the early 

Pdl'ov, ov, t6, branch, spec, of the palm, 
John xii. 13. 

BaAaaju, 6 (Heb.), Balaam. A name 
emblematic of seducing teachers, 
2 Pet. ii. 15 ; Rev. ii. 14. 

Ea\d.K, 6 (Heb.), Balalc, Rev. ii. 14. 

^oKavTiov, ov, t6, a money bag or purse. 

jBaAAo), fiaKw. p4B\7iKa, 'ifiaXov, to throiu, 
cast, put (with more or less force, as 
modified by the context). Pass. 
reflex., as Matt. xxi. 21, cast thyself; 
or (i)erf. ) with intrans. force, as 
Matt. viii. 6 ("has been cast"), 
lieth. The verb is intrans.. Acts 
xxvii. 14, rushed. In Mark xiv. 65, 
the true reading is prob. iKa^ov. 
Generally trans, with ace. and dat., 
or eVi (ace, sometimes gen.), e.'s, 
OTTO, eV, and other prepp. or advv. 
Of liquids, to pour. Matt. xxvi. 12. 

jSaTTTifoi, (TO) (in form a frequentative 
of iSoirrai, see 114, b), (i) mid. or 

])ass. , reflex., to bathe one's self, 
Mark vii, 4; (2) of the Christian 
ordinance, to baptize. The material 
is expressed by dat., eis or iv ; 
the purpose or result by ils. Pass, 
or mid., to be baptised, to receive 
baptism; (3) fig., of overwhelm- 
ing woe, Luke xii. 50 ; Matt. xx. 
22, 23. 
pdrTTi<T/j.a, aros, to, the rite or ceremovy 
of baptism ; fig. , for overwhelming 
afiliatious, Matt. xx. 22, 23. 
PaitTinfj.6s, ov, 6, the act of cleansing, 
as vessels, Mark vii. 4, 8 ; of Jewish 
lustrations, Heb. ix. lo. For Heb. 
vi. 2, see 260, b, 2 (b). 
PaTTTLa-T-ns, ov, 6, one who baptizes; the 
surname of John, Christ's fore- 
pdmic, /Sai|(co, to dip, dye or tinge, Mark 

xiv. 20; Rev. xix. 13. 
Bap-, an Aramrean prefix to many sur- 
names, meaning Son of. 
Bap-aP^us, a, 6, Barabbas. Some 
ancient MSS. and other authorities 
give his name as Jesus. 
Bapdic, 6, Barak, Heb. xi. 32. 
Bap-ax'ia^, ov, rj, Barachias, Matt, 
xxiii. 35. Some think it a surname 
of Jehuiada, 2 Chron. xxiv. 20. 
pdpliapos, ov, 6, properly adj., a 
foreigner, i Cor. xiv. 1 1. So called 
by the Greeks in derision of their 
language, as if bar, bar! Acts 
xxviii. 2, 4 ; Rom. i. 14. 
;8apeu), u) (cf. pdpos), in N.T. only pass. 
liapiofjLai, ov/xai, to be weighed down, 
to be oppressed, as by sleep, Luke 
ix. 32 ; excess or anxious care, Luke 
xxi. 34; calamity or afiliction, 2 Cor. 
i. 8, V. 4 ; expense, i Tim. v. 16. 
fiapiws, adv., heavily or luith difficulty. 
Matt. xiii. 15; Acts xxviii. 27, from 
Isa. vi. 10. 
Bap-doKo/xaios, ov, 6, Bartholomew, sur- 
name (prob.) of Nathanael. 
Bap-irjaovs, oO, o, Bar-jesvs, Acts xiii. 6. 
Bap-i£oj/as, a, 6, Bar-jonas, surname of 

Peter, Matt. xvi. 17. 
Bap-i'd^ai, a, 6, Barnabas, "Son of 
exhortation" or " comfort." See 



[pdpos — p8eXvY|xa 

pipo^, ovs, tS, weight, burden, as of toil, 
jNI att. XX. 1 2 ; of ceremonial require- 
ment, Acts XV. 28 ; of authority, 
I Tliess. ii. 6 ; of abundance or ful- 
ness, 2 Cor. iv. 17. 

Bap (xajSas, o, o, Barsahas. Two are 
mentioned. Acts i. 23, xv. 22. 

'Ba.p-Tlfx.aio^, ov, 6, Bartimceus. 

/Sapi's, eTa, v (cf. jScipoj), (r) hfiavy. Matt, 
xxiii. 4; (z) important, Matt.xxiii.23; 
(3) cjrievous or oppressive, i John v. 3 ; 
(^) fierce, severe. Acts xx. 29. 

papu-Ttixos, ov, of great %>ri<x. Matt. 
xxvi. 7. 

Panravi^co (cf. $a(Tavos), to examine, as 
by torture ; hence to afflict ivith pain, 
vex, harass ; pass. , to be tossed, as 
by waves in a storm. 

Pa(TavuTiJL6s, oO, 6, torture, sharp pain. 

fiarTaviarri!, uv, 6, one 2vho tortures, a 
jailer. Matt, xviii. 34. 

^daauos, ov, rj (lit., a. touchstone), tor- 
ture, the torment or sharp 2^(''in of 
disease, Matt. iv. 24 ; of punish- 
ment, Luke xvi. 23, 28. 

PdffiAeia. as, 7], a kingdom, province of 
a kingdom. Matt. iv. 8 ; royal poiver 
or dignify, reign. t] ^am\fia. rod 
6eov, rod xP"'"''o5, rZy ovpavS>v (the 
last form only in Matt.), th.e divine, 
spiritual hingdom, or reign of Mes- 
siah, in the world, in the individual, 
or in the future state. vlo\ ry\s 
fiaaiKiioLs, sons of the kingdom., Jews, 
its origiiual possessors. Matt. viii. 12; 
true believers, Matt. xiii. 38. In 
Rev. i. 6, V. lo, for /SatnAeTs Koi, the 
best editors read ^aaiMiav, a king- 
dom consisting of priests. 

Pa(Tl\eios. ov, royal, regal, i Pet. ii. 9, 
from Exod. xix. 6. to PaaiXna, as 
subst., a regal mansion, palace, 
Luke vii. 25. 

/SaffiAfus, fws, 6, a leader, rider, king, 
sometimes subordinate to higher 
authority, as the Hei'ods. Apjtlied 
to (rod, always with distinguishing 
epithets. Matt. v. 3 5 ; i Tim. i. 1 7, 
vi. 15; Rev. XV. 3, xvii. 14; to the 
Messiah. John i. 50, &c. ; to Chris- 
tians, llev. i. 6, V. 10 (rec, but see 
on jSacrtAsia). 

Pa(Ti\evw, eiarea {-ef), to have autJiority, 
to reign, or to possess or exercise 
dominion ; to be PaaiXevs generally. 
With eVi (gen.), of the kingdom; 
i-rri (ace. ), of the ]iersons governed. 

Pa(Ti\iK6s, it, ov, adj., belonging to a 
king, royal; as a courtier, John 
iv. 46, 49 ; a territory, Acts xii. 20 ; 
apparel, Acts xii. 21. Fig., James 
ii. 8, of law, all-commanding. 

fiacriXicrffa, r;?, r], a queen. Matt. xii. 42 ; 
Acts viii. 27. 

^da-is, ecus, iiiBaivas). that which supports 
the steps ; hence the foot, Acts iii. 7. 

PacTKaivco, avw, to beicitch, bring under 
nudign influence, ^'■fascinate,", mis- 
lead. Gal. iii. i. 

PacrTaCoi, d(jta, to lift, lift up; often 
with the sense of bearing away. 
Thus, (i) to carry, as a burden, Luke 
xiv. 27; John xix. 17; sandals. 
Matt. iii. 11 ; (2) to take on one's 
self, as disease or weaknesses, Rom. 
XV. I ; condemnation. Gal. v. 10 ; 
reproach. Gal. vi, 17 ; (3) to bear, 
as tidings, Acts ix. 15 ; (4) to bear 
ivith or endure, Rev. ii. 2 ; (5) ^0 take 
away. Matt. viii. 17 ; John xii. 6. 

faro's, ov, 6, 7;, a thorn-bush or bramble, 
Luke XX. 37; Acts vii. 30, 35. "The 
Bush," Mark xii. 26 ; Luke xx. 37, 
denotes the section of the 0. T. so 
called (Ex. iii.) 

Pdros, ov, 6 (Heb.), a bath, or Jewish 
measui-e for liquids containing "jl 
gallons, Luke xvi. 6. 

pdrpaxo?, ov, 6, afrog. Rev. xvi. 13. 

PaTTO-Aoyea), a (prob. from Bar-, au 
immeaning sound ; cf . pdp^apos), to 
bttbble, talk to no purpose. Matt. vi. 7. 

PheXvyfj.a, a-ros, r6 (cf. fiSeXvffcraj), 
something unclecm and abominable, 
Luke xvi. 1 5 ; spec, (as often in O. T. ) 
idolatry, as accompanied by im- 
purity. Rev. xvii. 4, 5, xxi. 27. 
"Abomination of desolation," Matt, 
xxiv. 1 5, from Dan. ix. 27, refers to 
the pollution of the temple by some 
idolatrous symbol (by Antiochus 
Ejiiphanes, afterwards by the Ro- 
mans) ; whether image, altar, or 
military standard, is uncertain. 

pSeXvKTos — BXdo-Tos] 



j85eAi;«T(5j, ii, 6u, disgusting, abominable, 
Titus i. i6. 

pSe>vaffw, ^eo, to defile, only mid. ; to 
loathe, Rom. ii. 22 ; and pass. perf. 
part., defiled, Rev. xxi. 8. 

jSe'/Saios, a, ov, steadfitst, constant, firm. 

jSeySaiJcu, a>, to Confirm, to establish, whe- 
ther of persons or things. 

pf^aiaxxts, ecus, 7], confirmation, Phil. 
i. 7 ; Heb. vi. 16. 

iSf'jSrjAoj, oj/ (/3a- in ^ahca, "that on 
which any one may stej)"), common, 
unsanctifitd, i:)rofane, of things or 

/3e^7jA(i&j, S>, to make common, to jwo- 
Jane, as the Sabbath, Matt. xii. 5 ; 
or the tenn)le, Acts xxiv. 6. 

Be€\-fe/3ouA., 6 (Heb.), Beclzebul, "Lord 
of dung," a contem])taous play upon 
Beelzebub, " Lord of flies," the 
Ekronite deity (2 Kings i. 2), ap- 
])lied to Satan, as the ruler of the 

BeAi'aA., o (Heb., perverseness, malice), 
or BeAi'ap, "Lord of forests" or 
"thickets," a name for Satan, 2Cor. 
vi. 15. 

;8e'Aos, ous, t6 (/SaAAcij), ffl missde, such 
AH a javelin or dart, Eph. vi. 16. 

PiKriuiv, ov, ovos (a compar. of a7a0os), 
better. Adverbially, 2 Tim. i. 18. 

Bev-tafj.iu, 6 (Heb., .Sew = sou), Ben- 

Bfp^'iKT), 7]^, T], Bernice. 

BeVoia, as, Beraa. 

BepoiaTos, a, or, Beroean. 

B77t»-, a Hebrew prefix to many local 
names, meaning House or Abode of. 

Br]d-a^apd, as, r], Betliabara, "house 
of the ford," John i. 28. Some read 

Brje-aj/i'a, as, r), Bethany, "house of 
dates." There were two places of 
the name : (i) John xi., &c. ; (2) on 
the Jordan (?), John i. 28. See 

B-nd-^aSd, as, 7), Bethesda, "house of 
compassion," John v. 2. 

Brid-A^ffj., v, Bethlehem, "house of 

B7j9-(7ai5a, 7), Beihsaida, "house of 
hunting" or "fishing." There were 

two places of the name : one in 
Galilee, John xii. 21 ; the other on 
the east of the Jordan, Luke ix. 10, 

B7j0-<^a7T7, 7), Bethpliage, "house of 

^TJ^a, aros, ri {Ba- in Baivai), a step ; a 
space, with TroSds, for the foot. Acts 
vii. 5 ; a raised space or bench, as a 
tribunal. Matt, xxvii. 19; or throne, 
Acts xii. 21. 

l3fipv'A\os, ov, u, 71, a beryl, a gem of 
greenish hue, Kev. xxi. 20. 

/Si'a, as, 7], force, violence. 

PidCw, to use violence; mid., to enter 
forcibly, with tls, Luke xvi. 16; 
pass., to suffer violence, to be as- 
saulted, ]\Iatt. xi. 12. 

/Si'aios, a, oy, violent, vehement. Acts 
ii. 2. 

0ia<jTris, od, 6, one tvho employs force. 
Matt. xi. 12; of those who were 
eagerly entering Messiah's kingdom. 

BiB>^apiSiov, ov, a little book. Rev. x. 

/3i/3A(oy, ov, t6 (dim. of following), (i)a 
roll, book, volume, as Luke iv. 17 ; 
Rev. V. I ; (2) a scroll, a billet, as 
Matt. xix. 7. 

$l0\os, ov, 6, a written book, 7-oll, or 
volume. The word means the iuner 
bark or rind, of which ancient 
bonks were made. 

BiBp^o-Ko) {Bpo-), perf. P^BpwKa, to eat, 
John vi. 13. 

Bidvvia, as, tj, Bithynia. 

fiios, ov, 6, (i) life, Luke \nii. 14; 

(2) means of life, Luke viii. 43; 

(3) goods or j^roperty, Luke xv. 12 ; 
I John iii. 17. See Synonyms. 

/3i((a), w, to 2XISS one's life, i Pet. iv. 2. 
piwcrts, €0)5, ■^, Tnanner or habit of life. 

Acts xxvi. 4. 
/3ia)TiK(^s, 7], iv, of or belonging to life, 

Luke xxi. 34 ; i Cor. vi. 3, 4. 
B^a^fpAs, adj., hurtful, i Tim. vi. 9. 
/SAaiTTti) [BhaB-], jSAai^co, to liurt or 

injure, Mark xvi. 18 ; Luke iv. 35. 
BAanrduco (or B^aardw, Mark iv. 27), 

/SAaCTTrjffW) ( I ) intrans. , to sprout, to 

spring up, as a j)lant or corn ; (2) 

trans., to pxd forth, as buds, Matt. 

xiii. 26 ; Heb. ix. 4. 
BAacTTos, ov, 0, Blastus, Acts xii. 20. 



[pXaer^-n p.j w — Pp ax^wv 

I3\aa(priix(<», w, to npeak calumniovsly, 
as Acts xiii. 45 ; to caluviniate, speak 
evil of with ace. or els; often of 
men or things. Spec, of God, Acts 
xix. 37 ; the Holy Spirit, Lulie 
xii. 10 ; the Divine name or doc- 
trine, I Tim. vi. I. 
/SAao-^rjMio, as, rj, evil-speaking, reviling, 

fi\d(T(f>rifxos, ov, slanderous, reproachful. 
Subst., a rev'der, i.e., one who speaks 
evil of God or man, 

^Xijx^a, uTos, t6, seeing, the thing seen, 
2 Pet. ii. S. 

jSA.€7ra), ^u>, to see, to have the 2>ower of 
seeing, to look at attentively ; with 
eis, to regard partially, Ma,tt. xxii. 16; 
with 'Iva or fxr), to take care (once 
without, Maik xiii. 9) ; witli air6, to 
beware of; once v/ith Kara (ace), 
geographically, to look towards. Acts 
xxvii, 12. 

PXt]t€os, 4a, eov, a verbal adj. [^dwoi), 
that ought to he put. 

'Boavep-)4s (Heb. ), Boanerges, "Sons of 
thunder," Mark iii. 17. 

;8oda>, S) {ko-i}), to shout for joy. Gal. 
iv. 2.J ;' to cry for grief. Acts viii. 7 ; 
to publish openly, to cry aloud; with 
Trp6s (ace), to appeal to, Lidie 
xviii. 7, 38. 

j8oi7, i]s, 7], a loud cry, James v. 4. 

^oTjdeia, as, i], help, succour. Acts 
xxvii. 17; Heb. iv. 16. 

PorjOfco, S), to go to the help of, to suc- 
cour (dat. ) 

^orjQ6s, ov, 6, 7] (properly adj. ), a lielper, 
Heb. xiii. 6. 

^/idvvos, ov, 6, a cavity, ditch or well. 

pioK-l], rjs, ■>), C' tlirowing ; Xidov ^o\y], a 
.s<o«e'.s- throw, Luke xxii. 41. 

PoAiCci), aw, to heave the lead, to fathom. 
Acts xxvii. 28, twice. 

j3o\is, i5os, 7], « weapon thrown, as a 
dart or javelin, Heb. xii. 20. 

Bodf, 6 (Heb. ), £ooz or Boaz. 

fiSpkopos, ov, 6, dirt, mire, filth, 1 Pet. 
ii. 22. 

Bo^pas, a, 6 (Boreas, the north wind), 
the North, Luke xiii. 29 ; Rev. 
xxi. 13. 

^6<xKa), 7}aw, to tend, to tend in feeding, 

to take diligent care of, Matt. viii. 3 3 ; 

Joha XXL 15, 17; mid., to feed, 

graze, Mark v. 1 1. 
^oiTop, 6 (Heb., Beor), Bosor, 2 Pet. 

ii. 15. 
PordvT], 7jy, r] (jSo'cr/ccu), herbage,pasturage, 

Heb. vi. 7. 
^1)7 pvs, vos, 6, a cluster of grapes. Rev. 

xiv. 18. 
l3ovXevr7]s, ov, 6, a counsellor, a senator, 

Mark xv. 43 ; iLuke xxiii. 50. 
^ovKfhw, aca, to advise, N.T. mid. only; 

(i) to consult, to ddiberate, with e(, 

Luke xiv. 31; (2) to resolve on or 

purpose, with inf.. Acts v. 33 ; iVa, 

John xii. 10; ace, 2 Cor. i. 17. 
^ouX)), 7JS, 7], a dedgn, decree, jjurpose, 

plan, Luke vii. 30; Acts xxvii. 42. 
^uvX7)jxa, aros, t6 [jiovAofiai) , the thing 

willed or purposed. Acts xxvii. 43 ; 

Rom. ix. 19. 
Pou\, 2nd pers. sing. ^ovKei for 

^ovXri, aug. in tenses with i or rj, 

to vjill, as (i) to be willing, to incline 

to, Mark xv. 15; (2) to intend, Matt. 

i. 19; (3) to aim at, i Tim. vi. 9. 

Generally with inf., sometimes un- 
derstood, as James i. 18; withsubj., 

John xviii. 39. See Synonyms. 
fiovv6s, ov, b, a hill, rising ground, Luke 

iii. 5 ; xxiii. 30. 
jSuOs, ^o6s (of-), 6, 7], an animal of .the 

ox kind, male or female. 
Ppa^uov, ov, t6, the prize, in a conflict, 

I Coi-. ix. 24; the future reward, 

Phil. iii. 14. 
PpaBsiu (lit., to act as arbiter in the 

games), to pi-evail or govern. Col. 

iii. 15. 
fipaSvvco, vS) (^paSvs), to delay, to he 

slow, I Tim. iii. 15; 2 Pet. iii. 9 

Bpadv-TTAoeai, £0, to sail slowhj, Acts 

xxvii. 7. 
PpaSvs, «To, V, slow, with els, James i. 19 ; 

fig. , of dull comprehension ; dat. of 

PpaSvTTjs, rriTOS, tj, tardiness, 2 Pet. 

iii. 9. 
^pax^wv, ovos, 6, the arm; met. , strength, 

Luke i. jij John xii. 38; Acts 

xiii. 17. 

Ppaxvs — Y^fJ-os] 



Ppax'''s, ua, V, short, little; of time, 

Luke xxii. 58; Acts v. 34; place, 

Actsxxvii. 28; quantity, John vi. 7; 

Heb. xiii. 22. /Spax"'^', Heb. ii. 7, 9, 

for a short time, or in a small degree. 
fipi<pos, ovs, t6, a child unborn, Luke 

i, 41, 44 ; a babe, Luke ii. 12, 16 ; 

one in early youth, 2 Tim. iii. 15. 
Ppexai, |a;, to moisten, Luke vii. 38 ; 

to rain, to send rain. Matt. v. 45 ; 

impers., James v. 17 ; trans., Luke 

xvii. 20. 
fipovT-f), rjs, ri, thunder, John xii. 29, &c. 
^poxf], vs, 7] (^pex'^}, rain. Matt. 

yii. 25, 27. 
Pp'Xos, ov, 6, a noose or snare, i Cor. 

vii. 35. 
Ppiryfj.6s, ov, 6, a grindinr] or rpiashing. 
0piixoi, |ai, to grind or gnash, as the 

teeth, for rage or pain. Acts vii. 54. 
Ppvoj, Oil}, to send forth, as a fountain, 

James iii. 11. 
^P&fj.a, aros, neut. (see ^i^piiiaKw), food, 

solid food of any kind, i^Iatt. xiv. 1 5 ; 

1 Cor. iii. 2. 

fipiiaip-os, ov, eatable, I^uke xxiv. 41. 
^pSiais, i(i)s, 7], (i) the act of eating, 

2 Cor. ix. 10 ; (2) corrosion. Matt. 
vi. 19, 20; {■^) food, Heb. xii. 16; 
fig., John vi. 27, &c. 

fivdiCai, 00), to drown; mid., to sink, 
Luke V. 7 ; fig., i Tim. vi. 9. 

Pvdos, ov, 6, the deep, the sea, 2 Cor. 
xi. 25. 

^vpaevs, eais {ef),asHn-dresser,a tanrier. 
Acts ix. 43, x. 6, 32. 

fivacrii'os, 7], of, made of byssus. Rev. 
xviii. 16, xix. 8 twice, 14. 

^vffaos, ov, 71, byssus, a species of flax, 
and of linen manufactured from it, 
highly prized for its softness, white- 
ness, and deUcacy. 

^aiixos, ov, 6, an altar. Acts xvii. 23. 

r, 7, yafifia, gamma, g hard, the third 
letter of the Greek alphabet. In 
numeral value, 7' = 3; 7^=3000. 

Ta^Paea, i] (Heb., Chald. form), Gab- 
batha ; an elevated place or tribunal, 
John xix. 13. See \i66aTpu70K 

Ta^pt7]\, 6 (Heb., man of God), the 
archangel Gabriel, Luke i. 19, 26. 

■yayypaiva, tjj, t), a gangrene, mortifica- 
tion, 2 Tim. ii. 17. 

TaS, o (Heb.), Gad, Rev. vii. 5. 

Ta.^ap7]v6%, 7], ov, belonging to Gadara. 
8ee Vip'yia7\v6i. 

7afa, 7jy, t) (Persian), treasure, as of a 
government. Acts viii. 27. 

V6.^a, 7)s, 7\ (Heb.) Gaza, a strong city 
of the ancient Philistines in the W. 
of Palestine, Acts viii. 26. (The 
adj. epTj^os, desert, refers to 006s.) 

ya^o-cpvKaKiov, ov, t6, a place for the 
guardianship of treasure, treasury ; 
a part of the temple so called, Mark 
xii. 41, 43 J Luke xxi. i; John 
viii. 20. 

rdi'o?, ov, b (Lat. ), Gains, or Caius. 
There are four of the name in N.T., 
Acts xix. 29, XX. 4; 1 Cor. i. 14; 
3 John, I. 

ydxa, oKTos, tJ, 'niilh, i Cor. ix. 7. 
Fig., for the elements of Christian 
knowledge, 1 Cor. iii. 2 ; of the 
Word of God, i Pet. ii. 2. 

TaAaTTjj, ov, b, a Galatian, Gal. iii. i. 

TaKajia, as, 7], Galatia, or Gullogrceciu, 
a province of Asia Minor. 

Ta\aTiK6s, 7], 6v, belonging to Galatia, 
Acts xvi. 6. 

•}aXiiv7], 7JS, T}, serenity, calm. Matt, 
viii. 26 ; Mark iv. 39 ; Luke viii. 24. 

TaAtKaia, as, t) (from Heb. ), Galilee, 
the N. division of Palestine. 

raAiXoTos, aia, aiov, of or belonging to 

Ta\Kio3v, bivos, b, Gallio, a proconsul of 
Achaia, Acts xviii. 

Ta/iaAiTjA, <5 (Heb.), Gamaliel, Acts 
v.^ 34,^xxii. 3. 

yafiitii, a, i]au, ist aor. iyd/xTiaa and 
iy7}fj.a, abs. or trans, (with ace), to 
marry ; active properly of the man ; 
pass, and mid., of the woman, with, 
dat., as Mark x. 12, rec. ; but in 
N.T. the act. also is used of the 

yajj-i^o}, or yajxianui, to give in marriage 
(a dauglrter). 

yd/xos, ov, b, marriage, spec, a mar- 
riage feast, sing, or plur. See 240. 



[7»P— YT 

yap {y€ &pa), "truly then," a causal 
particle or conjunctiou, for, iutro- 
ducing a reason for the thing pre- 
viously said. Used in questions to 
intensify the inquiry ; often with 
other particles. For the special uses 
of yap, see 407. 

yaiTTr}p, rp6s (sync), tj, (i) the womh, 
Matt. i. i8; (2) the stomach, Tit. 
i. 12; from Epimenides, "idle 
bellies," gluttons. 

ye, a particle indicating emphasis, at 
least, indeed. Sometimes used alone, 
as Rom. viii. 32; i Cor. iv. 8 ; some- 
times in connection with other i)ar- 
ticles, as aWd, &pa, el. ei Si fJLriye, 
stronger than el Se fji-f], if otherivise 
indeed ; Kalye, and at least, and even; 
Ka'tTotye, though indeed; fievovvye, 
yea, indeed ; fxririye, '■'■to say nothing 
of," I Cor. vi. 3. 

TeSewv, 6 (Heh. ). Gideon, Heb. xi. 32. 

Te-evya, tjs, ^(Heb., Valley of Hinnovi), 
met., place of ■punishment in the 
future world, Matt. x. 28, &c. 
Sometimes with toD ■Kvp6s, as Matt. 
V. 22. Compare 2 Kings xxiii. 10. 

VeG-artfjiavri, or -j'et, r) (Heb., oil-press), 
Getlisonane, a small field at the foot 
of the Mount of Oliv^es, over the 
brook Cedron. 

ye'naiv, ovos, 6, ■}], a neighbour, as Luke 
xiv. 12, XV. 6; John ix. 8. 

7€, a), acroi, to laugh, to he merry, 
rig nice, Luke vi. 21, 25. 

ye\us, ojTos, 0, laughter, mirth, James 
iy. 9. 

yefii^co, au>, to fill, with ace. and gen. 
(also oTrd or e/c) ; pass, abs., to befull, 
Mark iv. 37; Luke xiv. 23. 

yflJ-a, only in pres. and imj)! , to he 
full of, with gen. (e/f. Matt, xxiii. 25; 
ace., ilev. xvii. 3). 

yevea, as, 7), generation, as (i) offspring, 
race, descent; (2) the people of any 
given time; (3) a?i age of the world's 

yeuea-Xoyeu, '2, to reckon a genealogy 
or pedigree, pass, with e/c, Heb. 
vii. 6. 

yevea\oyla. aj, fern., genealogy, N.T. 
plur., I Tim. i. 4; Tit. iii. 9; prob. 

of Gnostic speculations on the origin 
of being. 

yevfcria, a>v, rd, the festivities of a birth- 
day, a birthday. Matt. xiv. 6. 

yei>e<TLS, €wf, V, extraction, genealogy. 
Matt. i. I. James i. 23 : rb ■n-pSa-ccirou 
T7]s yevedfccs avrov, the countenance of 
his birth, or, as E.V., "his natural 
face." James iii. 6: rhv Tpox^v rrjs 
yevea-eais, the orb of the creation, the 
ivhole of nature. 

yfUfT-fi, t]s, ri, birth, John ix. i. 

yevrijxa, aros, r6. See yevvr\fj.a. 

yevvica, S>, -qao), to beget, give birth to, 
produce, effect: pass., to be begotten, 
born (often in John, of spiritual 

yivvrijxa, aros, t6 (in many MSS.yevni^a), 
(i) progeny ; (2) jjroduce generally. 
Y'\g., fruit, result, as 2 Cor. ix. 10. 

VevvriaaptT (Heb., in Chald. form), 
Gennesareih (Chinnereth, or Chinne- 
roth, in O.T.), a region of Galilee, 
with ^'illage or town of the same 
name. Used of the adjacent lake, 
as Luke v. i. 

yevvrfdis, f(U9, rj. See yeyecris. 

yevvr)T6%, -r}, 6v, verb, adj., born, brought 
forth. Matt. xi. 1 1 ; Luke vii. 28. 

yevos, ovs, 16, (i) offspring; (i) lineage ; 
(3) nation ; (4) kind or species. 

Tipyeat)v6s, ■}], 6v, or Vipa.<r-r\v6%, Gerge- 
sene, belonging to Gergesa or Gerasa, 
The copies vary between these forms 
and Vahapr]vus, Matt. viii. 28 ; Mark 
V. I ; Luke viii. 26, 37. 

yepouaia, as, r) [yepccv), an assembly of 
elders, senate. 

yepciv, ovTos, o, an old man. John iii. 4. 

yevcji, to make to taste, only mid. in 
N.T. ; to taste, as abs., to take food. 
Acts X. 10; or with obj., gen., or 
ace. See 249, a (2). Fig., to expe- 
rience, as Matt. xvi. 28 ; once with 
oTi, I Pet. ii. 3. 

yeoipyeu), 5), to cultivate or till the earth. 

yecipyiov, ov, t6, a tilled field. Fig., 
1 Cur. iii. 9. 

yeaiaySs, ov, 6, one who tills the ground, 
'I husbamlrnan. So a vine-dre^ser. 

y?], 7?)$, i), contr. for yea or ya7a, kind 
or earth, as (i) tlie material soil, 

■y^ipas — ■yo-yyucrp.ds] 



I Cor. XV. 47 ; (2) the producing soil ; 
(3) the ground ; (4) land, as opposed 
to sea; (5) earth, as opposed to 
heaven, the habitable world ; (6) 
region or territory. 

yripas, (aos), cor, dat. -a. or -ei, t6, old 
age, Luke i. 36. 

yripdaKoi, or yripda, daco, to become old, 
John xxi. 18; to be infirm, Heb. 
viii. 13. 

"yivofxai, for yi-yvofiai. See 94, S, cr.., i-yfu6f/.riv and iyivh&rtv, 
yi'^ova (with pres. force) and yiyivt]- 
fjiat, to become, as (1) <o begin to be, 
used of persons, to be born, John 
viii. 58 ; of the works of creation, 
to he inade, John i. 3, 10; and of 
other works, to be wrought or per- 
formed. So, to pass out of one 
state into another, to grow into, to 
be changed into, John ii. 9 ; often 
with ei's, Luke xiii. 19. {2) Of ordi- 
nary or extraordinary occurrences, 
to happen, to take place, to be done ; 
of the day, the night, Mark vi. 2 ; 
of thunder, earthquake, calm, &c. ; 
of feasts or public solemnities, to be 
held or celebrated; frequently in the 
phrase koX iyevero, and it came to 
pass (with Kai, or following verb, or 
inf.) ; also ^ujj yevotro, let it never 
happen! or God forbid! (3) With 
adj. or predicative subst., to become, 
where quality, character, or con- 
dition is specified ; often in prohi- 
bitions, /i-/) yivov, fii] yiuerrde, t ecome 
not, as Matt. vi. 16. (4) With the 
cases of substantives and the prepo- 
sitions, the verb forms many phrases, 
to be interpreted according to the 
meaning of the case or prep. See 
Syntax. For the distinction be- 

• tween ylvoixm and other coj)ulative 
verbs, see Synonyms. 

ylviLaKoi, or yiyvwaKco (see 94, 8, b), yva-, 2nd aor. i-yvwv (imper. yvHiQi), 
perf. iyvoina, (1) to become aware of, 
to 2'>erceive, with ace. ; (2) to know, 
to perceive, under litand, with ace. or 
oTi, or ace. and inf., or ti interrog. ; 
with adv. of language. Acts xxi. 37; 
to be conscious of, by experience, as 

a Cor. V. 21 ; {3) to know carnally 
(Heb.), Matt. i. 25; Luke i. 34; 
(4) specially of the fellowship be- 
tween Christians and the Divine 
Being, i Cor. viii. 3 ; Matt. vii. 23 
(negatively) ; John xvii. 3 ; Heb. 
■■mi. 11'; Phil. iii. 10, &c. See 

yMiiKos, ous, TO, sweet wine. Acts 
ii. 13. 

yXvKvs, aa, v, sweet, James iii. 11, 12 ; 
of water, opposed to "bitter" and 
"salt," flev. X. 9. 

yXSxraa, ijs, r), (O the tongue; (2) a 
language ; (3) a nation ot people dis- 
tinguished by their language. 

yAaxrao-KOfiov, ou, neut., a little box or 
case for money, John xii. 6, xiii. 29 
(orig. from holding the "tongue- 
pieces" of flutes, &c. ) 

yva(pevs, eais, 6, a fuller, Mark ix. 3. 

yvriaws, a, ov (sync. tVom ytviiaios), 
legitimate, genuine, true, i Tim. i. 2; 
Phil. iv. 3 ; tJi yp7}cnov, sincerity, 
2 Cor. viii. 8. Adv., -as, sincerely, 
naturally, Phil. ii. 20. 

yvo^os, ov, 6, a dense cloud, darkness, 
Heb. xii. 18. 

yvdp.-t), T)j, 7) (yvo- in yiiooaKca), opinion, 
judgment, intention, 1 Cor. i. 10, 
vii. 25 ; Acts XX. 3. 

yi/copi^cu, iaa or ii3, (i) to inake known, 
to declare (with ace. and dat., or '6ri 
or Ti interrog. ) ; (2) intraus., to know, 
Phil. i. 22. 

yvooais, ecus, ^, (i) subj., knowledge, 
with gen. of obj. (gen. subj., Eom. 
xi- 33); (-) obj., science, doctrine, 
icisdom, as Luke xi. 52. 

yv(i(TTr]s, ov, 6, one who knows, Acts 
xxvi. 3. 

7V'C(«TT(5s, i), 6v, verb, adj., known. Acts 
ii. 14, iv. ic ; knowable, Piom. i. 19. 
Emphatic iu Acts iv. 1 6. ol yvccaTol, 
ones acquaintance, Luke ii. 44; to 
yvcoarhv, knowledge, Eom. i. 19. 

yuyyv^ui, vo-w, to murmur, i.e., in a low 
voice (John vii. 32) or discontentedly; 
to grumble, i Cor. x. 10, with ace, 
or Trepj, gen., irpos, ace, Kara, gen. 

yoyyviT/xos, oC, o, muttering, John vii. 1 2 ; 
murmuring, Acts vi. i ; Phil. ii. 14. 



[■yo-yyvtrr^S — SaKvw 

yoyyvrrrris, ov, 6, a murmxirer, com- 
plain fi; Jude 1 6. 

7(Jrjr, 7)Tos, 6 (yoaw, to moayi), an en- 
chanter, an imposf-or, 2 Tim. iii. J 3. 

ToXyoQa (Heb., iu Chald. form), Gol- 
(jot/ia, "the place of a skull" (prob. 
from its shape) ; Calvary. See npaviov. 

rSfioppa, as, v, and cov. rd, G'oinorrha. 

y6fJ.os, ou, 6 (y^fJLco), (i) a burden, e.g., 
of a ship. Acts xxi. 3 ; (2) wares or 
merchandise, Ilev. xviii. 11, 12. 

yovevs, (US, 6 {yfv- iu yiyvo/xai), a parent. 
Used only iu the plural, 2}arents. 

y6vv, aros, t6, the knee ; often in plur. 
after -ridivai. or Ka/jLTTTeiv, to put or 
bend the knees, to kneel, in devotion. 

yovv-TTfTew, 01 (TTfTTTco), to fall down ou 
one's knees, to kneel. 

ypafifxa, aros, t6 {ypd^ai), (i) a letter of 
the alphabet, Luke xxiii. 38 ; in what 
large letters, perhaps noting em- 
phasis. Gal. vi. 11; (2) a writing, 
such as a bill or an e^jis'fe,Rom. ii. 29 ; 
TO lepa ypafj-fxaia, 2 Tim. iii. 15, the 
holy writings, or the Scrii^tures ; {3) 
plur., literature, learning generally', 
John viL 1 5. 

ypajXjj.aTivs, eois, o, (i) a clerk, secre- 
tary, a scribe. Acts xix. 35 ; (2) one 
of that class among the Jews who 
copied and interpreted the O.T. 
Scriptures (see z'o^ui/ctJs) ; (3) met., a 
man of learning generally, i Cor. 
i. 20 ; Matt. xiii. 52, &c. 

•ypaivi&s, v, 6v, verb, adj., written, in- 
scribed, Eom. ii. 15. 

ypa(pi], vs, 71, (i) a writing; {1) spec, 
?; ypu.<ph or a\ ypa<pa'l, the Scriptures, 
writings of the O.T. ; (3) a parti- 
cular passage. 

ypdcbcc, ^(0, yiypa(pa, to grave, write, 
inscribe, iypdcpri, yiypaizTai, or ye- 
ypa/xfj-evov ecni, a formula of quota- 
tion. It is ivritten. Often witli dat. 
of pers., as Mark x. 5. 

ypauioi]s, es (ypu-vs, fi5-), old womanish, 
foolish, I Tim. iv. 7. 

yp-qyop^u, S> (from iyp-fiyopr, perf. of 
iyeipca), to keep awake, watch, be vigi- 
lant; met., to be alive, 1 Thess. v. jo. 

7i',u(/a^a>, to exercise, i Tim. iv. 7 ; 
pass., to be exercised or trained. 

yvjxvania, as, 7], exercise, training 
(ascetic), i Tim. iv. 8. 

yvfj.v7}Tevai, or -invw, to be naked or 
poo7-ly clad, i Cor. iv. 11. 

yvfivSs, i}, 6u, (i) naked, ill-clad, having 
only an inner garment, John xxi. 7 ; 
(2) bare, i.e., open or manifest, Heb. 
iv. 13. ; (3) mere, i Cor. xv. 37. 

yvixv6rris, r-qros, r), (i) nakedness; (2) 
scanty clothing. 

yvvaiKd.pi.ov, ov, r6 (dim.), a silly woman, 
2 Tim. iii. 6. 

yuvatKe7os, a, ov, womanish, i Pet. iii. 7. 

7i/i'i7, yuvaiK6s, voc. 7ii;'ai, rj, (i) a 
woman; (2) a wife. The voc. is the 
form of ordinary address, often used 
in reverence and honour. Compare 
John ii. 4 and xix. 26. 

T(oy, 6, a proper name, Gog. In Ezek. 
xxxviii. 5, king of Magog, i.e., of 
Scandinavia ; hence, in Kev. xx. 8, 
of a people far remote from Pales- 
tine, probably in the N. 

ycovia, as, rj, a corner. Matt. vi. 5, 
xxi. 42 (LXX. ) ; met., a secret place, 
Acts xxvi. 26. 

A, 8, SeAra, delta, d, the fourth letter 
of the Grreek alphabet. As a nume- 
ral, 5' = 4; 5^ = 4000. 

Aa;8i5, also Aaui'5, Aayei'S, o (Heb.), 
David, king of Israel. 'O vibs A., 
the Son of David, an appellation of 
the Messiah ; iv A., in David, i.e., 
in the Psalms, Heb. iv. 7. 

Saifj-ovi^o/j-ai (see SaifjLoov), ist aor. part., 
Saifioficrdits, to be possessed by a 

haifj-Sviov, lav, z6 (orig. adj.), a demon or 
evil spirit. Saifioviov cx*"'> '^ have 
a demon or to be a demoniac. 

SaifiovtuSris, es, resembling a demon, 
da^nonian, Jumes iii. 15. 

Saiucav. ovos, 6, 7], in classic Greek, any' 
sjiirit superior to man ; hence often of 
the inferior deities; in N.T. always, 
an evil spirit, a demon. Saifj.6viov is 
generally used. See Synonyms. 

SiKvai, to bite, molest, irritate, GaL 

V. If. 

SaKpv — Sefios] 



SaKpv, vos, or SdKpvov, vov, rS, a fear. 
SaKpvai, ace, to tceep, John xi. 35. 
SaKTv\to^, ov, 6 (SaKTvXos), a ring for 

the finger, Luke xv. 22. 
ha.KTv\os, ov, 6, a finger, ev SaKTv\qj 

&eov, met., by the ^5r)?t'fi?- of God, 

Luke xi. 20. Comp. Matt. xii. 28. 
Aahfxavnvliu., t], Dalinanutha, a town or 

village near Magdala, Mark viii. 10. 
AaA/j-aTta, as, r], Dalmatia, a part of 

Illyricum near Macedonia, 2 Tim. 

iv. 10. 
Safid^w, aco, to subdue, tame, Mark v. 4; 

James iii. 7, 8. 
Sdfji.a\Ls, ews, i), a. hefer, Heb. ix. 13. 
Adfiapis, iSos, i;, Daindria, Acts xvii. 34. 
AafxaffK-qvos, 7), 6u, belonging toDainascus, 

2 Cor. xi. 32. 
Aafj.aaK6s, ov, t], Damascus, Acts ix. 2. 
Sai'eiCoj, to lend, Luke vi. 34, 35 ; mid., 

to borrow. Matt. v. 42. 
Sdveiov, ov, t6, a debt. Matt, xviii. 27. 
SafeiaTTjj, ov, 6, a lender, a creditor, 

Luke vii. 41. 
AaviiiK 6 (Heb. ), Daniel, Matt. xxiv. 1 5. 
SaTraidoj, Si, iiaoi, to spend; trans., to 

bear expense, Acts xxi. 24 (with eVi) ; 

2 Cor. xii. 1 5 (with inr4p) ; to con- 
sume in luxury, to waste, Luke xv. 14 ; 

James iv. 3. 
SaTrdvi), ■r)s, 7], expense, cost, Luke xiv.28. 
Se, an adversative and distinctive par- 
ticle, but, now, moreover, &c. See 

404, ii. , and fxev. 
SiTjaris, ecus, T], supplication, prayer. 

See Synonyms. 
56?, impers., itnec.ds, one must, it ought, 

it is right or proper. Matt. xvi. 21 ; 

Acts iv. 12 ; Mark xiii. 14. See 101. 
5€?7/u,a, aros {'S^iKvvfii), an example, a 

specimen, Jude 7. 
Seiy/xaTi^o), crcc, to make an example or 

sjicctacle of (as disgrace). Col. ii. 1 5, 

and Matt. i. 19 (edd. ) 
SeiKvvfMi and SeiKi/vco (see 114), (i) to 

2yresent to sight, to show, to teach 

(ace. and dat. ); (2) to prove (ace. 

and Ik), to show by woids {on), Matt. 

xvi. 21 ; inf., Acts x. 28. 
SfiXia, as, 7\, timidity, 2 Tim. i. 7. 
iiiKidd}, CO, to shrink for fear, to be 

afraid, John xiv. 2 7. 

S€i\6s, i}, 6v, timid, cowardly. See 

Silva, 6, 7], t6. Self Of, pron., a certain 

person, such a one. Matt. xx^^. 18. 
Setvds, adv. (Seivo's-, vehement), greatly, 

vehemently, Matt. viii. 6 ; Luke 

SeiTTt'eoi, a, to take the Silirvov, to banquet, 

Luke xvii. 8, xxii. 20; met., of 

familiar intercoiirse, Eev. iii. 20. 
S£7Tri'oy, ov, t6, the chief or evening meal, 

supper. KvpiaKov Si^iryov, the Lord!s 

Sujiper, I Cor. xi. 20. 
dei(TiCiaiiJ.ovia, as, f), religion, in a good 

or bad sense, Acts xxv. 19. 
SficTiSai'/iaj', ovos, adj., religiously or 

devoutly disposed, Acts xvii. 22. See 

323, c. (From 5et5a>, to fear.) 
S(Ka, ol, at, rd, ten. Matt. xx. 24, &c. 

Once, for a brief period, Eev. ii. 10. 
SeKa-Suo, more frequently SwSe/ca, twelve, 

Acts xix. 7. 
OiKa-irivre, fifteen, for ircrreKaiSe/ca. 
AeKa -TToAis, fcor, i], Decaj'jolis, a district 

E. of .Jordan comprising ten towns. 

It is uncertain what they all were, 

but they included Gadara, Hippo, 

Pella, and Scythopolis. 
SfKa-Tfaaapes, a, oov, fourteen. 
SevaTTi, 7)s, 7), a tenth part, the tithe, 

Heb. vii. 2, 4, 8, 9. 
SiKd'os, 7], ov, ordinal, tenth, rb Se'/caTor, 

Eev. xi. 1 3, the tenth j)art. 
SeKarSci), CO, to receive tithe of, ace, 

Heb. vii. 6 ; pass. , to pay tithe, Heb. 

vii. 9. 
5eKT6s, 71, iv (verbal adj. from Se'xo^ai), 

accepited, acce^Aahle, Phil. iv. 18 ; 

Acts X. 3 5 (dat. ) ; pi-ojiitious, favour- 
able, Luke iv. 19 ; 2 Cor. vi. 2, from 

Isa. xlix. 8. 
SeAeaCcu {8t\^ap, a bait), to take or entice, 

as with a bait, James i. 14; '2 Pet. 

ii. 14, 1 8. 
dfvSpnv, ov, tS, a tree. 
Se|i(^-Aaj8oj, ov, 6, "holding in the 

right hand ; " plur. , spearmen, Acts 

xxui. 23. 
56|((5s, d, 6v, the right, opp. to apurrfpis, 

the left. 7] Se^id, the right hand ; to. 

5s|ia, the right-hand side ; 5e|ias 

SiSox/ai, to give the right hand, i.e., to 



[8£0) — S"r)fJi.i-ovp"^os 

receive to friendsldp or fellowship. 

For 4k and «V with this word, see 

293, a. 
Se'o.uat, istaor., eSeTj^Tji/ (3rdpers. impf., 

e^hro, Luke viii. 38), to have need 

of (gen.), as mid. of Sew (see Se?) ; to 

iimkt request of (gen.) ; to beseech, 

pray, abs., or with tl, ha, or dirws, 

of purpose. 
Siov, ovTos, t6 (particip. of SeT, as subst. ), 

the becoming or needful ; with eVri 

= Sei. Plur., I Tim. v. 13. 
A^ppaios, ou, 6, belonging to Derbe, 

Acts XX. 4. 
Atp^T], 7/s, n, Derbe, a city of Lycaonia, 

Acts xiv. 6, xvi. i. 
Sepixa, aros, t6 (Septo), an animaVs skin, 

Heb. xi. 37. 
SepfjiCLTiyos, 7j, ov, made of skin, leathern, 

Matt. iii. 4 ; Mark i. 6. 
oe'pco, ist aor., ISeipo, 2nd fut. pass., 

Sap7](To/iai., to scourge, to beat, so as 

to flay off the skin, depa Sepccy, 

see ar]p. 
Seafiet'w, aw, to bind, as a prisoner, 

Acts xxii. 4 ; as a bundle, Matt. 

xxiii. 4. 
Zidfj-iij), u, to bind, Luke viii. 29. 
Se'ff/iTj, 7)s, 7], a bundle. Matt. xiii. 30. 
Sea-fj.105, iov, 6, one bound, a prisoner. 
Siafios, ov, 6 (Se'oj), a ligament impeding 

the tougue or some other member. 

Seafioi or (rot) oeafid, plur., bonds or 

SeafjLo-(pv\a^, a/cos, 6, a jailer, Acts 

xvi. 23. 
SeafMuirrjpiOV, iov, t6, a prison. 
hfaiMwrrfi, uv, 1), a prisoner. 
Seairdrris, ov, 6, a foreign lord or prince^ 

a master, 1 Tim. vL i ; applied to 

God, Luke ii. 29 ; Acts iv. 24, 29 ; 

Jude 4 ; Rev. vi. 10 ; to Christ, 

2 Pet. ii. I. See Synonyms. 
S«0/)o, adv., (i) of place, luere, hither ; 

used as an imperative, come hither, 

Matt. xix. 21, &c. ; (2) of time, 

Rom. i. 13. 
SeCre, adv., as if plur. of Stvpo (or 

contr. fiom 5eCp' 'ire), come, come 

lather, ]\Iatt. iv. 19, &c. 
SeuTepaTos, ai'a, aiov, on tlie secoud day, 

Acts xxviii. 13. 

SfcuTepJ-TTpwTos, adj., the second-first, 
Luke vi. i. See 148. 

Seurepoy, a, ov, ordinal, second, in 
number, as Matt. xxii. 26 ; in order. 
Matt. xxii. 39. rb Sevrepuv or Sev- 
repov, adverbuilly, the second time, 
again, as 2 Cor. xiii. 2. So e/c 
SevTepov, Mark xiv. 72; eV raJ oei/re'pcp, 
Acts vii. 13. 

5e'xo/U,ai, istaor., iSE^d/MTiv, dap., to take, 
receive, accept, as from another, Luke 
ii. 28, xvi. 6, 7 ; as letters, Acts 
xxii. 5 ; to receive, i.e., kiudly, as 
persons, Mark vi. 11; to bear with, 

2 Cor. xi. id; to approve, ivelcome, 
as a doctrine, the kingdom of heaven, 
&c., Mark x. 15 ; 2 Cor. xL 4, 

5e'w, to want. See Se? and Sf'o^ai. 

Sew, 1st aor., i^i)aa.; perf., Se'Sf/co ; 
pass., Se'Se^ai ; ist aor. pass, inf., 
^idr)vai, to bind together, as bundles. 
Acts X. 1 1 ; to swcdhe, as dead bodies 
for burial, John xi. 44 ; to bind, as 
persons in bondage, Matt. xxii. 1 3 ; 
Mark vi. 17 ; to hinder from going 
forth freely, 2 Tim. ii. 9 ; met., to 
compel in any way, spec, to inter- 
dict. Matt, xviii. 18. 5e5efj.€Pos r<^ 
TTveufiaTi, Acts XX. 22, bound in spirit, 
under an irresistible impidse. 

5-^, a particle indicating certainty or 
reality, and so augmenting the 
vivacity of a clause or sentence ; 
truly, indeed, by all means, therefore. 
Used with other particles, SjjiroTs, 
Sijirou, which see. 

StjAos, 71, ov, manifest, evident; neut. 
sc, iari, it is plain, with '6ri, as 
I Cor. XV. 27. 

t-qXSoi, a>, to manifest, to reveal, to bring 
to light ; to imp)ly or signify, 1 Cor. 
i. II ; Heb. ix. 8, xii. 27. 

ATj/icls, a, 6, DemXis, Col. iv. 14 ; 
Philem. 24; 2 Tim. iv. 10. 

STj/ji-riyopejij, w, to deliver a public oration 
or harangue ; with vp6s. Acts xii. 21. 

AT],arirpws, ov, u, Demetrius. Two of the 
name are mentioned, Acts xix. 24; 

3 John 12. 

ST]iJ.i-ovpy6s, ov, 6 ("a public worker"), 
one who makes or is (he aullior of 
anything, Heb. xi. 10. 

S-rjiiOs — JJiaKoo-ioil 



S^,ao7, ou. 6, a people; a multituile 

])ublicly convened. See Synonyms. 

Srifi.6aws, a, ov, j)nhlic, common. Acts 

V. i8. Dat. fern., as adv., ST]/j.ocria, 

jiublidy. Acts xvi. 37. 

Z-qvapLov, iov, rS, properly a Latin word 
(see 154, a), denarius. 

Sv-TTore, adv. , at any time soever, John 
y. 4. 

&n--n-ou, adv., indeed, truly, verily, Heb, 
ii. 16. 

Sid, prej). (cognate with 5i5o, two; Si's 
twice), through ; ( i ) with gen. , through, 
during, by means of; (2) with ace, 
through, on account of, for the sake 
of. See 299. 5ia- in composition 
has the force of through, thorough ; 
also of separation, division, between. 

Sia-^a'tyoj, to pass through, trans., or 
intrans. with irpis (person), us 

Sia-PdWai, to accuse, Luke xvi. i. 

5ia-Be0ai6ai, Si, in mid., to affirm, assert 
strongly, i Tim. i. 7 ; Titus iii. 8. 

Sia-j3A.67ra), to see through, to see clearly 
(inf., of purpose), Matt. vii. 5 ; 
Luke vi. 42. 

5ia,8oA.o?, ov, 6 {diaBaWw, orig. adj.), 
an accuser, a slanderer, an adversary, 
I Tim. iii. 1152 Tim. iii. 3. 6 Sid- 
^o\os, the accuser, the devil. Equi- 
valent to the Hebrew Satan. 

Si-ayyeK\oi, to tell, publish abroad, 
divulge, Luke ix. 60 ; Acts xxi. 26 ; 
Eom. ix. 17. 

5ia-7e, or 5ia ye, yet, on account of, 
Luke xi. 8. 

5ia-7iVo|Uoi, to jmss, elapse: in !N.T. 
only, 2nd aor. part., gen. abs., 
having elapsed, Mark xvi. i ; Acts 
XX V. 13, xxvii. 9. 

Sia-yifd'TKci), to examine and know 
thoroughly, i. e., judicially. Acts 
xxiii. 15, xxiv. 22. 

Sia-yvdipi^w, to publish abroad, Luke 

ii- 17- 
8id-7»/<iims, fcos, 71, judicial hearing, 

accurate knowledge. Acts xxv. 21, 
Sia-yoyyv^ai. to murmur greatly, as 

through a crowd, Luke xv. 2, xix. 7. 
5ia-7prj7op««, w, to be fully or thoroughly 

awake, Luke ix. 32. 

Si-ayo), to lead or pass, as time, life, 
I Tim. ii. 2 {^iov) ; Tit. iii. 3 (^iov 
5ia-5exO|"a', to succeed to. Acts vii. 45. 
5ia-57;/ia, otos, r6 (Sew), a diadem, tiara, 
orcrown, Eev. xii. 3, xiii. i, xix. 12. 
See Synonyms. 

Sia-SiSco/xi, (i) to disti'ibute ; (2) to give, 

Sid-Soxos, ov, 6, 7), a successor. 

Sia-^di'i'ufj.t, to gird, to gird up, John 
xiii. 4, 5, xxi. 7. 

5ia-er)/c7}, 7JS, T] {SiartBritJii), (l) a ivill or 
testament, a disposition, as of jjro- 
perty, a dispensation ; (2) a compact 
or covenant. Gal. iii. 15; jjerhaps 
Heb. IX. 16, 17. The two covenants 
mentioned, Gal. iv. 24. The O.T. 
as containing the first, and the N.T. 
as containing the second, are called 
each SiaBiiKT}. 

Bi-aipecris, ecoy, fem., difference, diversity, 
as the result of distribution, i Cor. 
xii.^ 4, 5, 6. 

Si-oipeo), w, to divide, distribute, Luke 
XV. 12 ; I Cor. xii. 11. 

Sia-Ka6apL(ai, f. «£, to cleanse thoroughly. 
Matt. id. 12; Luke iii. 17. 

dia-KaT-f\€, to confute entirely, 
Acts xviii. 28. 

SioKoveti), w, to serve or wait upon, espe- 
cially at table ; to supply wants, 
I Pet. iv. 10 ; to administer or dis- 
tribute alms, &c. (dat. ]iers., ace. 
thing; occasionally abs. ) Of prophets 
and apostles who ministered the 
Divine will, i Pet. i. 12 ; 2 Cor. iii. 3. 

SiaKovla, oT, rj, Vtinagement, as of a 
household, Luke x. 40 ; ministering 
relief, or the relief ministered. Acts 
xii. 25 ; 2 Cor. viii. 4 ; ministry or 
service in the diurch of Christ, fre- 

SiaKovos, ov, 6, fj, a servant, s}>ecially at 
table. Matt, xxiii. 1 1 ; a servant of 
God, as magistrates, Rom. xiii. 4; 
one who serves in the Church, deacon 
or deaconess, Phil. i. i ; i Tim. 
iii. 8, 12; Rom. xvi. i. See Syn- 

SiaKi'iaioi, ai, a, card, numb., two hun- 

t % 



ISi-aKovb) — Sia-o-€i(i> 

Si-aKovo), to hear thoroughly, Acts 

\;xiii. 3S. 
Sia-zcptVo), to discern, to distinguish. Acts 
xvi. 9; I Cor. xi. 29. Mid. (aor., 
pass.), (i) to doubt, to hesitate. Matt. 
xxi. 21 ; James i. 6 ; (2) to separate 
one^s self from, Jude 22 ; (3) to dls- 
puie with, Acts xi. 2 ; Jude 9. 

did-Kpiffis, ews, ^, the act of d'mtin-ction, 
discrimination, Rom. xiv. i ; i Cor. 
xii. 10 ; Heb. v. 14. 

5ia/ca)\u£o, to forbid, to hinder. Matt, 
iii. 14. 

Zia-\a\iw, S>, to discuss, Luke vi. 11; 
to spread abroad by speaking of, 
Luke i. 65. 

Sia-\eya), in mid. , to discourse, to reason, 
to dispute. Matt, ix, 34 ; Acts xx. 7 ; 
Jude 9, &c. 

5ia-\€iira), to cease, to intermit, Luke 
vii. 45. 

Sic£-\6/cTos, ov, 71, speech, dicdect, lan- 
guage. Acts ii. 6, xxi. 40, &c. 

Si-oAAa<T(7Ctf, to change, as the dispo- 
sition ; pass., to be reconciled to. 
Matt. V. 24. 

5ia-A.o7i^o;uai, to reason, to discourse, 
to ponder, to reflect, to deliberate, 
to debate, Mark ii. 6-8, viii. 16, 
ix. 33, &c. 

^ia-\o-yiaix6s, ov, 5, reflection, thought, 
Luke ii. 35 ; reasoning, opinion, 
Rom, i, 21, xiv. i ; dispute, debate, 
Phil. ii. 14; I Tim, ii. 8, &c. 

5ia-\vw, to disperse, to break up, Acts 
V. 36., dep. mid., to testify ear- 
nestly. Acts ii. 40; to enforce. Acts 
viii. 25, &c. 

5ia-;uaxoM<", dep. mid., to contend or 
dispute warmly. Acts xxiii. 9. 

Sia-fxfvta, to remain, with adj. or adv. ; 
to persevere, with eV. 

Sia-}j.ep't(aj, (i) to divide or separate into 
parts. Matt, xxvii. 35, &c. ; to f^is- 
tribute, Luke xxii. 17; (2) to ?)e a< 
discord with, Luke xi. 1 7 ; with Ja-i, 
ace. or dat., xii. 52. 

Ita-fxipiafios, ov, 6, dissension, Luke 
xii. 51. 

bia-vffiai, to divulge, to spread abroad, 
Acts iv. 1 7. 

Sta-vevcD, to make signs, by nodding, 
&c., Luke i. 22. 

Sta-v6riiJ.a, otos, t6, a thought, imagina- 
tion, device, Luke xi. 17. 

Std-voia, as, tj, the mind, i.e., the intel- 
lect, or thinking faculty, Mark xii. 30; 
the understanding, i John v. 20 ; the 
mind, i.e., the feelings, dispositioii, 
affections. Col. i. 2 1 ; plur. , the thoughts, 
as wilful, depraved, Eph. ii. 3. 

Si-avoiya>, to open fully, i. e. , the ears, 
Mark vii. 34, 35 ; the eyes, Luke 
xxiv. 3 1 ; the heart, making it wil- 
ling to receive, Acts xvi. 14; the 
Scriptures, explaining them, Acts 
xvii. 3. 

dia-vuKTepevw, to pass the night through, 
Luke vi. 12. 

St-avvu, to perform to the end, complete. 
Acts xxi, 7. 

5ta-iravT6s, adv., always, continually, 
Mark v. 5, &c. 

Sta-TTapa-Tpt^7i, rjs, rj, contention, fierce 
dispute to no purpose, i Tim. vi. 5. 

Sio-irfpao), 01, da-CD, to, to pass 
through, to pass over. Matt. ix. i ; 
Mark vi. 53, &c. 

Sta-ir\€0}, fvatii, to sail through or over. 
Acts xxvii. 5. 

ha-TTouiai, a>, mid., aor. pass., to grieve 
one's self, to be indignant. Acts iv. 2, 
xvi. 18. 

Sta-iropevofiat, to go or pass through, 
Luke xiii. 22 ; Acts xvi. 4, &c. 

bia-TTopeai, i, to be in great doubt or per- 
plexity, Luke ix. 7 ; Acts x. 1 7, &c., to gain by business or 
trading, Luke xix. 15. 

Sia-TTpiw, in pass., to be enraged, to be 
greatly moved with anger, Acts v. 3 3 , 
vii. 54. 

6i-ap7ra^«, to plunder, to spoil by rob- 
bery, &c.. Matt. xii. 29; Mark iii. 27. 

htap-^i)yvvfxi and Stapp-fjaaa, {», to tear, 
as garments, in grist or indignation. 
Acts xiv. 14 ; Matt. xxvi. 65 ; to 
break asunder, as a net, Luke v. 6 ; 
as bonds, l^uke viii. 29. 

Zia-(Ta<p4(Mi, w, to make fully manifeJit, to 
tell all, Matt, xviii. 3 1 (xiii. 36, MSS. ) 

Sia-ceiai, to treat with violence, so as to 
extort anything, Luke iii. 14. 

Sia-o-KopTrt^w — SiSao-KoXta] VOCABULARY. 


hia-(TKOfnri(oi, to strew or scatter, Matt. 
XXV. 24, &c. ; to dlfiperse in conquest, 
Luke i. 51; to luaste or squander, 
Liike XV. 13, xvi. i. 

Zia-cnrdta, ist aor. pass., Siea-irdadrii^, to 
pull or pluck asunder or in pieces, 
Mark v. 4; Acts xxiii. 10. 

SLa-aTreipw, 2ud aoi'. pass., Sieo-TrapTji/, to 
scatter abroad, as seed ; so of Chris- 
tians dispersed by persecution, Acts 
viii. I, 4, xi. 19. 

Sia-airopd, as, 7), dispersion, state of 
being dispersed. Used of the Jews 
as scattered among the Gentiles, 
John vii. 35 ; James i. i ; i Pet. i. i. 

5ta-o-TeAAco, in mid., to give in charge, to 
command expressly ; with negative 
words, to forbid, to prohibit. Matt, 
xvi. 20 ; Acts XV. 24. Pass. part. , 
TO SiaaTeWSfiivoi', Heb. xii. 20, the 

Std-arrifia, aTos, t6, neut., an interval 
of time, Acts v. 7. 

Sia-aroAr], Tjs, 7), distinction, difference, iii. 22, x. 12; i Cor. xiv. 7. 

5M-(TTpe<pw, to seduce, turn away, Luke 
xxiii. 2 ; Acts xiii. 8 ; to pervert, to 
wrest, Acts xiii. 10. Perf. part., 
j)ass., SieiTT panixevos, perverse, vicious. 
Matt. xvii. 17. 

5ta(Tcl)(ai, au, to save, to convey safe 
through, 1 Pet. iii. 20 ; pass. , to reach 
a place in safety. Acts xxvii. 44 ; to 
heal. Matt. xiv. 36. 

5ia-Ta77j, ^s, rj, a disposing of, ordi- 
nance, appointment, Ptom. xiii. 2. 

Sid-rayfj.a, aros, t6, a mandate, a de- 
cree, Heb. xi. 23. 

Sia-Tapdaaco, to trouble greatly, to agitate, 
Luke i. 29. 

Sia-rdaaa), to dispose, to give orders to 
(dat. ), arrange, constitute ; mid., to 
appoint, to ordain, as 1 Cor. vii. 17 
(also with dat. pers., ace. thing) ; 
to promulgate. Gal. iii. 19. 

Siu-TiXeca, 01, to continue, to remain 
through a certain time. Acts xxvii. 33. 

5ia-T7jpe&>, to guard or keep with care, 
as in the heart, Luke ii. 51 ; with 
kauTov, &c. , to guard one's self from, 
to abstain (e'/c or dirjj. Acts xv. 29. 

Sia-ri or 5ia ri ; wherefore'^ 

Sia-rlerjfii, only mid. in N.T., to dis- 
pose, as ( I ) to commit to, Luke xxii. 2 9 ; 
(2) to make an arrangement tvith, as 
in a covenant, Heb. viii. 10; (3) to 
execute a will, pez'haps, Heb. ix. 16. 
See SiadriKT). 

SLa-Tpipo), to spend, as time, Acts 
xiv. 3, 28 ; abs., to sojourn, John 

xi. 54; 
5ia-Tpo<pij, rjs, 7], food, nourishment, 

1 Tim. vi. 8. 

5t-avyd(oi}, to shine through, to dawn, 

2 Pet. i. 19. 

Sia-(pavr]s, h, shining through, transpa- 
rent, Rev. xxi. 2 1. In some MSS. , 
5tavyr]s in same signif. 

5ia-(pepai, (i) to carry through, Mark 
xi. 16; (2) to bear abroad. Acts 
xiii. 49, xxvii. 27 ; (3) to differ from 
(gen.), I Cor. xv. 41 ; hence (4) to 
be better than, to surpass. Matt, 
vi. 26, &c. ; (5) impers., Sia(p€pei, it 
makes a difference to (dat.), matters 
to. Gal. ii. 6, &c. 

Sia-(pev-/o}, to escape by fight. Acts 
xxvii. 42. 

Sia-(pr]fj.i^a!, to report, jJublish abroad, 
divulge. Matt. ix. 31, xxviii. 15 ; 
Mark i. 45. 

Sia-(pOeip(i}, to injure thoroughly, as rust 
does, Luke xii. 33 ; to destroy. Rev. 
xi. 18; to decay, to perish, 2 Cor. 
iv. 16. 0pp. to avaKaivuiti, to renew. 

Sia-(p6opd, as, r], decay, corruption, 
i.e., of the grave. Acts ii. 27, 31, 
xiii. 34-37 (LXX.) 

5td-<popos, ov, (i) diverse, of different 
kinds, Rom. xii. 6; Heb. ix. 10; 
(2) superior to, Heb. i. 4, viii. 6. 

5io-<J)uAa(r(ru), to guard carefully, protect, 
defend, Luke iv. 10 (LXX.) 

Sia-xe'P'C'^, mid. N.T., to lay hands on, 
p)ut to death. Acts v. 30, xxvi. 21. 

Sia-xwp'C'"; pass. N.T., "to be sepa- 
rated," to leave, to depart from, (o7r<5), 
Luke ix. 33. 

SiSaKTiKoi, 17, 6v, apt at teaching, i Tim. 
iii. 2 ; 2 Tim. ii. 24. 

SiSa/crJj, rj, 6v, taught, instructed (gen., 
by), John vi. 45 ; i Cor. ii. 13. 

diSa(jKa\ia, as, rj, teaching, i.e., (i) the 
manner or art of teaching, Rom. 



[SiSdo-KaXos — S(!k-j] 

xii. 7, &c. ; or {2) the doctrine taught, 
precept, insfructum, Matt. xv. 9, &c. 
SiddffKaKos, ov, 6, a teacher, ma<ster ; 
often, "teacher of the law," Luke 
ii. 49 ; a censor, James iii. i ; spe- 
cially of Christ the Teacher. 
SiSaffKO), 5i5a^Q), to teach, to be a teacher ; 
abs., to teach, with ace. of pers. , 
generally also ace. of thing; also 
with inf. or on. 
Si5axv, v^, V, doctrine, teaching, i.e., 
(i) the act, (2) the mode, or (3) the 
thing taught. With obj. gen., per- 
haps, in Heb. vi. 2. See 260, h (6), 
Si-SpaxMo;/, ov, t6 (prop, adj., sc. v6iJ.t<rfj.a, 
coin), a double drachma, or silver 
half -shekel (in LXX., tfw shekel). 
Matt. x\'ii. 24. 
Ai5i/yuos, 7j, ov, double, or tivin; a sur- 
name of Thomas the apostle, John 
xi. 16, &c. 
5iS&)yu(, to give (ace. and dat.) Hence, 
in various connections, to yield, de- 
liver, supply, commit, &c. When 
used in a general sense, the dat. of 
pers. may be omitted, as Matt. xiii. 8. 
The thing given may be expressed 
by (K or cLTrd, with gen. in a ])arti- 
tive sense instead of ace. So Matt. 
XXV. 8 ; Luke xx. 10. The purpose 
of a gift may be expressed by inf., 
as Matt. xiv. 1 6 ; John iv. 7 ; Luke 
i. 73- See 107, 278. 
Si-eyelpw, to wake up thorougldy, Mark 
IV. 38 ; to excite, as the sea by the 
wind, John vi. 18; lig., to arouse, 
2 Pet. i. 13. 
Sie'|-o5os, ov, 7], lit., "a crossway of 
exit ;" so, a meeting-place of roads, 
a public spot in a city. Matt. xxii. 9. 
St-epfx.riv€VTr}s, ov, 6, an interpreter. 
li-epfjL-qvivui, to interpret, explain, Luke 

xxiv. 27; Acts ix. 36. 
Si-epxofiai, to pass through, ace. or Std 
(gen.), destination expressed by tls 
or ews ; to pass over or travel, abs., 
Acts viii. 4 ; to spread, as a report, 
Luke V. 15. 
St-epcDTao), aj, to find hy inquiry. Acts 

X. 17^ 
St-€Ti7s, €s (5is), of two years, Matt. ii. i5. 

S(-6Tia, as, T], the sjmce of two years. 

Acts xxiv. 27, xxviii. 30., ov/xai, to lead through, tc 

recount perfectly, to declare the whole 

of a matter, Luke ix. 10. 
StTiyqais, ews, 7), narrative or history, 

Luke i. I. 
Si-7iyeKr]s, is, continuous, 2^erpetual. els 

rh SiTjueKes, adverbial, for ever, Heb. 

x.^ I, 14. 
Si-6d\aff(Tos, ov (Si's), washed by the sea 

on two sides. Acts xxvii. 41, 
SL-iKveo/, ovfjLai, to j)a-ss through, as a 

sword piercing, Heb. iv. 12. 
Si-i'tTTTj^uj, to put apjart, to interpose ; in 

time, Luke xxii. 59 ; by space. Acts 

xxvii. 28. 
di-tffx'^pi(ofiai, to affirm strongly. Acts 

xii. 15. 
SiKcuo-Koiffia, as, t), just judgment, Rom. 

SiKaios, oiR, ov, just, right, Mark vi. 20 ; 
upright, righteous, Luke i. 6 ; impar- 
tial, as a judge, 2 Tim. iv. 8 ; right 
with God. Applied to things, to per- 
sons, to God, John xvii. 25. Adv., 
-03S, justly, deservedly. See Synonyms. 

OMaiOcrvvT), 7]s, i], righteousness, justice, 
Acts xvii. 3 1 ; rectitude, righteous- 
ness. Matt. vi. 33 ; goodness gene- 
rail}'. Matt. vi. I ; justification, Kom. 
V. 17, 2 1, as BiKaiacrts. 

StKat6aj, CO, "to make just, " generally in 
N. T. in the declarative sense ( i Tim. 
iii. 1 6 ; Rom. iii. 4, LXX. ) ; spe- 
cially, to hold guiltless, to justify. 
Matt. xii. 37 ; I Cor. iv. 4 ; to pro- 
nounce or treat as righteous, Bom. 
iii. 20, 26, 30, &c. 

SiKaicofxa, aros, to, a righteous decree or 
statute, Rom. i. 32, esjiecially a 
decree ofacqidttal; opp. to KaruKpifxa, 
condemnation, Rom. v. 16 ; a righteous 
act, Rom. v. 18 ; Rev. xix. 8. 

StKaiaxTis, ews, 7], acquittal, justifica.tvcm, 
Rom. iv. 25, V. 18. 

SiKacrrris, ov, 6, a judge, Luke xiL 14 ; 
Acts vii. 27. 

SIkt], rjs, 7], a judicial sentence. Acts 
XXV. 15 ; punishment, 2 Thess. i. 9; 
vengeayice, the name of a heathen 
deity. Acts xxviii. 4. 

SiKTvov — 8ovXt]J 



Z'lKTvov, ov, ro, afislung net. 

6i-Ao7os, ov (Si's), double-tungued, deceit- 

Jul, I Tim. iii. 8. 
Sto, conj. (S.a and o), therefore, on 

which account, wherefore. 
Si-oSevw, to journey or pass through, 

Luke viii. i ; Acts xvii. i. 
5i(5-7r€p, conj., /or this very reason, i Cor. 

viii. 13. 
Aio-Trer^s, h, fcdlen from Zeus or Ju- 

jtiter. Acts xix. 35. 
Si-6pduais, ecus, rj, an amendment, re- 

forruation, Heb. ix. 10. 
Si-opvarcrai, |ai, to dig through. Matt. 

vi. 19, xxiv. 43. 
Ai(^(r-Koupo(, &);/, 01 (children of Zeus), 

Castor and Pollux, Acts xxviii. 1 1. ' 
Si-oTi, conj. ( = SioL TovTo, oTt), whcre- 

fore, on this account, because, for. 
Aio-Tpecpijs, ovs, 6, Diotrejjhes, 3 John 9. 
SiirAcios, of's, ^, ovv, double, twofold, 

I Tim. *•. 17 ; comp. , 5t7r aJt epos with 

gen., Matt, xxiii. 15. 
5i7rA($£t», aj, to double, Eev. xviii. 6. 
Six, adv., <««ice. 
Ai'j, obsolete nom. for _Zf us, gen. Aios, 

ace. Ai'a, .^eHS or Jujjittr. 
SiuTafai, (ra) (Sis), to waver, to doubt. 

Matt. xiv. 31. 
Si'-o-To/tos, oj/ (Sis), two-edged, Heb. 

iv. 12, 
Si<r-xiAioi, at, a, num., two thousand. 
5i-vKi^u, to strain off, filer thivugh a 

sieve, Matt, xxiii. 24. 
5ixdC<o, troi, to set at variance, divide, 

Matt. X. 35. 
iixo-ffraffia, as, 71, a faction, division, 

separation, i Cor. iii. 3. 
Sixo-'^oi^^'^j '^1 io c"^ '"■ two or asunder. 
SiiJ/aco, i, Tiff'^, ^0 thirst for, to desire 

earnestly, ace. 
Sitpos, ovs, t6, thirst, 2. Cor. xi. 27. 
5i-i|/i;Xos, ov (Sis), double-minded, James 

i. 8, iv. 8. 
SLwy/jLos, ov, d, persecution. 
SiwKTTis, ov, 6, a persecutor. 
SiuiKw. |a), (i) to pursue, persecute, 

harass : (2) to press earnestly for- 
ward, Phil. iii. 12; (3) to folloiv, 

simply, Luke xvii. 23 ; (4) fig., to 

prosecute with ardent desire. 
U-yiJ-a, aros, to [5ok4iu), a decree, edict, 

ordinance ; as of a prince, Luke ii. i ; 
of the Mosaic law, Eph. ii. 15; of 
the Apostles, Acts x vi. 4. " Dogma. " 

SoY/uaTiCjOi, fju3, to make a decree, to iin- 
pose an ordinance ; pass., to subind 
to ordinances. Col. ii. 20. 

So/ceu), CO, Sd^o), ( 1) to think, ace. and inf. 
(or inf. of the same subj. as Luke 
viii. 18); (2) to seem, appear, be 
evident; (3) Soke?, inipers., it seems; 
it seems good to or pileases, dat. 

So/fi^a^oi, aw, to try, put to the proof, 
to learn by experience, 2, Cor. viii. 22 ; 
to discern, to distingui^/i, Luke xii. 56 ; 
to judge fit, i Cor. xvi. 3. 

SoKfyUTJ, ^s, Tj, proof, knowledge acquired 
by jjroof, experience. 

^oKijxiov, ov, r6, a test, a means of trying, 
a criterion. 

S6kiixos, ov (Se'xo/ioi), approved, genuine, 
acceptcMe, Kom. xvi. 10, xiv. 18. 

ZoKos, ov, 71, a beam of timber, Matt, 
vii. 3, 4, 5. _ 

SoAios, ia, lov, deceitful, z Cor. xi. 13. 

SoAido), CO, to deceive. Impf., 3rd pers. 
pliu'. , iZoKiovtrav, an Alexandrian 
foi'm from LXX., Eom. iii. 13. 

SdAos, 01), 0, fraud, deceit, crcft, 2 Cor. 
xii. 16. 

SoAdo), S), to fcdsify, adulterate, 2 Cor. 
iv. 2. 

5d/ia, oTos, t6 (StSw/xi), a gift. 

So^a, as, 7] (SoKsui, "favourable estima- 
tion"), (i) honour, glory, yielded to 
God ; manifestation of character, as 
of God, Eom. iii. 7 ; applause, given 
to men ; splendour, lustre, dazzling 
light, al 5d|ai, dignities, on earth or 
in heaven, 2 Pet. ii. 10 ; Jude 8 ; 
future glory, Eom. ii. 7, 10. 

So^ci^cn, croi, to ascribe glory to, to honour, 

AopKos, ciSos, 71, Dorcas, Acts ix. 36, 39. 

5d(Tis, i(as, 7], a giving, Phil. iv. 15 j a 
gift, James i. 17. 

S6t7]s, ov, 6, a giver, 2 Cor. ix. 7. 

Sov\-a-)wy(ai, Si, to bring into subjection, 
I Cor. ix. 27. 

SouAeia, as, 7], slavery, bondage. 

SotAeuco, aw, (i) to be a slave, absolutely ; 
(2) to be subject to, to obey, dat. 

Sov\7], Tjs, Tj, a handmaid, a female slave. 





oovKos, ov, 6, (i) a slave, i.e., one of 
servile condition ; (2) a servant of 
any one, correlative to Kvpws. See 

Sov\6w, w, (icrci), to reduce to bondage 
(ace. and dat. ); jiass., to be held 
.mbject to. 

Soxv, V^, V (SexoM"')) "^ receiving of 
guests," a banquet, Luke xiv. 13. 

SpaKoiu, ovTos, 6, a dragon or huge ser- 
pent ; symb. for Satan, Rev. xii. 

Spaffcro/jLat, dep., to grasp, take, catch; 
ace, I Cor. iii. 19. 

opaxfJ.v, vs, 7], a drachma, an Attic silver 
coin equal to the Roman denarius, 
or worth between sevenpeuce and 
eightpence of our money, Luke xv. 8. 

Spifioo, obs. (see Tpexw), to run. 

Spiiravof, ov, t6, a sickle or pruning- 
iiook, Mark iv. 29 ; Rev. xiv. 14. 

^p6)xos. ov, 6, "a racecoux'se ; " tig., 
course, career. 

Apov(rih\a, 7JS, r], D7vistUa,Acts xxiv.24. 

Swafxai, dep. (see 109, b, 1), to be able, 
abs., or with inf. (sometimes omitted) 
or ace. ; to have a capacity for ; to be 
strong, as i Cor. iii. 2 ; to have power 
to do, whether through ability-, dis- 
position, permission, or opportunity. 

Sivu/xis, fws, 1^, (i) pioiver, might, abso- 
lutely or as an attribute ; (2) power 
over, expressed by els or iiri (ace), 
ability to do ; (3) exerc'it>e of power, 
miracle ; (4) forces, as of an armj% 
spoken of the heavenly hosts, as 
Matt. xxiv. 29 ; (5) force, as of a 
word, i.e., significance, i Cor. xiv. 11. 
See S3aionyms. 

hvva^6cc, w, to strengthen, confirm, Col. 
i. 1 1. 

hvvaarris, ov, v, (i) a potentate, Luke 
i. 52; [z) one in authority, A.ctii\iii. 27. 

SuvaTeco, to, to be powerful, to show one's 
self powerful, 2 Cor. xiii. 3. 

^vvarSs, V, 6v, having poioer, mighty 
(6 5vyaT6s, THE Almighty, Luke 
i. 49), distinguished, for rank, Acts 
XXV. 5 ; for skill, for excellence, 
Luke xxiv. 19. Swarou, p>ossible. 

hvvw or Svo), 2nd aor., tdw, to sink ; to 
set, as the sun, Mark i. 32 ; Luke 
iv. 40. 

Svo, num., indecl., except dat., Svffl, 

Svs; an inseparable prefix, implying 

adver.'^e, difficult, or grievous. 
Svcr-pdffTaKTos, ov, oppressive, dijficuU 

to be borne. Matt, xxiii. 4, 
Svff-fvrepia, ar, tj, a, dysentery, a flux. 
5i'(T-ef>iJ.riveuTos, ov, hard to be explained. 
ovcr-KoKos, ov (lit., " difScult about 

food "), difficult, hard to accomplish. 

Adv., -ws, vjith difficulty, hardly. 
Svfffj.-}], rjs, T] (generally plur., Suo-juai), 

the setting of the sun ; the west. 
Sva-vdriros, ov, hard or difficult to be 

imderstood, 2 Pet. iii. 16. 
Sua--<f>r]fiia, as. tj, evil report, infamy. 
SuiSeKo., indecl. , num. , twelve, ol SdSeKa, 

the twelve, or the Apostles. 
Su-SfKaTos, T), ov, num., ord., twelfth. 
5wS£Kd-(puAov, ov, r6, the twelve tribes, 

SccfjLa, aros, to, a house, a house-top. 

See Synonyms. 
Scopect, as, 7), a free gift, 
daipiav, accus. of preced., as an adv., 

freely, 2 Cor. xi. 7 ; without cause, 

grourwllessly, John xv. 25 ; Gal. ii. 2 1 ., ovfxai, to give freely, Mark 

XV. 45 ; pass., 2 Pet. i. 3, 4. 
SapTjiuLa, aros, t6, a free gift, Rom. v. 16; 

James i. 17. 
Swpov, ov, t6, a gift, E])h. ii. 8 ; 071 

offering or sacrifice. Matt. viii. 4; 

a gift to the temple treasury, Luke 

xxi. I. 


E, 6, f \f/7\ov, epsilon, ?, the fifth letter. 
As a numeral, i— 5 ; e^— 5000. 

ca, interj., expressing surprise or com- 
plaint, oh ! alas ! Mark i. 24 ; Luke 
iv. 34. 

iav, conj. (for d &v), if, usually con- 
strued with subjunctive verb. See 
383. Sometimes as a particle of 
time, John xii. 32, ivhen ; after the 
relative, with some other words, 
soever. Matt. v. 19, viii. 19 ; 1 Cor. 
xvi. 6. ehv 5e /coi, and if also ; iav jj-t], 
except, unless, Matt. v. 20 ; but that, 
Mark iv. 22 ; iav Trt'p, if indeed, 
Heb. vi. 3 ; iiv re, if so be, whether. 

tavToC — eSpai(0|Jial 



eavTov, pron., reflex., 3r(i pers., of one's 
self; used also in ist (plur. ) and 2nd 
persons. See 335. Genitive often 
for possess, pron. \4-y€tv or elire7y iv 
eavT(j}, to say vnf.hin Okie's self, i.e., to 
think ; ylvfo'dai or epx^cOai iv eavrw, 
to come to one's self, i.e., to recover 
one's recollection ; irpbs kavTov, to 
one's home, John xx. 10, or privately, 
as Luke zviii. 11; iv kavTols, among 
yourselves, i. e. ,one vv^ith another; Kaff 
kaur6v, apart; irap' eaurSv, at home. 

iioj, S>, idao! ; impf., tloov ; ist aor. , 
fiacra, (1) to permit, inf., or ace. and 
inf. ; (2) to leave alone ; (3) to let go. 
Acts xxvii. 40. 

ijBSo/xTiKovTa, indecl., num., seventy. 
ol i^SofiriKoma, the seventy disciples, 
Luke X. I, 17. 

iBSofiriKoynxKis, num. adv., seventy 
times ; rhet. for any large number. 

'iBSo/xos, Tj, ov, ord. num., seventh. 

'E^ifi, <5, Eber or Heber, Luke iii. 35. 

'ZSpaiK6s, i),oV, Hebrew. 

'EBpouos, aia, atov, also subst., 6, t}, a 
Hebrew ; a Jew of Palestine, in dis- 
tinction from ol 'EWTiviffrai, or Jews 
born out of Palestine, and using the 
Greek language. 

e^pais, iSos, t), the Hebrew or Aramcxan 
language, vernacular in the time of 
Christ and the Apostles. See 150. 

fPpaXffTi, adv. , in the Hebrew language. 
See preceding. 

iyyiCo, fut. att., iyyiSi ; pf., ^771^0, to 
approach, to draw near, to be near, 
abs., or with dat. or €jj, or iivi (ace. ) 

iy-ypa<poi, to inscribe, infix, 2 Cor. iii. 2. 

eyyvoi, ov, 6, i], a surety, sponsor, Heb. 
vii. 22. 

iyyvs, adv., near; used of both place 
and time, with gen. or dat. 

iyyvrepov, comp. of preceding, nearer ; 
used of time, Rom. xiii. 1 1. 

iyeipai, iyepi, pass. perf. , iyjiyepfjLai, to 
arouse, to awaken ; to raise up, as a 
Saviour ; to erect, as a building ; 
mid., to rise up, as from sleep, or 
from a recumbent posture, as at 
table. Applied to raising the dead; 
used also of rising up against, as an 
adversary, or in judgment. 

tyepcris, €cos, ri, a waking lip ; of the 
resurrection, Matt, xxvii. 53. 

e7-/ca0-6Tos, ov, adj. (iyKaOi-rjui), a spy, 
an insidious foe. 

iyKaivia, iwv, to., a dedication, John 
X. 22 ; of the feast commemorating 
the detlicating or purifying of the 
temjile, after its pollution by Anti- 
oclins Epiphanes, 25 Chisleu, answer- 
ing to mid-December. 

iy-Kaivl^o), to renovate, as a way, Heb. 
X. 20 ; consecrate, as a covenant, 
Heb. ix. 18. 

iy-KoXiu, u. iffca, impf., ivtKaXow, to 
summon to a court for trial, to indict, 
pers. dat., or Kara (gen.); crime, in 

, §^°' 

ey-KaTa-Keiirui, ;|/ai, (i) to desert, to 

abandon ; (2) to leave remaining, 

Rom. ix. 29. 

iy-Kar-oiKfw, u, to dwell among {iv). 

iy-KevTpi^w, to insert, as a bud or graft; 
tig., Rom. xi. 17, &c. 

iy-K\r}fiu, aros, to, a cJiarge or accusa- 
tion., ov/, to clothe, as with 
an outer garment tied closely with 
knots, I Pet. v. 5. 

ey-Konri, iis, rj, an impediment. 

iy-K6irTa!, \pw, ist aor., it-fKoxpa, to inter- 
rupt, to hinder (ace. , or inf. with rov). 

iy-Kpdrfia, as, 7], self-control, tempe- 
rance, continence. 

iy-Kparevo/xai, dep., to restrain one's self, 
in sensual pleasui-es; to be temperate. 

iy-KpaTTis, fs, having power over, self- 
controlled, temperate, abstinent. 

iy-Kplvia, to adjudge or reckon, to a 
j)articular rank (ace. and dat.), 
2 (Jor. x. 12. 

iy-KpvTTTiii, to hide in, to mix with, as 
leaven with meal. 

iy-Kvos, ov, pregnant, Luke ii. 5. 

iy-Xp'^o, to rub in, anoint. Rev. iii. 1 8. 

iyd}, pron., pers., /; plur., ■^/xeij, we. 
See 53. 

i^a(pi(o}, fut. (Attic), -iw, to lay level 
with the ground, to raze,lMke xix. 44. 

eSa(pos, ovs, to, the ground. Acts xxii. 7. 

eSpoTos, aia, alov, stedfast, firm, fixed. 

iSpaiccfia, aros, t6, a basis, stay, sup- 
port, I Tim. iii. 15. 



['EtcKias — €lpi]ViKds 

'E^e/ci'aj, ov, S, Hezekiah, Matt. i. 9. 

ie(Ao-6pricrKela, as, rj, will-ivorship, Col. 
ii. 23 (see Bpricriciia). 

iOeKo). See 6i\ca. 

id'iC^, to accuxtom ; pass., perf. part., 
neut. , rb el8i(rfj.eiov, the accustomed 
practice, the custom. 

ieviipxT)^, ov, 6, a prefect, lieutenant- 
governor, ethnarch, 2 Cor. xi. 32. 

eBviK6s, T], 6v, national, of Gentile race, 
heathen. Adv., -is, heathenly, after 
the manner of heathens. 

fSyos, ovs, t6, the people of any country, 
a nation, to eflfrj, the nations, tlie 
heathen world, the Gentiles. 

fQos, ovs, t6, a usage, custom, manner. 

f6a>, pf., e'iwBa, to be accustomed, rh 
eiaiBhi avrw, his custom, Luke iv. 16 ; 
Acts xvii. 2. 

el, a conditional conjunction (see 383), 
if, since, though. After verbs indi- 
cating emotion, ei is equivalent to 
8ti, Mark xv. 44. As an interro- 
gative particle, et occurs in both in- 
direct and direct questions, Mark 
XV. 45 ; Acts i. 6. In oaths and 
solemn assertions, it may be rendered 
by tlMt ... not. d /J-rj and ft yu'^Ti, 
unless, except, d Se fx-ri, but if not, 
otherwise, John xiv. 2. d irep, if so 
be. d ircos, if possibly, ene . . . dre, 
lohether ...or. 

el5os, ovs, t6, (i) outward appearance, 
2 Cor. V. 7 ; (2 ) form, aspect, John 
V. 37 ; (3) species, kind, i Thess. 
V. 22. 

dZw, obs. See opaco, o/So. 

d^wXdov, ov, tJ, an idol's temple, 1 Cor. 
viii. I o. 

d5w\6-6vTos, ov, sacrificed to idols ; used 
of meats, as Acts xv. 29. 

€i5cDXo-XaTp6ia, as, rj, idolatry. 

eiSaiAo-XdrpTjs, ov, 6, an idolater. 

ti5ci)\ov, ov, r6, an idol, a false god 
wurship]>ed in an image. 

(Urj or dKrj, adv., (i) icithout purpose ; 
Rom. xiii. 4 ; (2) in vain, 1 Cor. 
XV. 2. 

tiKoiTi, indec, num., twenty. 

(Xko}, to give way, to yield. Gal. ii. 5. 

dKoi, obs., whence 2nd perf. eoiKo, to 
resemble ; with dat., James i. 6, 23. 

uKuv, 6vos, rj, an image, copy, repre- 
sentation, likeness. 

dKiKp'iViia, as, f), clearness, sincerity. 

d^lKplln)s, es, sincere, piure, without spot 
or blemish (perhajjs from ei'A.T,, sun- 
light, and /cp iVco, to judge, "capable of 
being judged in the light"). 

dxlcraw, to roll together, as a scroll, 
Eev. vi. 14. 

et/ti (see 110), a verb of existence, 
( I ) used as a predicate, to be, to exist, 
to happen, to come to pass ; with an 
infin. following, e'ctti, it is convenient, 
proper, &c., as Heb. ix. 5 ; (2) as 
the copula of subject and predicate, 
simply to be, or in the sense of to be 
like, to represent, John vi. 35; Matt, 
xxvi. 26 ; I Cor. X. 4. With parti- 
cijdes, it is used to form the "re- 
solved tenses," as Luke i. 22, iv. 16; 
Matt. x\a. 19, &c. With gen., as 
predicate, it marks quality, posses- 
sion, participation, &c. ; with dat., 
property, possession, destination, 
&c. For its force with a prep, and 
its case, see Syntax of Prepositions. 
The verb, when copula, is often 
omitted. Participle, icv, being ; rb 
ov, that which is; 01 vvres, to ovra, 
persons or things, tfiat are. This 
also is often omitted. 

ilfjii, to go, in some copies for dfj.i, iu 
John vii. 34, 36. 

(LViKa, -iv, for ei/e/cu, -er. 

elTrep, dirus. See in ei. 

dirov (see 103, 7), from obs. eirw, or 
dirta, to say; interrogatively, to 
enquire. Acts viii. 30; or in reply, 
to answer, Mark xv. 34. In narra- 
tion, to tell. Matt. viii. 4; in pre- 
dictions, to foretell, Mark xiv. 16 ; 
in authoritative directions, to bid or 
command, Luke vii. 7. 

dprjvevoj, to have peace or to be at 

dprivri, 7JS, i), peace, the opposite of 
dissension or war ; peace of mind, 
arising from reconciliation with God ; 
health, pros2Jerity, every good, tem- 
poral and spiritual. Often employed 
in salutations, as in Heb. 

dpTjvtKds, r], 6v, (i) 2>f actable, James 

€lpT]VO-'irOl€'w €K-8lWKw] 



iii. 17; (2) peaceful, wholesome, ' 
xii. 1 1. 

ilp-nvo-TToieoi, w, to make peace, reconcile. 
Col. i. 20. 

(Iprivo-TToiSs, ov, 6, a peacemaker, one 
disjjosed to peace. Matt. v. 9. 

eis, prep, governing ace, i?ito, to (the 
interior). See 124, 298. In com- 
position, it implies motion into or 

eis, n'la, fv, a card. num. , one ; used 
distributively, Matt. xx. 21; by 
way of siiiphasis, Mark ii. 7 ; and 
indefinitely, Matt. viii. 19. Comp. 
Mark xii. 42. As an ordinal, the 
first. Matt. XX viii. i ; Rev. ix. 12. 

eiV-o7co, 2ndaor. , €iar\yix-yov, to bring in, 

eicr-aKouu, to listen to, to hear, so as to 
obey (gen.) ; spoken of God's hear- 
ing prayer, Matt. vi. 7, &c. 

elcr-Sexoixai, to receive into favour {a,cc.), 
2 Cor. vi. 17 ; from LXX. 

fiff-€tfxi, impf., ctVpeij/; inf., elcrUvai 
(elyui), to (JO in, to enter (with eh)., 2nd aor., ilarjxdov, to come 
in, to enter (chiefly with us), ilaip- 
XOfJ-ai. and i^ipxap-ai, to come and go 
in aayl out, spoken of daily life and 
intercourse. Fig., of entrance upon 
a state. 

(l(r-Ka\ew, w, only mid. in N.T., to call 
or invite in. Acts x. 23. 

etff-oSos, ou, 7], an entrance, a first 
coming, an admission. 

eiV-TnjSuo), Si), to leap in, to spring in. 
Acts xiv. 14, xvi. 29., dep., to go in, to enter ; 
spoken of persons, Mark i. 21 ; of 
things, Matt. xv. 1 7 ; to arise, as 
thoughts in the mind, INIark iv. 19, 
ilaizoptvoixai and, to go in 
and out in daily duties. Acts ix. 28. 

ila-Tp^x<^, 2iid aor., elaeSpanov, to run 
in, or into, Acts xii. 14. 

eia-cptpu (see 103, 6), to lead into (with 
eis), e. y. , temptation, Luke xi. 4; to 
bring to the ears of. Acts xvii. 20. 

eFro, adv., then, afterwards, 

lire, conj. See il. 

sK, or, before a vowel, e|, a prep. gov. 
gen., from, out of (the interior). 

See 293. In composition, ex im- 
plies removal, continuance, completion, 
or is of intensive force. 

iKaa-Tos, each, every one (with gen.) efj 
'^Kacrros, every one soever. 

kKacjTOTi, adv., each time, every time, 

fKardy, card, num., a hundred. 

eKaTovTaiTTjs, es, a hundred years old. 

tKaTovTaTrKaa-iaii', ov, a hundredfold. 

kuciTouTapx-ns, ov, 6, cap)tain over a hun- 
dred men, a centurion, an officer in 
Konian armies. 

iK-^d\K<a (see ^iXKca for forms), to cast 
out, send out, as labcurei-s into a 
field ; to send away, dismiss, reject ; 
to extract or take out. 

iK-^ams, ectff, t], a way out, event, end. 

€/c-/3oA77, ris, Tj, a casting out, as lading 
from a ship. Acts xxvii. 1 8. 

iK-ya/j.i(a}, to give in marriage, i Cor. 
vii. 38, &c. 

iK-yapiiaKoi, the same, Luke xx. 34, 35. 

iK-yovos, ov, sprung from ; neut. pliu-., 
descendants, 1 Tim. v. 4. 

eK-5o7ra;'aai, w, to spend entirely ; pass, 
reflex. , to expend 07ie's energies for 
(vTrep), 2 Cor. xii. 15. 

e/c-5e'xo/"ai, to look out for, to expect 
(ecos), to wait for (ace.) 

skStjAos, Of, quite plain, conspicuous, 
manifest, 2 Tim. iii. 9. 

€K-57j|ae'a>, w, to be away from, absent 
from, 2 Cor. v. 6-9. 

€/c-Si(5ai^<, N.T. mid., to let out to farm. 
Matt. xxi. 33. 

iK-Si-7],, dep. mid., to rehearse 
particularly, tell fully. Acts xiii. 41. 

eK-St«€a>, w, to dojustie to, avenge (ace. ) ; 
to defend (ace. and inrd), Luke xviii. 5 ; 
to punish, 2 Cor. x. 6 ; to demand 
requital for (a,cc.), from (e'/c or aiT6j, 
Rev. vi. 10. 

e/c-SiKrjdiy, ecus, fi, an avenging, vindi- 
cation, -punishment, Luke xviii. 7 ; 
Rom. xii. 19. 

e/c-5iKos, ov, 6, r/, an avenger, one loho 
adjudgi's a culprit (dat. ) to punish- 
ment for (irepi) a crime, Rom. yiii. 4 j 
I Thess. iv. 6. 

iK-5id)Ka>, to persecute, to expel by perse- 
cuting, Luke xi. 49; i Thess. ii, 15. 



[sK-SoTOS — Ix-TrXijpwTis 

«»c-5oToy, ov, delivered up. Acts ii. 23. 

eK-doxv, vs, T), a waiting/or, expectation, 
Heb. X. 27. 

«K-5ua), to vndcthe, to strip off (two 

t'/fft, adv., there, thither. 

iKuOev, adv. , from that place, thence. 

cKsTfos, 7], o, pron., demons., that, that 
one there ; used antithetically, Mark 
xvi. 20, and by way of emphasis, 
Matt. xxii. 23. See 338, 340. 

eKeicTf, adv., thither, in const, prceg., 
Acts xxii. 5. 

iK-Cvreio, i, to seek out with diligence ; 
to seek for, e.g., God, or to tui-u to 
him, Rom. iii. 11 ; to require, judi- 
cially, Heb. xi. 6; Luke xi. 50, 51. 

4K-daiJ.^4oi, Si, N.T. pass., to he amazed, 
greatly astonished, Mark ix. 1 5. 

(K-daixBos, ov, surprised, greatly amazed, 
Acts iii. 1 1. 

fK-dsTos,ov, cast out, exposed to perish, 
Acts vii. 19. 

tK-Kadaipai, ist aor., i^eKidapa, to purge 
Old, to cleanse, i Cor. v. 7 ; 2 Tim. ii. 4. 

(K-Kuiw (f), to burn vdiemently, as with 
lust, Horn. i. 27. 

e'/c-Ka/cfo), Si (see i-yKaKeai), to faint, to 
despond through fear. 

fK-Kevreca, Si, to 2nerce through, to trans- 
fix, John xix. 37 ; Rev. i. 7. 

eK-K\aa>, to break off, as branches from 
a stem. 

iKK\e'tui, (TO), to shut out, Rom. iii. 27 ; 
(xal. iv. 27. 

fKK\7](Tla, as, ri {(KKaXfui), an assembly, 
a congregation ; legally calletl. Acts 
xix. 39 ; or tumultuously gathered. 
Acts xix. 32, 40. In a Christian 
sense, the Qhurch as a whole, or a 
church in one place, i Cor. xii. 28 ; 
Acts xi. 26. So often plural, as 
Acts XV. 41. 

iK-KKivai, to decline, turn, away frorii 

fK-KoXufi^dca, Si, to swim Old or away, 
Acts xxvii. 42. 

iK-Ko/xi^ec, to carry out to hunal, I^uke 
vii. 12. 

tV-Kf^TTTO), (1) to cut doivn or off, as a 
tree or a branch, Luke iii. 9 ; or as 
a limb, Matt. v. 30 ; (2) lig., to 

hinder, as prayer from being effec- 
tual, I Pet. iii. 7. 

fK-Kp4iJ.a/ (mid. of eKKpefiavvvfjii), to 
hang upon, or to be earnestly atten- 
tive to, Liilvc xix. 48. 

e/c-AoXe'co, w, to speak out, to disclose 
(dat. aud on). Acts xxiii. 22. 

eK-\djj,ir(ii, to shine out or brightly, Matt. 
xiii. 43. 

eK-\avddf(i}, in mid., to forget entirely, 
Heb. xii. 5. 

eK-Xeyoi, mid. in N.T., ist aor., e|f- 
Aela^Tjf, to choose out for one's self, 
to elect. 

eK-\eiir(ii, 2nd aor., i^e\nroy, to fail, to 
ci^ase, to die, Luke 1. 6, 9 ; Heb. i. 12. 

€K\eKT6s, i], 6v, (i) chosen, elect; (2) 
choice, approved. 

€K\oyn, TJs, T}, a choice, selection. Acts 
ix. 15; the chosen ones, Rom. xi. 7. 

eK-A.vco, in pass, or mid., to become weary 
in body, or de.'ipo)ident in mind. 

iK-fj.dacrci), |a>, to wipe, to wipe dry, John 
xi. 2. 

fK-fxvKTripi^oii, to deride, intensively ; to 
scoff at (ace.) 

fK-v€ai {evaui), to withdraw, John v. 13. 

iK-vi]<\i(ii, to awake, as from a drunken 
sleep, I Cor. xv. 34. 

tKovaios, ov (eKciv), voluntary, spon- 
taneous. Adv., -ais, willingly, of 
one's own accord. 

eK-ira\ai, adv., of old, of long standing, 
2 Pet. ii. 3. 

eK-ireipafo), irw, to jmt to the test, to 
make trial of, to tempt, Matt. iv. 7 ; 
I Cor. X. 9. 

eK-irefj.iru, to send out or forth, Acts 
xiii. 4. 

eK-ireravvvfii, ist aor., eleTreVotra, to 
stretch forth, as the hands in suppli- 
cation, Rom. X. 21 (LXX. ) 

eK-TTiTTTCtf, (i) to fall from (e/c) ; spokei 
of stars, Mark xiii. 25 ; of flowers, J 
James i. 1 1 ; of a ship falling or 
driven from its course. Acts xxvii. i7;| 
(2) fig., of moral la]ise, as Gal. v. 
(gen.) ; (3) to fail, abs., i Cor. xiii. '■ 

e/c-TrAe'o), euffw, to sail out, to sail fromi 
{an6, fis). 

fK-TT\rip6(i), to fulfil entirely. Acts xiii. 32J 

iK--irKiip(i)(Tis, eais, t), entire fulfilment. 





eK-ir\-fi(Tcra), 2nd aor. pass., i^eirXdynv, 

to strike vAth astonlshnwnt. 
iK-irviw, evaw, to breathe out, as the 

sjiirit ; to expire, to die. 
iK-TTopevopLai, dep. , to go out (airh, e/c, 
•napa, and €tj, eiri, ■kj)6s) ; to proceed 
frovi, as from the heart ; or as a 
river from its source, &c. 
iK-TTopyfvw, to be given up to lewdness, 

Jude 7. 
iK-TTTvoi, to reject as distasteful, Gal. 

iv. 14 ; to loathe. 
e/c-pi^o'o), cS, to root out or root up. Matt. 
xiii. 29, XV. 1 3 ; Liike xvii. 6 ; Jude 12. 
%K-(nacn.s, ««y, t], "ecstasy," (i) trance. 
Acts X. 10 ; (2) overwltelming asto- 
nishment, Mark v. 42. 
fK-cTTpecpai, perf. pass., ii,e<rTpafj.fjiai, to 
turn out of a phxce, to corrupt, to 
penwrt. Tit. iii. 11. 
eK-Tapd(T(roc, |a), to agitate greatly. Acts 

xvi. 20. 
e/c-TeiVoi, vai, ist aor., e^ereiva, to stretch 
out, as the hand ; to throw out, as 
anchors from a vessel, Luke v. 1 3 ; 
Acts xxvii. 30. 
€K-TeAeco, i, eVw, to complete, Luke 

xiv. 29, 30. 
iK-Tfveia, as, rj, intentness, Acts xxvi. 7. 
€/c-Tei'rJ9, es, intense, vehement, fervent. 
Adv., -Sis, intensely, earnestly. eV- 
TevecTTfpov, comp. as adv. , more ear- 
ne--itly, Luke xxii. 44. 
eK-rie-rifjLi (see 107), (i) to put out or 
expose, as was the infant Moses, Acts 
vii. 21; (2) to teach fully or accu- 
rately, to expiound. Acts xviii. 26. 
eK-riva.Taoi, ^oi, to shake off, as dust from 

the feet, Matt. x. 14. 
fKTos, 7;, ov, an ord. num., .sixtli.. 
eKT6s, adv., generally as preji., with 
gen., vnthout, beside% except, enrhs 
(i fiT], nevertheless except, 1 Cor. 
xiv. 5, &c. 
eK-Tpeirai, to turn from, to forsake, 

I Tim. V. 15. 
eK-Tp4<p<t), (\) to nourish, sustain, Eph. 
V. 29 ; {2) to educate or train up, 
Eph. vi. 4. 
fK-rpcefia, aros, ro, an abortive birth, an 

abortion, i Cor. xv. 8. 
iK-<pepa), to carry out, as to burial. Acts 

v. 6 ; or as sick persons ; to produce, 

spoken of the earth, Heb. vi. 8. 
eK-^evya>, to fee out from, escape (abs., 

or with €k) ; to avoid (ace.) 
eK-(l>o^ia}, u>, to terrify greatly, 2 Cor. x. 9. 
fK-(po0os, OV, frightened, Mark ix. 6 ; 

Heb. xii. 21. 
4K-(pvei}, 2nd aor. pass., e^icpvTiu, to put 

forth, as a tree its leaves. Matt. 

xxiv. 32. 
eK-xeu), also iKxvvu ; f ut. , fKxeui ; i st 

aor., e^ixea (see 96, c), to pour out, 

as wine spilled, Luke v. 37; as 

money thrown down, John li. 15 ; 

as blood shed in sacrifice, Matt. 

xxvi. 28 ; <o kill, by pouring out the 

blood. Fig., to sited abroad, or give 

largely, Rom. v. 5 ; to rush . into, 

Jude II. 
iK-xaip(w, w, to depart from, to go out, 

Luke xxi. 21. 
iK-4ivxoii, to expire, to die. Acts v. 5, 10, 

xii. 23. 
eKwy, owa, 6v, willing; used adverbially, 

Kom. viii. 20 ; i Cor. ix. 17. 
€Ao(o, OS, T], an olive tree ; its fruit, the 

olive. t6 opos Tuv 4\ai<iv, the Mount 

of Olives, 
ihaiov, ov, t6, olive oil. 
eKaidiv, ojvos, o, an olive grove, Olivet, 

Acts i. 12. 
'EAo^iTTjs, ov, 6, an Elamite, or inlui- 
bitant of Elam, a region of Persia, 
Acts ii. 9. 
eXdcraajv, or -ttoiv, ov, compar. of i\ax.vs 
for fMiKpSs, less; in quality, John 
ii. 10; in age, llom. ix. 12; in diu- 
nity, Heb. vii. 7. iXarrov, adv., less, 

1 Tim. V. 9. 

eKaTTovioj, w, to have too little, to lack, 

2 Cor. viii. 15 (LXX.) 

iXaTTooi, u, to nuiKe loioer or inferior, 

Heb. ii. 7, 9 ; pass., to decrease, 

John iii. 30. 
iXavuM, iKaaw, i\ri\aKa, to drive, Luke 

viii. 29 ; to impel, as the winds, the 

clouds, James iii. 4 ; or oars, a ship ; 

hence to roiv, John vi. 18. 
i\a<pp'ia, as, rj, levity, inconstancy, 2 Cor. 

1. 17. 
i\a(pp6s, a, 6v, light, as a burden easily 

borne, Matt. xi. 30 ; 2 Cor. iv. 17. 



[€\d)(i(rTOS — efJiavTov 

i\dxicTos, T], ov, adj. (superl. of iXaxvs 
for fxiKp6s), least, ia number, magni- 
tude, importance. 

eAoxiffTcJTefjay, a, ou, a double compa- 
rison, less tlian the least, Eph. iii. 8. 

fKaa>. See iKavvw. 

'EAfi^ap, 6, Eleazar, Matt. i. 1 5. 

fA.67|is, (ws, 7], conviction, reproof. 

eA,67xos, ov, 6, evident demonstration, 
proof, Heb. xi. i ; 2 Tim. iii. 16. 

f\4yx<^, |£u, <o convict, reprove, rebuke, 
J ohn viii. 9 ; Luke iii. 1 9 ; to render 
■manifest, to demonstrate, John iii. 20; 
Epli. V. II, 13. 

i\i(:iv6s, ■i\, uu, pitiable, miserable, i Cor. 
XV. 19. 

iKeeai, u, to have compassion on, suc- 
cour (ace), to show mercy ; pass., to 
obtain mercy. 

iKeri/xoa-vvr], tjj, fj, pity, compassion; 
in N.T., alms, sometimes plur. 

iKiijfxccv, ov, full of pity, merciful, com- 

(\eos, ovs, t6 (and ov, 6, see 32, a), pity, 
act of compassion, a merciful dispo- 
sition. Matt. ix. 13; mercy. 

iXevdepia, as, r], liberty, as freedom from 
the Mosaic yoke, 1 Cor. x. 29 ; Gal. 
ii. 4, &c. ; from worldly lusts, &c., 
James ii. 12; from, all evil, Horn, 
viii. 21. 

i\ev9(Dos, a, ov, free, as opposed to the 
condition of a slave ; delivered from 
obligation (often with 4k, aTr6) ; at 
libcTty to (inf.) Once with dat. of 
reference, P^om. vi. 20. 

i\€v9ep6o}, (5, to set free (generally with 
ace. and airo). With modal dative. 
Gal. V. I. 

t\ivais, fojs, 7) (cpxo/Ltoti), a coming, an 
advent. Acts vii. 52. 

ikiipavTivos, ij, ov, made of ivory. Rev. 
xviii. 12. 

'EXiaKeifi, 6 (Heb. ), Eliakim, Matt. i. 1 3 ; 
Luke iii. 30. 

'EM((ep, 6 (Heb.), Eliezer, Luke iii. 29. 

'E\iovS, 6 (Heb.), Eliud, Matt. i. 14. 

'EA.iaai8€T, 71 (Heb., Elisheba), Elizabeth, 
Luke i. 

'EXiaaalos, ov, d, Elisha, Luke iv. 27. 

i\iaa<ii, i^ai, as fixiaau, to roll up, as a 
garment, Heb. i. 12. 

sAkoj, ovs, t6, a wound, an ulcer, a 

e\K6a>, Si, to make a sore ; pass., to he 
full of sores, Luke xvi. 20. 

eAKvw, <Tw, to drag, as a net ; to bring 
to justice, to draw over, to persuade, 
John xii. 32. The old form of the 
word was eA/cco, impL, slXkov, James 
ii. 6 ; Acts xxi. 3c. 

', a5os, 77, Hellas, Greece = Axaiu, 
Acts XX. 2. 

"EAArji', Tjvos, 6, a Greek, as distinguished 
(i) from pdpffapos, barbarian, Rom. 
i. 14, and (2) from 'lav^aios, Jeio, 
John vii. 35 ; Acts xi. 20 (best edd.), 
&c. Used for Greek j^roselytes to 
Judaism, John xii. 20 ; Acts xvii. 4. 

'E\\t}vikSs, 7], 6v, Grecian, Luke xxiii. 38 ; 
Rev. ix. II. 

'EWrjvis, i5os, a Greek or Gentile woman, 
Mark vii. 20 ; Acts xvii. 12. 

'EW7]viffT7]s, ov (eAA7)i'i{&), to Hellenize, 
or adopt Greek manners and lan- 
guage), a Hellenist; one by parent- 
age and religion, but born in a 
Gentile country and speaking Greek, 
Acts vi. I, ix. 29. 

iw-nviari, adv., in the Greek language, 
John xix. 20 ; Acts xxi. 37. 

eK-Xoyeoi) (ev), to charge to, to put to 
one^s account, Rom. v. 1 3 ; Philem. 18. 

'EA/ioiSa/i, 6, Efmodam, Luke iii. 28. 

i\Tri^cu, att. fut., i\7nu), istaor., ^ATriero, 
to expect (ace. or inf., or 8ti) ; to 
hope for (ace.) ; to trust in (eV/ dat. ; 
4v, once dat. only) ; to direct hope 
towards (tls, eVi, ace.) 

eKiris, iSos, 7], expectation, hope, secure 
confidence. Used emphatically of 
the Christian hope. Met., (i) the 
author, (2) the object of hope. 

'E\v/xas, a, 6 (from Arabic), Elymas, 
i.e., a magus or sorcerer. Acts xiii. 8, 

'EAcot, My God! Mark xv. 34, The 
word is Hebrew (Ps. xxii. 2), pro- 
nounced in that language Eli, and so 
written, Matt, xxvii. 46 (^Ai). 

i^avTov, 7]s, ov, of myself, a reflexive 
pron., found only in the gen., dat., 
and accus. cases. It is frequently 
joined to active verbs, denoting 
spontaneous action. 

c|i-Pa(va) — tv-avTios] 



ifjL-^alvai, 2nd aor., ive^riv, part., ^^ujSar, 

to go Mp, upon, or into, as embarking. 
€/i-/8aAAa>, to cast into, Luke xii. 5. 
f>-0airT£o, to dip into, Matt. xxvi. 23 ; 

John xiii. 26. 
e/jL-paTevw, to enter, to intrude, to pry 

into, Col. ii. 18. 
t/u-;8i;3afa>, to cause to enter, to put on 

hoard, Acts xxvii. 6. 
ifj.-l3Keirca, to direct the eyes to anytldng, 

to look fixedly, to consider, to know 

by inspection (ace, dat. , or €ts). 
eH-^pilxa.o/, w/j-ai., dep. (^pifXT), an ex- 
pression of anger), to he angrily or 

vehemently moved, Mark xiv. 5 (dat. ) ; 

John xi. 33, 38 ; to strongly interdict, 

Matt. ix. 30 ; Mark i. 43. 
4fi4aj, 00, ist aor. inf., i/j-eaat, to vomit, 

to spue out. Rev. iii. 16. 
^fi-fiaivofxai, to be mad against (dat.), 

Acts xxvi. II. 
'E/jLfj.avovn\, 6, Emmanuel, a Hebrew 

word signifying "God with us;" a 

name of Christ, Matt. i. 23. 
'Efx.ij.aovs, V, Einmaus, a village a short 

distance from Jerusalem, Luke 

xxiv. 13. 
ffj.-fj.fuo), to remain or persevere in (dat. 

or if). 
'Efjinop, 6, Emmor, or Hamor, Acts 

viL 16. 
ifids, -i], 6v, mine, denoting possession, 

power over, authorship, right, &c. 

.See 336. 
efjL-irai'yti6s, ov, o, a being mocked or 

derided, Heb. ii. 36. 
ifi-Trai^ai, |a>, to mock, deride, scoff at 

(abs. or dat.) ; to deceive, delude, 

pass.. Matt. ii. 16. 
eV -TraiKTTjr, ov, 6, a scoffer, deceiver, 

2 Pet. iii. 13 ; Jude 18. 
^ixiTEpiiTarea!, ii, riac", to walk about in, 

to dwell among (eV), 2 Cor. vi. 16 

i/x-iri.ixirKrjiJ.1,\r](Tw, iviirXriaa, part. 

pres., ifiTriirKiiv (Acts xiv. 17), to fill 

up, to satisfiy, as with food, &c. 

(geu- ) 

ifj.-w'nrTu, to fall into or among {els) ; 
fig., to incur, as condemnation or 
punishment, i Tim. iii. 6 ; Heb. x. 3 1. 

eV-irXeKw, 2nd aor. pass., iveir\dKT]V, to 

entangle, implicate, 2 Tim. ii. 4 ; 
2 Pet. ii. 20 (dat. of thing). 

ifX-iT\r\dta. See iixirifXTr\rifj.i. 

ijjL-irKoKri, ■»)$, i], a twisting or braiding, 
as of hair, i Pet. iii. 3. 

(fx-TTi/fui, to breathe out (gen. ), Acts ix. i. 

ifx-Tropevo/xat, dep., "to go about;" 
hence to trade, to traffic, abs., James 
iv. 13; to make gain of (ace. ), 2 Pet. 
ii. 3. 

ilx-Tropla, as, f], trade, merchandise,M.a,tt. 
xxii. 5. 

ifjL-irdpiov, ov, t6, "emporium ;" a place 
for trading, John li. 16. 

i/j.-iTopos, ov, 6, a traveller, merchant, 
trader. Matt. xiii. 45 ; liev. xviii. 3, 

t|U-7rprj0w, aw, to set on fire, to burn, 
Matt. xxii. 7. 

efj.-irpoad(v, adv., before {%fnrpoa6ev koI 
oinadiv, in front and behind. Rev. 
iv. 6) ; as prep, (gen.), before, in 
presence of. Matt. x. 32 ; before, iu 
dignity, John i. 15, 27. 

ffx-TTTvco, aw, to spit upon (dat. or tis). 

ilJL-<pavi]s, 4s, manifest (dat.), Acts x. 40; 
Kom. x. 20. 

i/x-ipaviCw, f'o-oi, to make manifest (ace. 
and dat.) ; to show plainly (8ti, or 
prepp. irpns, irtpl, &c. ) 

(fi-(po^os, ov, terrified, afraid, Luke 
xxiv. 5, 37. 

ijx-<pvcaa), a>, to breathe upon, ace, John 
XX. 22. 

flj.-(puTos, ov, engrafted, James i. 2 1. 

eV, prep. gov. dat., in, generally as 
being or resting m ; tuithin. among. 
See 295. eV- in composition has the 
force of in, upon, into. It is changed 
before y, k, and %) ii^to iy-; before 
/3, IT, <f>, and /i, into e'yu- ; and before 
K, into i\-. The v is, however, re- 
stored before the augment in verbs. 

iv-ayKoXi^ofiai, to take up into one^s 
arms, Mark ix. 36, x. 16. 

fv-d\ios, ov (a\s), being or living in the 
secc, marine, James iii. 7. 

tv-avTt, adv., as prep, with gen., in the 
presence of, before. 

iv-avTios, a, ov, over against, contrary, 
said of the wind. Acts xs:viL 4; ad- 
verse, hostile, Acts xxvi. 9. Neut., 



[Iv-apxcjAtti — evvtos 

(vavriov, adv. as prep, with gen., in 
the pressnce of, Liike xxiv. 1 6 ; Acts 
vii. lo. 

iv-a.pxojxai, to begin,, Gal. iii. 3 ; Phil. i. 6. 

eV-5e7Js, «, in want, destitute, needy. 
Acts iv. 34. 

tU'Cei-yf^a,, aros, r6, an indication, proof, 
or manifest token, 2 Thess. i. 5. 

ev-SuKyvfit, N.T. mid. , to show, to mani- 
fest, Rom. ix. 17, &c.; implyiug 
action, 2 Tim. iv. 14. 

if3€i£,ts, eons, T], a declaration, made 
evident by deed, Kom. iii. 25 ; 2 Cor. 
viii. 24 ; a certain sign, Phfl. i. 28. 

evStKo, 01, ai, to, eleven, oi eySeKa, the 
Eleven, i.e., apostles. 

evSeicaros, t), ov, eleventh. 

eV-Se'xo/xai, dep. , to admit, used imper- 
sonally. oiiK iv5exfTai, it is not ad- 
missible or possible, Luke xiii. 33. 

iy-5TjfjL€w, w, to remain at home; to stay 
or dwell in any place, 2 Cor. v. 6. 

ii>-5i5v(iK(i), mid., to clothe one's selfwiih, 
ace. See ivSvvu. 

iy-oiKos, ov, agreeable to justice, right, 
righteous, Horn. iii. 8 ; Heb. ii, 3. 

if-SSfjiriais, fois, r], a structure, a building, 
Kev. xxi. 18. 

ev-So^d^w, au, to glorify, to honour, 
2 Thess. i. 10, 12. 

ey-5o|os, ou, adorned with honour, glo- 
rious ; of persons, had in honour, 
I Cor. iv. 10; of external appear- 
ance, splendid, Luke vii. 25. 

e''-5vfj.a, aros, rS, a garment, raiment. 

iv-huvaix6(ji, w, to strengthen, to furnish 
with power ; pass., to acquire strength. 

iv Sui/o) and ivSvw, to clothe or to invest 
with (two aces.) ; mid., to put on, to 
clothe one's self with (ace. ) ; often 
fig., to invest with J to enter stealthily 
into, 2 Tim. iii. 6. 

iu-Svcns, tais, -1], a putting on or wearing 
of clothes, 1 Pet. iii. 3. 

ii>-edpa, as, rj, an ambush, a snare. Acts 
xxiii. 16, XXV. 3. 

iv-eSfjeiiw, to watch, to entrap, to lie in 
ambuth for (ace), Luke xi. 54; Acts 
xxiii. 21. 

iv-e.Kfw, u>, ist aor., iveiKriJa, to roll uj), 
to w.-ap in (ace. and dat.), Mark 
XV. 46. 

ev-itfit, to be in, to have a place in, Luke 
xi. 41. ra €v6vTa, such things as are 
in [the platter], ver. 39, or such as ye 
luive, i. e. , according to your ability. 
For ivecrri impers. , see evi. 

eVf ica or eueKiv, sometimes elveKev, prep, 
adv., gen., because of, by reason of, 
on account of, Luke vi. 22 ; Matt. 
v. 10; 2 Cor. vii. 12. ov 'iviKtv, 
because ; rivos eVe/cev ; to wJiat end ? 

ip-epyfia, as, ri, energy, efficacy, effectual 

iv-epyew, S>, to exert one's power, to work, 
in one, as Gal. ii. 8 ; trans. , to accom- 
plish, as I Cor. xii. 1 1 ; mid. , to be 
effective, to be in action. Part., 
ivipyovfjiiVTl, James V. 16, earnest. 

eV-e'p77)/ia, otos, t6, working, effect; plur. 
with gen., i Cor. xii. 6, 10. 

iv-ep-yris, (s, effectual, energetic, i Cor. 
xvi. 9 ; Heb. iv. 12 ; Philem. 6. 

iv-€<jrws, perf. participle of eVtffTijAii. 

iv-ev-Xuyea), w, to bless, to distinguish by 
blessings. Acts uL 25 ; Gal. iii. 8. 

ii/.f^M, (i) to hold in, entangle, only in 
pass, (dat.), Gal. v. i ; (z) tobe angry 
ivith (dat.), Markvi. 19; Lukexi. 53. 

ifOaSe, adv. , ( 1 ) hither, to this place ; 
(2) Jiere, in this place. 

iy-Ovfjieo/xai, oC^ai, dep. pass., to revolve 
in rnind, to think upon. Matt. L 20. 

iv-QviJL7)iJis, ecus, t), thought, reflection, 

Ifi, elhptieal for tvecTTt, impers., there 
is in. Col. iiL II ; James i. 17. 

fViavrSs, ov, 6, a year, Jolm xi. 49, 51 ; 
any definite time, Luke iv. 19. 

eV-i(TTrj/x(, to be present, to be at hand; 
perf. part., iveaTTjKds, sync, iveanos, 
impending, or present, to ivecnina, 
present things, ojiposed to to /j-eWovra, 
things to come, Rom. viii. 38;! Coi-. 
iii. 22. See also GaL i. 4; Heb. 
ix. 9. 

iv-KTx^f^, to be invigorated. Acts ix. 19; 
trans., to strengthen, Luke xxiL 43. 

iVfaros, Tj, ov (or ivaTos), ninth. 

ivvia, ol, at, ra, nine, Luke xvii, 17. 

iuvivrjKovTa-ivvia, ninety-nine, Luke| 
XV. 4, 7. 

ivvios, ov (or ivios), dumb, speecldtss, j 
as with amazement, Acts ix. 7. 

€v-v«vw — «g-aip6)] 



iv-vevw, to ask or signify hy beckoning 
towards auy one (dat.), Luke i. 62. 

iv-voia, as, i] (vovs), "what is in the 
mind," inlention, purpose. 

fv-vofxas, Of, under law, i Cor. ix. 21; 
according to law. Acta xix. 39. 

iy-yvxos, ov [vvi,), in the night, neut. as 
adv., Mark i. 35. 

iv-oiK.4(j}, a>, to dwell in, to inliabit (iv). 

kv6Tqs, T7JT0S, 7} [ih), unity, concord, 
Eph. iv. 3, 13. 

iv-oxKia, u), to disturb, to occasion 
tumult, Heb. xii. 15. 

ev-oxos, ov, bound by or in (gen.); guilty 
of (gen. of the crime, or of that 
which is violated) ; exposed to (dat. 
of court, gen. of punishment, els of 
the place of punishment). 

iv-ra\fia, aios, t6, a commandment, an 
institute. Matt. xv. 9 ; Col. ii. 22. 

ii'-Ta(pid(u, to prepare for burial, as by 
washing, swathing, adorning, anoint- 
ing the corpse. Matt. xxvi. 12. 

iv-Ta(pLo.aix6s, ov, 6, the preparation of 
a corpse for burial, John xii. 7. 

iv-TiKKu, in N.T. only mid. and pass.; 
fut. mid., ivTeKov^ai; perf. , eVre- 
ToA/uai, to charge, to command, to 
commit (dat. of pers., or ■ap6s with 

ivTivQev, adv., hence ; from this place 
or cause, repeated John xix. 18 ; on 
tills side and tluit. 

iv-T€v^is, fus, T], prayer for another, or 
intercession, i Tim. ii. i ; sometimes 
supplication for one's self, i Tim. iv. 5. 

iv-rlixos, ov, held in renown ; so precious, 
highly esteemed, Luke xiv. 8 ; i Pet. 
ii- 4, 6. 

ivTo\r), ris, ri, a divine precept or prohi- 
hitwn ; of God's coimnands, i Cor. 
vii. iq; Christ's precepts or teachings, 
I Cor. xiv. 37 ; 1 Tim. vi. 14 ; tradi- 
ixons of the Rabbis, Tit. L 14. al 
ivToKai, the commandments, i.e., the 

iv-r6irtos, ov, 6 (prop, adj.), a7i inha- 
bitant. Acts xxi. 12. 

ivr6s, adv, as prep., with gen., within, 
rb ivTos, the interior. Matt, xxiii. 26. 

^i" rpeTTO), ypw, fut. mid. , ivrpan-riao/xai ; 
2nd aor. pass,, iverpdiniv, to put to 

shame, 1 Cor. iv. 14; mid., to revcT^ 
ence, to be in awe of. Matt. xxL 37. 

fv-rpetpQ}, to nourish in (dat.); pass., 
hg. , I Tim. iv. 6 ; nurtured in. 

iv-TpopLos, ov, terrified, trembling through 
fear. Acts vii. 32; Heb. xii. 21. 

eV-TpoTTTj, Tjs, 7], a putting to shame, i Cor. 
vi. 5,^ XV. 34. 

ev-Tpu^dw, w, to live luxuriously, to ban- 
quet, to revel (with iv), 2 Pet. ii. 13. 

iv-rvyx°-vta, to come to, to address ; with 
iirep (gen. ), to intercede for ; with 
Kara (gen. ), to accuse or complain of. 

iv-Tu\i(r(xai, |ai, to swathe, to wrap up, 
to roll or fold together (ace. and dat.) 

eV-Tinroco, &;, to engrave, sculpture, 2 Cor. 
iii. 7. 

iv-v0pi^ai, <7ui, to treat contemptuously or 
in despite, Heb. x. 29. 

iv-virvid(, dep. pass., to dream (cog- 
nate ace). Acts ii. 17; to conceive 
wild or impure thoughts, Jude 8. 

iv-vTTviov, ov, t6, a dream, Acts ii. 17. 

ivuiiriov (neut. of evunius, from eV onri, 
in view), as prep., with gen., before, 
in sight or presence of, Luke i. 1 7 ; 
Eev. iii. 9. ivdntiov tov &eov, in the 
sight of Ood, Rom. xiv. 22 ; used in 
obtestation, i Tim. v. 21. x°'P'* 
ivuTTiov tov 0iov (Acts vil. i^), fuvour 
ivith God. 

'Evws, 6, Unas, Luke iii. 38, 

iv-uTL^oixat, dep. mid. (eV wriois, in the 
ears), to listen to. Acts ii. 14. 

'Zviax, o, Enoch, Luke iii. 37 ; Jude 14. 

e|, prep. See e/c. 

I|, 01, al, ra, card, num., six. 

i^-a-yyfWco, to declare abroad, celebrate, 
I Pet. ii. 9. 

i^-ayopd.(a}, to buy or redeem from (e/c), 
Gal. iii. 13. T'iiv Katp6v (Eph. v. 16), 
buying buck, i.e., redeeming the 
oj^portuui ty /rojrt being lost. 

i^-dyw, 2ud aor., i^-qyayov, to lead out, 
to send forth, Mark viii. 23 ; Acts 
vii. 40 (with e|ai, e/c, fls). 

i^atpfw, a> (see 103, i), to take at pduck 
oat. Matt. V. 29 ; mid., to select or 
separate. Acts xxiii. 27. 

i^-aipu (see 92), to take out or away ; 
to expel or excommunicate, i Cor. 
V. 13. 



[it-aiT^o) — et-opKi<rTT)S 

e|-aiTe<B, £, N.T., mid., to require, to 

auk fur, Luke xxii. 31. 
e^-ai<pyris, adv., suddenli/, unexpectedly, 

Mark xiii. 36; Luke ii. 13. 
4^-aKoAoud(a), w, to follow, to persist in 

following, to conform to (with dat. ) 
i^aKSfftot, at, a, six hundred. 
€l-a\€'i<pa>, to wipe out, obliterate, Rev. 

iii, 5 ; Acts iii. 19; to unpe away, 

Rsv. vii. 17 {o.tt6 or e/c). 
ic,-dWoixai, to lea}) forth or up. Acts iii. 8. 
i\-ava-(jTa<ni, ecos, i} (the e| intensive 

and em])hatic), a re-ntrrection, Phil. 

iii. 1 1 (followed by e'/c, Lchm., Tisch. ) 
e^-ava-TeWw, to sjiring up, to shoot forth, 

as plants or corn, Mark iv. 5. 
i^-au-iar-nni, (1) trans., to raise up, as 

offspring, Luke xx. 28 ; (2) 2nd aor. 

intrans., to rise up, to stand forth. 

Acts XV. 5. 
ef-aTOTtttti, w, to deceive utterly, to seduce 

from truth, f lom. vii. 1 1 ; 1 Cor. iii. 1 8. 
f^atriva, adv. (= e^aicpvr]^), unexpect- 
edly, Mark ix. 8. 
e^a-irop4ofxai, ovjxai, dep., to he utterly 

vjithout resource, to he in utmost per- 

plexity, 2 Cor. i. 8, iv. 8. 
el-airo-oreAActf, to setid forth. Acts 

vii. iz; to send away pereynptorily, 

Luke XX. 10, II. 
if-aprl^w, (i) to complete. Acts xxi. 5; 

(2) to furnish thoroughly for (-rrpos, 

ace), 2 Tim. iii. 17. 
i^-aarpdnTo), to glisten, as lightning; 

of raiment, Luke ix. 29. 
ef-auTrjs, adv. {Upas), from tliat very time, 

instantly, Mark xi. 25 ; Acts x. 33. 
e'l-eyeipoi, to raise up, as from death, 

1 Cor. vi. 14 ; to cause to exist, spoken 
of Pharaoh, Rom. ix. 17. 

e^-eipii {elfj-i, see 111), to go out. Acts 

xiii. 42, xvii. 15. 
f^-iifii [el/M). See e^eo-Ti. 
e^-fKfyxu, to convict, to rehulce sternly, 

to punish, Jude 15. 
e^-eA-KO), to draw out from the right 

way, James i. 14. 
i\-fpafxa, oTos, -ri, tliut which is vomited, 

2 Pet. ii. 22. 

e|ep€i/j'd<u, CO, to search diligently, i Pet. 

i. 10. 
tf-^pXOM"' (see 103, 3), to go or to come 

out of (with gen. or e/c, ot^, t|w, 
Trapa) ; to [70 away, to depart, to issue 
or to spring from ; to descend from, 
Heb. vii. 5; to escape from; to go 
forth, as false prophets, &c. Used 
of a rumour, to he divulged or spread 
abroad ; to emanate, as thoughts 
from the heart, healing jiower from 
the Saviour; to go out, i.e., vanish, 
as expiring hope, Acts xvi. 19. 

^^ecTTi, part, ueut., i^/)v (impers. from 
e^ei/ii), it is lawful. Matt. xiv. 4 ; it 
is becoming. Acts xvi. 21; it is pos- 
sible, Matt. XX. 15. The part, is 
used in the same sense, with or with- 
out subst. verb. Matt. xii. 4 ; 2 Cor. 
xii. 4 (dat. and inf.) 

e'l-erafeo, to enquire, to ask, John xxi. 12 ; 
to examine strictly, Matt. ii. 8. 

e|-7j7eoyuai, ov/xat, dep. mid., (i) to 
narrate fully and accurately, Luke 
xxiv. 35; (2) to expound, as a teacher, 
John i. 18. 

kli)KOVTa, 01, of, to, sixty. 

e^fis, adv. (6x«), in order, successively. 
7] ^^ris {-riixepa), the day following. 

H-VX^^> &j, only in pass. IS.T., to be 
sounded forth, propagated widely, 
I Thess. i. 8. 

e^is, €cos, T) (ex"')' ^Mhit, use, Heb. v. 14. 

i^-iar7]fj.i, -larau and -KTTcipi) (see 107), 
" to remove from the (natural) state, " 
(i) trans., to astonish, Luke xxiv. 22; 
Acts viii. 9 ; (2) 2nd aor., perf. and 
mid., intrans., to he astonished, con- 
founded, to be beside one^s self, z Cor. 
V. 13. 

i^-i(rxvce, to be perfectly able,'Ei^h. iii. 18. 

€^-o5o$, ov, 7), "exodus," a going out, 
Heb. xi. 22 ; departure, as from life, 
Luke ix. 31 ; 2 Pet. i. 15. 

tl-oKodpivw, to destroy utterly. Acts 
iii. 23. ^ 

i^-ofio\oyeai, u, to confess fully, to make 
acknowledgment of, as of sins, &c. ; 
in mid., to acknowledge benefits con- 
ferred, to p)raise (with dat.) Once, 
to promise, Luke xxii. 6. 

eJ-opKi'(,a>, to adjure, j^ut to oath